The Vinča culture known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, was a Neolithic archaeological culture in southeastern Europe, in present-day Serbia, smaller parts of Bulgaria and Romania, dated to the period 5700–4500 BC or 5300–4700/4500 BC. Named for its type site, Vinča-Belo Brdo, a large tell settlement discovered by Serbian archaeologist Miloje Vasić in 1908, it represents the material remains of a prehistoric society distinguished by its settlement pattern and ritual behaviour. Farming technology first introduced to the region during the First Temperate Neolithic was developed further by the Vinča culture, fuelling a population boom and producing some of the largest settlements in prehistoric Europe; these settlements maintained a high degree of cultural uniformity through the long-distance exchange of ritual items, but were not politically unified. Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be the earliest form of proto-writing.
Although not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or "Copper Age", the Vinča culture provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy. The Vinča culture occupied a region of southeastern Europe corresponding to modern-day Serbia but parts of Romania, Bosnia, North Macedonia, Greece; this region had been settled by farming societies of the First Temperate Neolithic, but during the Vinča period sustained population growth led to an unprecedented level of settlement size and density along with the population of areas that were bypassed by earlier settlers. Vinča settlements were larger than any other contemporary European culture, in some instances surpassing the cities of the Aegean and early Near Eastern Bronze Age a millennium later. One of the largest sites was Vinča-Belo Brdo, it had up to 2,500 people. Early Vinča settlement population density was 50–200 people per hectare, in phases an average of 50–100 people per hectare was common; the Divostin site was occupied twice between 4900–4650 B.
C. and an estimate based on 17 houses suggests that given a lifespan per house of 56 years 1028 houses were built on the site during that period with a final population size estimated to be between 868 and 2864. Another large site was Stubline from 4850/4800 BC. it may have contained a maximum population of 4,000. The settlement of Parţa maybe had 1,575 people living there at the same time. DNA analyses show that many samples belonged to the paternal haplogroup H2. Haplogroup G-M201 was found frequently; the origins of the Vinča culture are debated. Before the advent of radiocarbon dating it was thought, on the basis of typological similarities, that Vinča and other Neolithic cultures belonging to the'Dark Burnished Ware' complex were the product of migrations from Anatolia to the Balkans; this had to be reassessed in light of radiocarbon dates which showed that the Dark Burnished Ware complex appeared at least a millennium before Troy I, the putative starting point of the westward migration.
An alternative hypothesis where the Vinča culture developed locally from the preceding Starčevo culture—first proposed by Colin Renfrew in 1969—is now accepted by many scholars, but the evidence is not conclusive. The Vinča culture can be divided into two phases linked with those of its type site Vinča-Belo Brdo: In its phase the centre of the Vinča network shifted from Vinča-Belo Brdo to Vršac, the long-distance exchange of obsidian and Spondylus artefacts from modern-day Hungary and the Aegean became more important than that of Vinča figurines; the network lost its cohesion altogether and fell into decline. It is that, after two millennia of intensive farming, economic stresses caused by decreasing soil fertility were responsible for this decline. According to Marija Gimbutas, the Vinča culture was part of Old Europe – a homogeneous and matrifocal culture that occupied Europe during the Neolithic. According to this hypothesis its period of decline was followed by an invasion of warlike, horse-riding Proto-Indo-European tribes from the Pontic-Caspian steppe.
Most people in Vinča settlements would have been occupied with the provision of food. They practised a mixed subsistence economy where agriculture, animal husbandry and hunting and foraging all contributed to the diet of the growing Vinča population. Compared to earlier cultures of the First Temperate Neolithic these practices were intensified, with increasing specialisation on high-yield cereal crops and the secondary products of domesticated animals, consistent with the increased population density. Vinča agriculture introduced common wheat and flax to temperate Europe, made greater use of barley than the cultures of the FTN; these innovations increased crop yields and allowed the manufacture of clothes made from plant textiles as well as animal products. There is indirect evidence that Vinča farmers made use of the cattle-driven plough, which would have had a major effect on the amount of human labour required for agriculture as well as opening up new area of land for farming. Many of the largest Vinča sites occupy regions dominated by soil types that would have required ploughing.
