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Virginia City, Nevada

Virginia City is a census-designated place, the county seat of Storey County and the largest community in the county. The city is a part of the Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area. Virginia City developed as a boomtown with the 1859 discovery of the Comstock Lode, the first major silver deposit discovery in the United States, with numerous mines opening; the population peaked with an estimated 25,000 residents. The mines' output declined after 1878, the population declined as a result; as of the 2010 Census, the population of Virginia City was about 855, that of Storey County was 4,000. Peter O'Riley and Patrick McLaughlin are credited with the discovery of the Comstock Lode. Henry T. P. Comstock's name was associated with the discovery through his own machinations. According to folklore, James Fennimore, nicknamed Old Virginny Finney, christened the town when he tripped and broke a bottle of whiskey at a saloon entrance in the northern section of Gold Hill, soon to become Virginia City.

In another story, the Ophir Diggings were named in honor of Finney as he was "one of the first discoverers of that mining locality, one of the most successful prospectors in that region." Finney "was the best judge of placer ground in Gold Canyon," locating the quartz footwall of the Ophir on 22 February 1858, the placers on Little Gold Hill on 28 January 1859, the placers below Ophir in 1857. After the discovery of the Comstock Lode in 1859, the town developed overnight on the eastern slopes of Mount Davidson, perched at a 6200-foot elevation. Below the town were dug intricate shafts for silver mining; the Comstock Lode discovery and subsequent growth of Virginia City was unequaled by the history of other precious metal discoveries. By 1876 Nevada produced over half of all the precious metals in the United States; the Comstock produced gold ore valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars annually. The wealth supported the Northern cause during the American Civil War and flooded the world monetary markets, resulting in economic changes.

Virginia City's silver ore discoveries were not part of the California Gold Rush, which occurred 10 years before. At the time of the discovery of the Comstock Lode, silver was considered the monetary equal of gold, all production was purchased by the federal government for use in coinage. In 1873, silver was demonetized by the government, in large part due to the flood of silver into international markets from the silver mines of Virginia City. Technical problems plagued the early mining efforts, requiring the development of new mining technology to support the challenge. German engineer Philip Deidesheimer created a timbering system for mining tunnels called square sets, which enabled the retrieval of huge amounts of silver ore in a safe manner. Square set timbering, roots blowers, stamp mills, the Washoe Pan milling process, Cornish pumps, Burleigh machine drills, wire woven rope, miners' safety cages and the safety clutch for those cages; as technological advancements, these were used many times over in mining applications.

In 1876 one observer reported that in Virginia City, "every activity has to do with the mining, transportation, or reduction of silver ore, or the melting and assaying of silver bullion."Like many cities and towns in Nevada, Virginia City was a mining boomtown. But, Virginia City far surpassed all others for its peak of population, technological advancements developed there, for providing the population base upon which Nevada qualified for statehood; the riches of the Comstock Lode inspired men to hunt for silver mines throughout Nevada and other parts of the American West. Virginia City population increased from 4,000 in 1862 to over 15,000 in 1863, it fluctuated depending on mining output. US Census figures do not reflect all of these frequent changes; the city included gas and sewer lines, the one hundred room International Hotel with elevator, three theatres, the Maguire Opera House, four churches, three daily newspapers. Many of the homes and buildings were made of brick. With this center of wealth, many important local politicians and businessmen came from the mining camp.

At its peak after the Big Bonanza of 1873 Virginia City had a population of over 25,000 residents and was called the richest city in America. In 1879, the mines began to play out and the population fell to just under 11,000. Dominated by San Francisco moneyed interests, Virginia City was heralded as the sophisticated interior partner of San Francisco. "San Francisco on the coast and Virginia City inland" became the mantra of west coast Victorian entrepreneurs. Early Virginia City settlers were in large part the backwash from San Francisco and the California Gold Rush, ten years before. Mine owners who made a killing in the Comstock mines spent most of their wealth in San Francisco. A San Francisco stock market existed for the exploitation of Comstock mining; the Bank of California financed building the financial district of San Francisco with money from the Comstock mines. The influence of the Comstock lode rejuvenated what was the ragged little town of 1860 San Francisco. "Nearly all the profits of the Comstock were invested in San Francisco real estate and in the erection of fine buildings."

Thus, Virginia City built San Francisco. The Comstock's success, measured in values of the time period, totaled "about $400 million." Mining and its attraction of population was the economic factor that caused the separation of Nevada territory from Utah, justified and supported Nevada statehood. The mining industry dominated Virginia City, making it an industrial center si

Shivalaya Gaunpalika

Shivalaya Gaunpalika is a rural municipality located in Jajarkot District of Karnali Province of Nepal. According to Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration, Shivalaya has an area of 134.26 square kilometres and the total population of the rural municipality is 15,269 as of 2011 Nepal census. Sima, Thala Raikar and Junga Thapachaur which were all separate Village development committees merged to form this new local level body. Fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level bodies; the rural municipality is divided into total 9 wards and the headquarters of this newly formed rural municipality is situated at Sima. Official website

Harry Bowen (actor)

Harry Bowen was an American character actor of the silent and sound film eras. Born on October 4, 1888 in Brooklyn, New York, he broke into the film industry doing film shorts during the silent era, his work on shorts continued into talking pictures, it was in 1929 that he made his first appearance in a full-length feature, with a small role in Red Hot Rhythm, directed by Leo McCarey. During his 20-year career, Bowen appeared in over 150 films, most of them film shorts. Other notable films in which he appeared include: the 1933 classic King Kong, his final screen performance, according to AFI, was the 1939 film, The Day the Bookies Wept, starring Joe Penner and Betty Grable. Bowen died on December 1941, at the age of 53 in Los Angeles, California. Harry Bowen on IMDb Harry Bowen at the TCM Movie Database