In moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order; the relation between natural and legal rights is a topic of social contract theory. The term takes its name from The Social Contract, a 1762 book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that discussed this concept. Although the antecedents of social contract theory are found in antiquity, in Greek and Stoic philosophy and Roman and Canon Law, the heyday of the social contract was the mid-17th to early 19th centuries, when it emerged as the leading doctrine of political legitimacy; the starting point for most social contract theories is an examination of the human condition absent of any political order.
In this condition, individuals' actions are bound only by their personal conscience. From this shared starting point, social contract theorists seek to demonstrate why a rational individual would voluntarily consent to give up their natural freedom to obtain the benefits of political order. Prominent of 17th- and 18th-century theorists of social contract and natural rights include Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes, Samuel von Pufendorf, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant, each approaching the concept of political authority differently. Grotius posited. Thomas Hobbes famously said that in a "state of nature", human life would be "solitary, nasty and short". In the absence of political order and law, everyone would have unlimited natural freedoms, including the "right to all things" and thus the freedom to plunder and murder. To avoid this, free men contract with each other to establish political community through a social contract in which they all gain security in return for subjecting themselves to an absolute sovereign, one man or an assembly of men.
Though the sovereign's edicts may well be arbitrary and tyrannical, Hobbes saw absolute government as the only alternative to the terrifying anarchy of a state of nature. Hobbes asserted that humans consent to abdicate their rights in favor of the absolute authority of government. Pufendorf disputed Hobbes's equation of a state of nature with war. Alternatively and Rousseau argued that we gain civil rights in return for accepting the obligation to respect and defend the rights of others, giving up some freedoms to do so; the central assertion that social contract theory approaches is that law and political order are not natural, but human creations. The social contract and the political order it creates are the means towards an end—the benefit of the individuals involved—and legitimate only to the extent that they fulfill their part of the agreement. Hobbes argued that government is not a party to the original contract and citizens are not obligated to submit to the government when it is too weak to act to suppress factionalism and civil unrest.
According to other social contract theorists, when the government fails to secure their natural rights or satisfy the best interests of society, citizens can withdraw their obligation to obey, or change the leadership through elections or other means including, when necessary, violence. Locke believed that natural rights were inalienable, therefore the rule of God superseded government authority, while Rousseau believed that democracy was the best way to ensure welfare while maintaining individual freedom under the rule of law; the Lockean concept of the social contract was invoked in the United States Declaration of Independence. Social contract theories were eclipsed in the 19th century in favor of utilitarianism and Marxism; the concept of the social contract was posed by Glaucon, as described by Plato in The Republic, Book II. They say, and so when men have both done and suffered injustice and have had experience of both, not being able to avoid the one and obtain the other, they think that they had better agree among themselves to have neither.
This they affirm to be the nature of justice. For no man, worthy to be called a man would submit to such an agreement if he were able to resist; such is Socrates, of the nature and origin of justice. The social contract theory appears in Crito, another dialogue from Plato. Over time, the social contract theory became more widespread after Epicurus, the first philosopher who saw justice as a social contract, not as existing
Peyton Randolph was a planter and public official from the Colony of Virginia. He served as Speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses, president of Virginia Conventions, the first President of the Continental Congress. Randolph was born in Tazewell Hall, Virginia, to a prominent family, his parents were Sir John Randolph, the son of William Randolph, Susanna Beverley, the daughter of Peter Beverley. Peyton Randolph was 16. Randolph attended the College of William & Mary, studied law at Middle Temple at the Inns of Court in London, becoming a member of the bar in 1743, he lived his adulthood in Williamsburg. Randolph returned to Williamsburg and was appointed Attorney General of the Colony of Virginia the next year, he served several terms in the Virginia House of Burgesses, beginning in 1748. It was Randolph's dual roles as attorney general and as burgess that would lead to an extraordinary conflict of interest in 1751; the new governor, Robert Dinwiddie, had imposed a fee for the certification of land patents, which the House of Burgesses objected to.
