Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program. On July 20, 1976, it became the second spacecraft to soft-land on Mars, the first to perform its mission. Viking 1 held the record for the longest Mars surface mission of 2307 days or 2245 Martian solar days, until that record was broken by the Opportunity rover on May 19, 2010. Following launch using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle on August 20, 1975, a 11-month cruise to Mars, the orbiter began returning global images of Mars about 5 days before orbit insertion; the Viking 1 Orbiter was inserted into Mars orbit on June 19, 1976, trimmed to a 1513 x 33,000 km, 24.66 h site certification orbit on June 21. Landing on Mars was planned for July 4, 1976, the United States Bicentennial, but imaging of the primary landing site showed it was too rough for a safe landing; the landing was delayed until a safer site was found, took place instead on July 20, the seventh anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing. The lander separated from the orbiter at 08:51 UTC and landed at Chryse Planitia at 11:53:06 UTC.
It was the first attempt by the United States at landing on Mars. The instruments of the orbiter consisted of two vidicon cameras for imaging, an infrared spectrometer for water vapor mapping and infrared radiometers for thermal mapping; the orbiter primary mission ended at the beginning of solar conjunction on November 5, 1976. The extended mission commenced on December 1976, after solar conjunction. Operations included close approaches to Phobos in February 1977; the periapsis was reduced to 300 km on March 11, 1977. Minor orbit adjustments were done over the course of the mission to change the walk rate — the rate at which the areocentric longitude changed with each orbit, the periapsis was raised to 357 km on July 20, 1979. On August 7, 1980, Viking 1 Orbiter was running low on attitude control gas and its orbit was raised from 357 × 33943 km to 320 × 56000 km to prevent impact with Mars and possible contamination until the year 2019. Operations were terminated on August 1980, after 1485 orbits.
A 2009 analysis concluded that, while the possibility that Viking 1 had impacted Mars could not be ruled out, it was most still in orbit. More than 57,000 images were sent back to Earth; the lander and its aeroshell separated from the orbiter on July 20 at 08:51 UTC. At the time of separation, the lander was orbiting at about 5 kilometers per second; the aeroshell's retrorockets fired to begin the lander de-orbit maneuver. After a few hours at about 300 kilometers altitude, the lander was reoriented for atmospheric entry; the aeroshell with its ablative heat shield slowed the craft. During this time, entry science experiments were performed by using a retarding potential analyzer, a mass spectrometer, as well as pressure and density sensors. At 6 km altitude, traveling at about 250 meters per second, the 16 m diameter lander parachutes deployed. Seven seconds the aeroshell was jettisoned, 8 seconds after that the three lander legs were extended. In 45 seconds the parachute had slowed the lander to 60 meters per second.
At 1.5 km altitude, retrorockets on the lander itself were ignited and, 40 seconds at about 2.4 m/s, the lander arrived on Mars with a light jolt. The legs had honeycomb aluminum shock absorbers to soften the landing; the landing rockets used an 18-nozzle design to spread the hydrogen and nitrogen exhaust over a large area. NASA calculated that this approach would mean that the surface would not be heated by more than one 1 °C, that it would move no more than 1 millimeter of surface material. Since most of Viking's experiments focused on the surface material a more straightforward design would not have served; the Viking 1 lander touched down in western Chryse Planitia at 22.697°N 312.05°E / 22.697. 22 kilograms of propellants were left at landing. Transmission of the first surface image took about four minutes. During these minutes the lander activated itself, it erected a high-gain antenna pointed toward Earth for direct communication and deployed a meteorology boom mounted with sensors. In the next seven minutes the second picture of the 300° panoramic scene was taken.
On the day after the landing the first color picture of the surface of Mars was taken. The seismometer failed to uncage, a sampler arm locking pin was stuck and took five days to shake out. Otherwise, all experiments functioned normally; the lander had two means of returning data to Earth: a relay link up to the orbiter and back, by using a direct link to Earth. The data capacity of the relay link was about 10 times higher than the direct link; the lander had two facsimile cameras. The Viking 1 lander was named the Thomas Mutch Memorial Station in January 1982 in honor of Thomas A. Mut
David Barnes is an English former footballer who played as a left-back in the Football League for Coventry City, Ipswich Town, Wolverhampton Wanderers, Sheffield United and Colchester United. He was forced to retire in 1997 following a succession of injuries. Barnes represented England at under-19 level. Born in Paddington, Barnes was brought up in the Felixstowe area as a Barnardo's Boy, he featured for junior side South Suffolk Old Boys and was on the books at Ipswich Town as a schoolboy. However, he joined Coventry City as an apprentice in May 1979, was converted from a striker to a full-back role. While with Coventry, Barnes received England youth caps and honours while making nine top-flight appearances at Highfield Road, he left in April 1982 to rejoin Ipswich on a free transfer. Rejoining his boyhood club, Barnes spent two years at Portman Road, he made his debut for the club in the First Division match against Swansea City on 27 November 1982 and made six first-team appearances during his first season with Town.
