Harley J. Earl was an American automotive designer and business executive, he was the initial designated head of design at General Motors becoming vice president, the first top executive appointed in design of a major corporation in American history. He was a pioneer of modern transportation design. A coachbuilder by trade, Earl pioneered the use of freeform sketching and hand sculpted clay models as automotive design techniques, he subsequently introduced the "concept car" as both a tool for the design process and a clever marketing device. Earl's Buick Y-Job was the first concept car, he started "Project Opel", which became the Chevrolet Corvette, he authorized the introduction of the tailfin to automotive styling. During World War II, he was an active contributor to the Allies' research and development program in advancing the effectiveness of camouflage. Harley Earl was born in California, his father, J. W. Earl, began work as a coachbuilder in 1889; the senior Earl changed his practice from horse-drawn vehicles to custom bodies and customized parts and accessories for automobiles, founding Earl Automobile Works in 1908.
Earl began studies at Stanford University, but left prematurely to work with, learn from, his father at Earl Automotive Works. By this time, the shop was building custom bodies for Hollywood movie stars, including Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and Tom Mix. Earl Automotive Works was bought by Cadillac dealer Don Lee, who kept Harley Earl as director of its custom body shop. Lawrence P. Fisher, general manager of the Cadillac division, was visiting Cadillac dealers and distributors around the country, including Lee. Fisher observed him at work. Fisher, whose automotive career began with coachbuilder Fisher Body, was impressed with Earl's designs and methods, including the use of modeling clay to develop the forms of his designs. Fisher commissioned Earl to design the 1927 LaSalle for Cadillac's companion marque; the success of the LaSalle convinced General Motors president Alfred P. Sloan to create the Art and Color Section of General Motors, to name Earl as its first director. Prior to the establishment of the Art and Color Section, American automobile manufacturers did not assign any great importance to the appearance of automobile bodies.
Volume manufacturers built bodies designed by engineers, guided only by cost. Many luxury-car manufacturers, including GM, did not make bodies at all, opting instead to ship chassis assemblies to a coachbuilder of the buyer's choice; the executives at General Motors at the time, including engineers, division heads, sales executives, viewed Earl's conceptual ideas as flamboyant and unfounded. Earl struggled to legitimize his design approach against the tradition- and production-oriented executives; as head of the newly formed Art and Color Section in 1927, he was referred to as one of the "pretty picture boys", his design studio as being the "Beauty Parlor". In 1937, the Art and Color Section was renamed the Styling Section. Sloan promoted Earl to vice president, making him, to Sloan's knowledge, the first styling person to be a VP at a large corporation. Harley Earl and Sloan implemented "Dynamic Obsolescence" and the "Annual Model Change", tying model identity to a specific year, to further position design as a driver for the company's product success.
These ideas are taken for granted today, but were unusual at the time. In 1939, the Styling Division, under Earl's instruction and built the Buick Y-Job, the motor industry's first concept car. While many one-off custom automobiles had been made before, the Y-job was the first car built by a mass manufacturer for the sole purpose of determining the public's reaction to new design ideas. After being shown to the public, the Y-job became Earl's daily driver, it was succeeded by the 1951 General Motors Le Sabre concept car. In 1942, during World War II, Earl established a camouflage research and training division at General Motors, one consequence of, a 22-page document called Camouflage Manual for General Motors Camouflage. A decade before, two former World War I camouflage artists, Harold Ledyard Towle and McClelland Barclay had worked as designers at General Motors. Among Earl's apprentices was English designer David Jones, who worked at its British division at Vauxhall Motors and served in the camouflage section of the Royal Engineers during World War II.
Harley Earl authorized the Frank Hershey design for the 1948 Cadillac, which incorporated the first automotive tailfin. Inspiration for the fins came from the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, but it extended beyond the war, during the age when space rockets captured the popular imagination in the 1950s and 1960s; the style caught on throughout Detroit and led to competition between Harley Earl and his counterpart at Chrysler, Virgil Exner, over the size and complexity of tailfins, culminating with those on the 1959 Cadillac models. Influenced by the English and European sports cars being raced on road racing circuits after World War II, Earl decided that General Motors needed to make a sports car. Design work on "Project Opel" began as a secret project, he first offered the project to Chevrolet general manager Ed Cole. Cole accepted the project without hesitation, the car was offered to the public in 1953 as the Chevrolet Corvette. Harley Earl retired from General Motors in 1958 after overseeing the design of 1960–1962 models.
