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Paul Watson (footballer, born 1990)

Paul Watson is a Scottish professional footballer, who plays as a centre back for Scottish championship club Dundee United. Former Livingston manager Gary Bollan signed Watson from Ipswich Town in August 2009, he helped the club win the Scottish Third Division, in his first season at Almondvale. The next season, he helped Livingston win the Scottish Second Division title by making 33 appearances for the West Lothian club. Watson subsequently signed a new two-year contract, keeping him at the club until the summer of 2013. Watson signed for Raith Rovers on 17 July 2013. On 12 June 2015, it was confirmed. On 19 July 2015, it was announced, he was released by Falkirk at the end of the 2017–18 season. On 20 July 2018, Watson signed for Dundee United; as of match played 3 March 2020 Livingston Scottish Third Division: 2009–10 Scottish Second Division: 2010–11 Paul Watson at Soccerbase

Dolors Terradas

Dolors Terradas i Viñals is a Spanish teacher and politician, a member of the Congress of Deputies during the 11th Legislature. Dolors Terradas earned a licentiate in history from the University of Girona, she worked as a teacher of Compulsory Secondary Education geography and history at several vocational training centers, as well as baccalaureate programs. She performed studies on demography in Pla de l'Estany, some of which she published in the Revista de Girona. In 1971 she became politically active in the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia, was victorious as their candidate for the Banyoles municipal council in the 1983 local elections. In 1988 she left the PSUC, in the 1999 elections she occupied the symbolic 17th place in the Republican Left of Catalonia list for the municipality of Banyoles. In 1996 she was the leader of the Banyoles festival. Since 1994, she has participated in the social movement Banyoles Solidària, where she deals with the legalization and literacy of immigrants and cooperates with The Gambia and other countries in the process of economic development.

In the 2015 general election she won a seat in the Congress of Deputies as head of the En Comú Podem list for Girona. She served on the Interior Commission, was second vice president of the Commission of International Cooperation for Development. Sobre la divisió territorial de Catalunya i el cas polèmic de Banyoles Població i societat a Banyoles al segle XVIII Les epidèmies de còlera a Banyoles en el segle XIX, published in the Revista de Girona La Població de Banyoles al s. XVIII Aproximació a un exemple d'industrialització no reeixit: Banyoles 1700–1900 Les epidèmies de còlera a Banyoles en el segle XIX in Revista de Girona

National Stadium, Singapore

The National Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Kallang, Singapore. It was completed in late 2013 and opened on 30 June 2014, on the site of the former National Stadium, closed in 2007 and demolished in 2010. A centrepiece of the larger Singapore Sports Hub complex, the stadium hosts major association football matches, including the home matches of the Singapore national team; the stadium features the world's largest retractable domed roof and the configurable seating on the lowest spectator tier to make it the only stadium in the world, custom-designed to host different sporting events at any given time. Depending on its configurations, the stadium has a maximum seating capacity of 55,000 for football and rugby, 52,000 for cricket and 50,000 for athletics events/concerts; the roof is made out of insulated metal to reflect sunlight. In addition to Singapore's home games, the stadium hosts the International Champions Cup and the Singapore Sevens, it hosted the 2015 Southeast Asian Games, the 2014 World Club 10s, the 2014 and 2019 Brasil Global Tour, the 2016 Singapore National Day Parade.

It is one of the alternating venues of the Basic Military Training Graduation Parade for the Singapore Armed Forces recruits since September 2015. Since 2016, the National Stadium no longer hosts future NDP events due to the high costs of the venue. Construction work for the sports hub started in 2010 due to the delays caused by the 2008 financial crisis and soaring construction costs. By September 2011, the pilling and the foundation of the stadium was completed and construction on the steelworks of the stadium fixed roof started. On July 2013, the installation of the stadium final primary steel'runway truss' for the roof was completed marking the completion of the steelworks on the National Stadium's fixed roof in preparation for installation of the retractable roof; the stadium was set to be completed in April 2014, however, In February 2014, Sports Hub CEO Philippe Collin Delavaud announced that the National Stadium's completion was pushed back to June 2014. The stadium has mechanised and automated configurable spectator tiers depending on the event that will be hosted, namely "Football/Rugby mode", "Cricket mode" and "Athletics mode".

To reconfigure from the athletics mode to the football/rugby mode, the lowest spectator tier can be moved 12.5 meters forward, obscuring the athletics running track underneath the seats and thus bringing spectators close to the pitch to provide optimum spectator viewing distances. It takes 48 hours to reconfigure seating arrangements to suit an upcoming event. An energy-efficient cooling system is designed to deliver cooled air to every seat in the stadium while using less than 15 percent of energy as compared to a conventional air-conditioned stadium, providing every spectator a cool and comfortable time to enjoy an event; the National Stadium holds the record of the largest dome structure in the world. The retractable roof itself will take an approximate 25 minutes to close; the roof is made out of a lightweight material called ETFE, weather-resistant and blocks the sun's heat, giving shade and protecting spectators from the hot and humid Singapore weather and potential torrential rain. At night, the retractable roof doubles as a giant projector screen on both sides, which can display images such as the Singapore Flag during the National Day Parade.

Desso GrassMaster was installed as the original grass pitch. The sandy pitch was criticised by Juventus manager Massimiliano Allegri during a pre-season friendly there in August 2014 and resulted in his decision not to field Carlos Tevez due to injury concerns. Afterwards, S$1.5 million of special growth lights were installed to stimulate and speed up the growth of the grass, with one of the main concerns being getting the pitch ready for the 2014 Suzuki Cup at the end of the year. In October 2014, Brazil coach Dunga criticised the state of the pitch, which had not improved much since the Juventus match, when his side were in Singapore to play a friendly against Japan. Although Brazil won the match 4–0, he said after the match that the sandy pitch had prevented his side from playing their best football; the grass still failed to grow well and was replaced by the Eclipse Stabilised Turf in May 2015. The stadium is located above the underground Stadium MRT station on the Circle Line. Trains arrive every five to six minutes during off-peak hours, two to three minutes during peak hours and event days.