He made a further ten starts and one substitute showing in his second season, before playing his final game in the East Anglian derby on 23 April 1984. Barnes secured a £35,000 transfer to Wolverhampton Wanderers in October 1984 where he became a first-team regular, making 88 appearances in three seasons at Molineux. However, he joined just as Wolves were on a free-fall through the Football League, suffering two successive relegations to Division Four, he faced his future club Colchester United in the Football League play-offs at the semi-final stage in the 1986–87 season, overcoming Colchester to reach the final, but the club lost out to another of Barnes' future clubs, Aldershot, in the final at Wembley. A move to play-off winners Aldershot was the next destination for Barnes for a £25,000 fee, where he spent two years playing in the Third Division, making 69 league appearances. In his second season with the club, their second in the Third Division, Aldershot finished rock-bottom of the league, allowing Sheffield United to buy the player for £50,000 in July 1989.
Barnes made the step up to Second Division football with Sheffield United, who had just been promoted to the league. He did not look out of place in the higher tier as he helped the Blades to promotion to the First Division at the first time of asking, securing a runners-up spot in the league, he aided the club in consolidating their position in the top tier as it evolved to become the Premier League. Injuries aside, Barnes was ever-present for two seasons but fell out of favour with manager Dave Bassett who tried unsuccessfully to sell him to Bristol City. Barnes was unhappy with his playing terms rejecting a new contract in 1992. Having lost his place in the side, he was transferred to Watford in January 1994 with the Blades recouping the £50,000 they paid for him, he left Bramall Lane after four-and-a-half years having played 82 league matches and 107 games in all competitions. A move to Watford allowed Barnes to make a fresh start in the south, but his time with the club was not fruitful, managing just 16 games over two seasons with the Hornets.
Suffering from niggling injuries, a run of five consecutive matches for the club in February to March 1996 was the most Barnes could manage, he was released in 1996 as Watford were relegated to the Third Division. Barnes' former Aldershot teammate Steve Wignall brought him to Layer Road in 1996, on a free transfer following his release from Watford in August 1996, making his debut the following day in a 2–0 home reverse against Hartlepool United, he played eleven times for the U's over the course of eight months, but was unable to shake off a persistent groin injury. Barnes was forced into retirement at the age of 35 in March 1997 when he had his contract cancelled by mutual consent, having played his last professional game in a 1–1 draw with Mansfield Town on 14 December 1996. While with Coventry City, Barnes played for the England under-19 team, featuring in the 1980 UEFA Junior Tournament winning team. Wolverhampton Wanderers1986–87 Football League Fourth Division play-off runner-up Sheffield United1989–90 Football League Second Division runner-up England U191980 UEFA Junior Tournament winnerAll honours referenced by: David Barnes at Soccerbase David Barnes at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database
The Fungiidae are a family of Cnidaria known as mushroom corals. The family contains thirteen extant genera, they range from solitary corals to colonial species. Some genera such as Cycloseris and Fungia are solitary organisms, Polyphyllia consists of a single organism with multiple mouths, Ctenactis and Herpolitha might be considered as solitary organisms with multiple mouths or a colony of individuals, each with its separate mouth. Species are solitary marine animals capable of benthic locomotion; these corals appear to be bleached or dead. In most genera, a single polyp emerges from the center of the skeleton to feed at night. Most species remain detached from the substrate in adulthood; some are immobile as well as colonial. Some species of mushroom coral such as Fungia repanda and Ctenactis echinata are able to change sex; this is posited to take place in response to environmental or energetic constraints, to improve the organism's evolutionary fitness. The World Register of Marine Species includes these genera in the family: Cantharellus Hoeksema & Best, 1984 Ctenactis Verrill, 1864 Cycloseris Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 Danafungia Wells, 1966 Fungia Lamarck, 1801 Halomitra Dana, 1846 Heliofungia Wells, 1966 Herpolitha Eschscholtz, 1825 Lithophyllon Rehberg, 1892 Lobactis Verrill, 1864 Pleuractis Verrill, 1864 Podabacia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 Polyphyllia Blainville, 1830 Sandalolitha Quelch, 1884 Sinuorota Oku, Naruse & Fukami, 2017 Zoopilus Dana, 1846 One fungiid species, Heliofungia actiniformis, can be mistaken for a sea anemone because its tentacles remain visible during the day.
Fungia spp. have a commensal pipefish, Siokunichthys nigrolineatus. Heliofungia actiniformis provides shelter to some fish species; some fungiids can look like a sea cucumber. Some fungiids have been observed eating jellyfish. Members of the family Fungiidae are not of any commercial importance, but are collected for the aquarium trade and are sold as "plate corals". Coral fungus Mussidae "Fungiidae" at the Encyclopedia of Life AIMS CoralSearch - Heliofungia actiniformis Stony Corals Image Gallery Fungia scruposa eating a jelly fish