He was succeeded as vice-president with responsibility for the Design and Styling Department by Bill
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by FCA US LLC, based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Dodge vehicles include performance cars, though for much of its existence Dodge was Chrysler's mid-priced brand above Plymouth. Founded as the Dodge Brothers Company machine shop by brothers Horace Elgin Dodge and John Francis Dodge in the early 1900s, Dodge was a supplier of parts and assemblies for Detroit-based automakers and began building complete automobiles under the "Dodge Brothers" brand in 1914, predating the founding of Chrysler Corporation; the factory was located in Hamtramck and was called the Dodge Main factory from 1910 until its closing in January 1980. The Dodge brothers both died in 1920, the company was sold by their families to Dillon, Read & Co. in 1925 before being sold to Chrysler in 1928. Dodge vehicles consisted of trucks and full-sized passenger cars through the 1970s, though it made memorable compact cars and midsize cars; the 1973 oil crisis and its subsequent impact on the American automobile industry led Chrysler to develop the K platform of compact to midsize cars for the 1981 model year.
The K platform and its derivatives are credited with reviving Chrysler's business in the 1980s. The Dodge brand has withstood the multiple ownership changes at Chrysler from 1998 to 2009, including its short-lived merger with Daimler-Benz AG from 1998 to 2007, its subsequent sale to Cerberus Capital Management, its 2009 bailout by the United States government, its subsequent Chapter 11 bankruptcy and acquisition by Fiat. In 2011, Dodge and Dodge's Viper were separated. Dodge said that the Dodge Viper would be an SRT product and Ram will be a manufacturer. In 2014, SRT was merged back into Dodge; that year, Chrysler Group was renamed FCA US LLC, corresponding with the merger of Fiat S.p. A. and Chrysler Group into the single corporate structure of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Horace and John Dodge founded the Dodge Brothers Company in Detroit in 1900, found work manufacturing precision engine and chassis components for the city's growing number of automobile firms. Chief among these customers were the established Olds Motor Vehicle Company and the new Ford Motor Company.
Henry Ford selected the Dodge brothers to supply a wide range of components for his original Model A that included the complete chassis. The first machine shop where the brothers worked as parts suppliers for Olds and Ford was located at the Boydell Building on Beaubien Street at Lafayette; this location was replaced by a larger facility at Hastings Street and Monroe Avenue, now a parking garage for the Greektown Casino Hotel. By 1910 the Dodge Main factory was built in Hamtramck, where it remained until 1979; the Dodge Brothers Motor Company was established in 1913 and by 1914, John and Horace designed and debuted the first car of their own – the four-cylinder Dodge Model 30/35 touring car. Marketed as a more upscale competitor to the ubiquitous Ford Model T, it pioneered or made standard many features taken for granted like all-steel body construction as the vast majority of cars worldwide still used wood-framing under steel panels). Once the Dodge brothers produced their own car, John Dodge was once quoted as saying, "Someday, people who own a Ford are going to want an automobile".
As a result of this, the brothers' well-earned reputation for the highest quality truck and motor parts they made for other successful vehicles, Dodge Brothers cars were ranked at second place for U. S. sales as early as 1916. That same year, Henry Ford decided to stop paying stock dividends to finance the construction of his new River Rouge complex, the Dodges filed a suit to protect their annual stock earnings of one million dollars, leading Ford to buy out his shareholders. In 1916, the Dodge Brothers vehicles won acclaim for their durability in military service. First with the U. S. Army's Pancho Villa Expedition, during the 1910s U. S. Mexico Border War — the U. S. military's first operation to use truck convoys. General "Blackjack" Pershing procured a fleet of 150 to 250 Dodge Brothers vehicles for the Mexico campaign. Touring cars were used as reconnaissance vehicles. One notable instance was in May when the 6th Infantry received a reported sighting of Julio Cárdenas, one of Villa's most trusted subordinates.