The House selected Peyton Randolph to represent their cause to Crown authorities in London. In his role as attorney general, though, he was responsible for defending actions taken by the governor. Randolph left for London, over the objections of Governor Dinwiddie, was replaced for a short time as attorney general by George Wythe. Randolph resumed his post on his return at the behest of Wythe as well as officials in London, who recommended the Governor drop the new fee. In 1765, Randolph found himself at odds with a freshman burgess, Patrick Henry, over the matter of a response to the Stamp Act; the House appointed Randolph to draft objections to the act, but his more conservative plan was trumped when Henry obtained passage of five of his seven Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions. This was accomplished at a meeting of the House in which most of the members were absent, over which Randolph was presiding in the absence of the Speaker. Randolph resigned as king's attorney in 1766, as fellow Burgesses elected him as their Speaker upon the death of his relative, the powerful Speaker John Robinson.
Sitting as the General Court, they appointed Randolph one of the executors of the former speaker's estate, a major financial scandal. As friction between Britain and the colonies progressed, Randolph grew to favor independence. In 1769 the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the Governor, Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt, in response to its actions against the Townshend Acts. In 1773, Randolph chaired the Virginia committee of correspondence; the next Governor, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore dissolved the House of Burgesses in 1774 when it showed solidarity with Boston, following the Boston Port Act. Afterwards, Randolph chaired meetings of the first of five Virginia Conventions of former House members, principally at a Williamsburg tavern, which worked toward responses to the unwelcome tax measures imposed by the British government. On March 21, 1775, he was president of the Second Virginia Convention in Richmond that debated independence. In April, Randolph negotiated with Lord Dunmore for gunpowder removed from the Williamsburg arsenal during the Gunpowder Incident, a confrontation between the Governor's forces and Virginia militia, led by Patrick Henry.
The House of Burgesses was called back by Lord Dunmore one last time in June 1775 to address British Prime Minister Lord North's Conciliatory Resolution. Randolph, a delegate to the Continental Congress, returned to Williamsburg to take his place as Speaker. Randolph indicated; the House of Burgesses rejected the proposal, later rejected by the Continental Congress. Randolph was thus the last Speaker of the House of Burgesses. Randolph served as the president of the Third Virginia Convention in July 1775, which as a legislative body elected a Committee of Safety to act as the colony's executive since Lord Dunmore had abandoned the capital and took refuge on a British warship. Edmund Pendleton would succeed Randolph as president of the conventions. Virginia selected Randolph as one of its delegates to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774 and 1775. Fellow delegates elected him their president of both the First Continental Congress as well as Second Continental Congress. However, Randolph fell ill during each term.
Henry Middleton of South Carolina succeeded him as president from his resignation on October 22, 1774, until his return on May 10, 1775. He was again elected President of Congress, but Randolph left for Virginia four days and was succeeded as President by John Hancock. Randolph returned as a Virginia delegate but suffered a fit of apoplexy and died in Philadelphia on October 22, 1775, his remains were returned to Williamsburg and were interred at the chapel of the College of William and Mary. Because the Continental Congress assumed governmental duties for the American colonies as a whole, such as appointing ambassadors, some consider Randolph to have been the first President of the United States though he died before the Declaration of Independence; the Continental Congress honored Randolph by naming one
Governor of Virginia
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. The current holder of the office is Democrat Ralph Northam, sworn in on January 13, 2018. Candidates for governor must be United States citizens who have resided in Virginia and been a registered voter for five years prior to the election in which they are running; the candidates must be at least 30 years of age. Unlike other state governors, Virginia governors are not allowed to serve consecutive terms, they have been barred from immediate re-election since the adoption of Virginia's second constitution, in 1830. However, a former governor is permitted to run for a second term in a future election. Only two governors since 1830, William Smith and Mills Godwin, were elected to additional terms. Smith's second term came after Virginia seceded from the Union, while Godwin became the first governor in American history to be elected by both major parties when the former Democrat was elected in 1973 as a Republican.