Other MRT stations nearby are Kallang MRT station which can be accessed using a sheltered walkway, Mountbatten MRT station. Both of these stations are within 600 metres of the stadium; the upcoming Tanjong Rhu MRT station will complement the existing stations once completed in 2023. Bus stops are located around the Sports Hub complex along Stadium Walk, Stadium Boulevard and Nicoll Highway, with buses serving nearby districts and the city. Taxi stands are conveniently available near the National Stadium, Singapore Indoor Stadium and Leisure Park Kallang. Sports Hub was meant to replace the Old National Stadium as a premium location for high spectator capacity Singapore sports, large scale national events and top entertainment acts, but its operation was marked by several controversies; the quality of the field pitch was put under scrutiny after the football match between Juventus and Singapore in August 2014, again in October 2014 during the Brazil vs Japan friendly. The initial Desso GrassMaster system made of synthetic fibres and natural grass was criticised for its sandy nature and was replaced by the lay-and-play natural pitch in 2015.

Plans to hold major sports events at the stadium were scrapped due to the high costs of rental. Talks to hold The Merlion Cup


The philosophes were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment. Few were philosophers, they looked for weaknesses and failures that needed improvement. They promoted a "republic of letters" that crossed national boundaries and allowed intellectuals to exchange books and ideas. Most philosophes were men, they endorsed progress and tolerance, distrusted organized religion and feudal institutions. Many contributed to Diderot's Encyclopédie, they faded away after the French Revolution reached a violent stage in 1793. Philosophe is the French word for "philosopher," and was a word that the French Enlightenment thinkers applied to themselves; the philosophes, like many ancient philosophers, were public intellectuals dedicated to solving the real problems of the world. They wrote on subjects ranging from current affairs to art criticism, they wrote in every conceivable format; the Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, wrote a political tract, a treatise on education, constitutions for Poland and Corsica, an analysis of the effects of the theater on public morals, a best-selling novel, an opera, a influential autobiography.

The philosophes wrote for a broadly educated public of readers who snatched up every Enlightenment book they could find at their local booksellers when rulers or churches tried to forbid such works. Between 1740 and 1789, the Enlightenment acquired its name and, despite heated conflicts between the philosophes and state and religious authorities, gained support in the highest reaches of government. Although philosophe is a French word, the Enlightenment was distinctly cosmopolitan; the philosophes considered themselves part of a grand "republic of letters" that transcended national political boundaries. In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the program of the Enlightenment in two Latin words: sapere aude, "dare to know", have the courage to think for yourself; the philosophes used reason to attack superstition and religious fanaticism, which they considered the chief obstacles to free thought and social reform. Voltaire took religious fanaticism as his chief target: "Once fanaticism has corrupted a mind, the malady is incurable" and that "the only remedy for this epidemic malady is the philosophical spirit".

Enlightenment writers did not oppose organized religion, but they strenuously objected to religious intolerance. They believed that a society based around reason instead of religious fanaticism would improve the way people think and culminate in a more critical, scientific outlook on social issues and problems; the philosophes believed that the dissemination of knowledge would encourage reform in every aspect of life, from the grain trade to the penal system. Chief among their desired reforms was intellectual freedom—the freedom to use one's own reason and to publish the results; the philosophes wanted freedom of the press and freedom of religion, which they considered "natural rights" guaranteed by "natural law." In their view, progress depended on these freedoms. The word "philosophe" has been used in English since the Middle Ages. Horace Walpole in 1779 remarked that "he philosophes, except Buffon, are solemn, dictatorial coxcombs."Scholars differ concerning whether the word should be applied to all Enlightenment thinkers or be restricted to only the French philosophers.

Historian Peter Gay, for example, uses it to apply to all Enlightenment philosophers "from Edinburgh to Naples, Paris to Berlin, Boston to Philadelphia". Thomas Hobbes François de La Rochefoucauld John Locke Voltaire Benjamin Franklin David Hume Jean-Jacques Rousseau Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Jean le Rond d'Alembert Immanuel Kant Cesare Beccaria Marquis de Condorcet Francesco Mario Pagano Henri de Saint-Simon Charles Fourier Idea of Progress The Enlightenment The Philosophes Gay, Peter; the Enlightenment - An Interpretation 1: The Rise of Modern Paganism. ISBN 0-393-31302-6. Reill, Peter Hans and Ellen Judy Wilson. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

St. Mary's Catholic Church (Boise, Idaho)

St. Mary's Catholic Church is a Catholic parish in Boise, Idaho, in the West Central Deanery of the Diocese of Boise, it was erected by Bishop Edward Kelly in 1937 as Boise's second Catholic parish. Its North End location was criticized at the time for being too far from the city center. A Catholic school, St. Mary's School, was established in 1948; the historic Gothic church building, located at State and 26th Streets, was designed bt Frank Hummel of Tourtellotte & Hummel. It was enlarged in 2009 with a design by ZGA Architects and Planners intended to respect the original structure, which won the Idaho Historic Preservation Council's Orchid Award for cultural heritage preservation; the renovated building combines neo-classical styles with some modern elements. The church is richly decorated with religious artwork. Notable pieces include a statue of Mary seated in a pew, carved by John Taye; the church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982