Lt. George S. Patton led ten soldiers and two civilian guides in three Dodge Model 30 touring cars to conduct America's first motorised military raid at a ranch house in San Miguelito, Sonora. During the ensuing firefight the party killed three men. Patton's men tied the bodies to the hoods of the Dodges, returning to headquarters in Dublán and an excited reception from US newspapermen. Subsequently, some 12,800 Dodge cars and light trucks were used in World War I — over 8,000 touring cars, as well as 2,600 commercial vehicles, such as screen-side trucks and panel vans — serving as ambulances and repair trucks. Dodge remained the United States military's primary supplier of light wheeled vehicles, until the
A motel or motor lodge is a hotel designed for motorists and has a parking area for motor vehicles. Entering dictionaries after World War II, the word motel, coined as a portmanteau contraction of "motor hotel", originates from the Milestone Mo-Tel of San Luis Obispo, built in 1925; the term referred to a type of hotel consisting of a single building of connected rooms whose doors faced a parking lot and in some circumstances, a common area or a series of small cabins with common parking. Motels are individually owned, though motel chains do exist; as large highway systems began to be developed in the 1920s, long-distance road journeys became more common, the need for inexpensive accessible overnight accommodation sites close to the main routes led to the growth of the motel concept. Motels peaked in popularity in the 1960s with rising car travel, only to decline in response to competition from the newer chain hotels that became commonplace at highway interchanges as traffic was bypassed onto newly constructed freeways.
Several historic motels are listed on the US National Register of Historic Places. Motels differ from hotels in their location along highways, as opposed to the urban cores favored by hotels, their orientation to the outside. Motels by definition include a parking lot, while older hotels were not built with automobile parking in mind; because of their low-rise construction, the number of rooms which would fit on any given amount of land was low compared to the high-rise urban hotels which had grown around train stations. This was not an issue in an era where the major highways became the main street in every town along the way and inexpensive land at the edge of town could be developed with motels, car dealerships, fuel stations, lumber yards, amusement parks, roadside diners, drive-in restaurants and countless other small roadside businesses; the automobile brought mobility and the motel could appear anywhere on the vast network of two-lane highways. Motels are constructed in an "I"-, "L"-, or "U"-shaped layout that includes guest rooms.
A motel was single-story with rooms opening directly onto a parking lot, making it easy to unload suitcases from a vehicle. A second story, if present, would face onto a balcony served by multiple stairwells; the post-war motels in the early 1950s to late 1960s, sought more visual distinction featuring eye-catching colorful neon signs which employed themes from popular culture, ranging from Western imagery of cowboys and Indians to contemporary images of spaceships and atomic era iconography. U. S. Route 66 is the most popular example of the "neon era". Many of these signs remain in use to this day. In some motels, a handful of rooms would be larger and contain kitchenettes or apartment-like amenities. Rooms with connecting doors commonly appeared in both hotels and motels. A few motels would offer "honeymoon suites" with extra amenities such as whirlpool baths; the first campgrounds for automobile tourists were constructed in the late 1910s. Before that, tourists who couldn't afford to stay in a hotel either slept in their cars or pitched their tents in fields alongside the road.
These were called auto camps. The modern campgrounds of the 1920s and 1930s provided running water, picnic grounds, restroom facilities. Auto camps predated motels by a few years, established in the 1920s as primitive municipal camp sites where travelers pitched their own tents; as demand increased, for-profit commercial camps displaced public camp grounds. Until the first travel trailers became available in the 1930s, auto tourists adapted their cars by adding beds, makeshift kitchens and roof decks; the next step up from the travel trailer was the cabin camp, a primitive but permanent group of structures. During the Great Depression, landholders whose property fronted onto highways built cabins to convert unprofitable land to income; the buildings for a roadside motel or cabin court were quick and simple to construct, with plans and instructions available in how-to and builder's magazines. Expansion of highway networks continued unabated through the depression as governments attempted to create employment but the roadside cabin camps were primitive just auto camps with small cabins instead of tents.