Areas with less arable potential were exploited through transhumant pastoralism, where groups from the lowland villages moved their livestock to nearby upland areas on a seasonal basis. Cattle were more important than sheep and goats in Vinča herds and, in comparison to the cultures of the FTN, livestock was kept for milk, leather and as draft animals, rather than for meat. Seasonal moveme
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Murder in a Blue World is a 1973 Spanish-French science fiction crime horror film directed by Eloy de la Iglesia and starring Sue Lyon, Christopher Mitchum and Jean Sorel. The plot follows a respectable nurse, who seduces young men, takes them home to bed, listens to the post-coital beating of their hearts, stabs them to death with a surgical scalpel; the film takes some cues from Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange to the extent of being released on UK VHS as Clockwork Terror. Anna Vernia, a beautiful young nurse, receives a medal of recognition for her outstanding dedication to her patients at the medical center where she works, she is going out with Victor Sender, a doctor working in the same hospital. Victor is involved in a project that employs electro-shock therapy in violent criminals in an effort to turn them into model citizens. Crime is rampant in the city. There has been a number of unresolved killings of young men which have been attributed to a serial killer believed to be a sadistic homosexual.
A family is getting ready to watch Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange on television when they are assaulted by a gang of delinquents who knock at their door. The assailants, wearing red helmets, leather biker’s outfits, handling bullwhips smash the modern looking apartment, they leave the couple's young son unharmed. After their crime, there is a dispute among the four members of the gang. One gang member, David, is expelled from the group. Anna is a pop art collector, she is the highest bidder in an auction of Alex Raymond’s artwork for Flash Gordon. At the auction, she gives her phone number to her bidder rival, Toni, a young man with a handicapped leg. Anna lives alone in a large mansion on the outskirts of the city. After they have sex, Anna listens to Toni’s heartbeats while he sleeps and stabs him to death with a surgical scalpel, she disposes of Toni's body in a river. He begins to follow her. Wearing a wig and dressed matronly, Anna seduces Bruno, a narcissistic underwear model, who she has seen on TV commercials.
She kills him. His body falls next to the book Anna was reading: Vladimir Nabokov's novel "Lolita". Although Anna is still going out with Victor, she rebuffs his romantic advances. Dressed in drag, Anna enters a gay bar where she picks up Roman Mendoza, a gay man who she takes home. After dancing a waltz, Anna proposes to have sex, he is hesitant. He thought, he had never had sex with a woman before. While Anna was out, David entered her house after befriending the German Shepherd that guarded her property. Hiding behind curtains, David witnesses Anna seducing the young gay man and sees her stab him in the heart. Broken glass inside her house alerts Anna; when she looks outside she sees David playing with her dogs behind the mansion fence. Anna, pretending to be a maid, invites him in; when she is going to start her pre-murder routine, David shows her the surgical scalpel used by Anna to kill her victims. She has been hiding it inside a music box. David does not want to denounce her to the police. Through their monetary transactions, David begins to arouse Anna's personal interest.
David buys a motorcycle with the money, but the members of his former gang, who believe he has stolen a bounty from them, pursue him and leave him badly beaten. David is taken to the hospital. Since David was a violent criminal in the past, Victor wants to experiment on him the electro-shock therapy to turn killers like David into “useful citizens”. Anna is moved, she is not going to allow Victor to use David for his experiments. At night on New Year's Eve, Anna reads a poem by Edgar Allan Poe to David; when Victor arrives he finds. In another room, the criminal patients in Victor's experiment go berserk, savagely killing each other. Sue Lyon as Ana Vernia Christopher Mitchum as David Jean Sorel as Dr. Victor Sender Ramón Pons as Toni Charly Bravo as Bruno Alfredo Alba as Román Mendoza Antonio del Real as Mick David Carpenter as Phil Ramón Tejela as Nicola The original Spanish title Una gota de sangre para morir amando translates as A Drop of Blood to Die Loving and the film was theatrically released in France as Le bal du vaudou and in the United States as To Love, Perhaps to Die with the latter title a closer translation of the Spanish.
In the mid-1980s Empire Video released the film on UK VHS as Clockwork Terror in an attempt to sell it as a sequel to A Clockwork Orange and its following British video and DVD releases were titled Murder in a Blue World in reference to the fictional Blue Drink featured in the film. The film takes some cues from Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange to the extent that it was released on 1980s UK VHS as Clockwork Terror. Like its inspiration source the film is set in a near-future dystopian world where sadistic gangs attack and steal from innocent people on the streets and in their homes. To elaborate the film plays on the Ludovico Technique of its predecessor as a neo-Fascist government tries to fight these crimes by conducting sinister mind-control experiments on captured criminals; this treatment backfires with bloody results at the end of the film where the treated subjects turn berserk and kill each other. The science fiction aesthetic of the film is more pronounced compared to Kubrick's film with its retro-futuristic setting als