The 1935 City Directory for San Diego, lists "motel"-type accommodations under tourist camps. One could stay in the Depression-era cabin camps for less than a dollar per night but small comforts were few and far between. Travelers in search of modern amenities soon would find them at cottage courts and tourist courts; the price was higher but the cabins had electricity, indoor bathrooms, a private garage or carport. They were arranged in a U-shape; these camps were part of a larger complex containing a filling station, a café, sometimes a convenience store. Facilities like the Rising Sun Auto Camp in Glacier National Park and Blue Bonnet Court in Texas were "mom-and-pop" facilities on the outskirts of towns that were as quirky as their owners. Auto camps continued in popularity thr
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion, most accomplished by means of friction. Most brakes use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for use. Other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail, converted into heat. Still other braking methods transform kinetic energy into different forms, for example by transferring the energy to a rotating flywheel. Brakes are applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid.
Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms, such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute, or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing. Since kinetic energy increases quadratically with velocity, an object moving at 10 m/s has 100 times as much energy as one of the same mass moving at 1 m/s, the theoretical braking distance, when braking at the traction limit, is 100 times as long. In practice, fast vehicles have significant air drag, energy lost to air drag rises with speed. All wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp. Most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage; some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight. Notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era; these allow the aircraft to maintain a safe speed in a steep descent.
The Saab B 17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake. Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually; when traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake. When the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down.. Brakes electromagnetics. One brake may use several principles: for example, a pump may pass fluid through an orifice to create friction: Frictional brakes are most common and can be divided broadly into "shoe" or "pad" brakes, using an explicit wear surface, hydrodynamic brakes, such as parachutes, which use friction in a working fluid and do not explicitly wear; the term "friction brake" is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes though hydrodynamic brakes use friction.
Friction brakes are rotating devices with a stationary pad and a rotating wear surface. Common configurations include shoes that contract to rub on the outside of a rotating drum, such as a band brake. Other brake configurations are less often. For example, PCC trolley brakes include a flat shoe, clamped to the rail with an electromagnet. A drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum; the drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub. Drum brakes can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles. Compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat; the disc brake is a device for stopping the rotation of a road wheel. A brake disc made of cast iron or ceramic, is connected to the wheel or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads is forced mechanically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc.
Friction attached wheel to slow or stop. Pumping brakes are used where a pump is part of the machinery. For example, an internal-combustion piston motor can have the fuel supply stopped, internal pumping losses of the engine create some braking; some engines use a valve override called a Jake brake to increase pumping losses. Pumping brakes can dump energy as heat, or can be regenerative brakes that recharge a pressure reservoir called a hydraulic accumulator. Electromagnetic brakes are often used where an electric motor is part of the machinery. For example, many hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles use the electric motor as a generator to charge electric batteries and as a regenerative brak
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit
A drive-in is a facility where one can drive in with an automobile for service. At a drive-in restaurant, for example, customers park their vehicles and are served by staff who walk or rollerskate out to take orders and return with food, encouraging diners to remain parked while they eat. Drive-in theaters have a car parking area for film-goers, it is distinguished from a drive-through, in which drivers line up to make an order at a microphone set up at window height, drive to a window where they pay and receive their food. The drivers take their meals elsewhere to eat. Notably however, during peak periods, patrons may be required to park in a designated parking spot and wait for their food to be directly served to them by an attendant walking to their car, resulting in the perceived relationship between the two service-types. In the German-speaking world, the term is now used instead of "drive-through" for that kind of service. In Japan, the term refers to a rest area. In France, this term has become popular because of American movies showing that kind of service, more due to the expansion of fast-food restaurants.
The first drive-in restaurant was Kirby's Pig Stand, which opened in Dallas, Texas, in 1921. In North America, drive-in facilities of all types have become less popular since their heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, with drive-throughs rising to prominence since the 1970s and 1980s; the largest Drive-In still in operation is The Varsity of Georgia. As a symbol of the 1950s, a drive-in is featured in TV series about this period; the film American Graffiti has several scenes in or around a drive-in, while in Happy Days, "Arnold's Drive-In" is one of the main settings for much of the series. Drive-through Drive-in theater Drive-In Classics, a Canadian TV channel List of drive-in restaurants List of drive-in theaters Safari park Drive-in theatres refuse to fade away Jilly's drive-in restaurant page Drive-ins.com—Searchable archive of over 5000 drive-in movie theaters