To get on the ballot for Governor of Virginia, each candidate must file 10,000 signatures, including the signatures of at least 400 qualified voters from each 11 congressional districts in the Commonwealth. The governor is the head of government in Virginia. At the beginning of every regular session, they must report the state of the Commonwealth to the Virginia General Assembly, they must convene the legislature. The governor must ensure that the laws of the Commonwealth are faithfully executed by either signing, or allowing it to come into law, or vetoing, not allowing it to become law, they are responsible for the safety of the state, as they serve as commander-in-chief of the Virginia Militia. The governor has the legislative power to submit recommendations and to call special sessions when he finds them necessary; the governor has veto powers. All bills must be sent to the governor before becoming law; the governor may sign the bill, let it sit unsigned for seven days, after which it becomes law, or veto the legislation.
After a veto, the bill returns to its house of origin and may be overridden by two-thirds of the vote in each house. The governor has the power to use a line-item veto, he may send legislation back to the legislature with amendments. The legislature must either approve the changes by a majority in each house or override the veto with a two-thirds majority in each house; the governor is commander-in-chief of Virginia's militia forces. The governor may communicate with other states and foreign powers; the governor has the power to fill vacancies in positions unless the position is appointed by the legislature. The governor may commute issue pardons; the governor may restore voting rights and overturn other political penalties on individuals. The position of Governor of Virginia dates back to the 1607 first permanent English settlement in America, at Jamestown on the north shore of the James River upstream from Hampton Roads harbor at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay; the Virginia Company of London set up a government run by a council.
The president of the council served as a governor. The council was controlled the colony from afar. Nominally, Thomas Smith was the first president of the council. Edward Maria Wingfield was the first president of the council in residence in the new province, making him the first to exercise the actual authority of governing Virginia; the Virginia Company soon abandoned governance by council two years after the landing on May 23, 1609, replacing it with a governor, the famous and dynamic leader, John Smith. In 1624, the English Monarchy of King James I, in the last year of his reign, of the royal House of Stuart took control from the Virginia Company and its stockholders and made Virginia a crown colony. Governors continued to be appointed by the monarch for many years. Most the appointed governor would reside in England while a deputy or lieutenant governor exercised authority. Royal rule was interrupted during the English Civil War, after which governors were appointed by the Protectorate under Richard Cromwell in the interim Commonwealth of England until the English Restoration of the monarchy with King Charles II in 1660.
Virginia became an independent sovereign state and Commonwealth during the American Revolutionary War, with Patrick Henry as its first governor. From the Revolution until 1851, the governor was elected by the General Assembly of Virginia. After 1851, in a democratic trend spreading across the Union, the state turned to popular elections for office holders. During the American Civil War, Francis Harrison Pierpont was the governor of the Union-controlled parts of the state of which emerged the new state in the northwest of West Virginia. Pierpont served as one of the provisional governors during the post-war Reconstruction era; these governors were appointed by the Federal government of the President and U. S. Congress, both controlled by Radical Republicans for a decade. In 1874, Virginia regained its right to self-governance and elected James L. Kemper, a Democrat and temporary Conservative Party member and former Confederate general as governor. After the Radical Republican appointees of the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia would not elect another regular Republican as governor until A. Linwood Holton Jr. in 1969.
However, in 1881 William E. Cameron was elected governor under the banner of t
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Stamp Act 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the British colonies and plantations in America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp. Printed materials included legal documents, playing cards and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. Like previous taxes, the stamp tax had to be paid in valid British currency, not in colonial paper money; the purpose of the tax was to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War, the North American theater of the Seven Years' War. However, the colonists had never feared a French invasion to begin with, they contended that they had paid their share of the war expenses, they suggested that it was a matter of British patronage to surplus British officers and career soldiers who should be paid by London. The Stamp Act was unpopular among colonists.
A majority considered it a violation of their rights as Englishmen to be taxed without their consent—consent that only the colonial legislatures could grant. Their slogan was "No taxation without representation." Colonial assemblies sent petitions and protests, the Stamp Act Congress held in New York City was the first significant joint colonial response to any British measure when it petitioned Parliament and the King. One member of the British Parliament argued that the colonials were no different from the 90% residents of Great Britain who did not own property and thus could not vote, but who were "virtually" represented by land-owning electors and representatives who had common interests with them. An American attorney refuted this by pointing out that the relations between the Americans and the English electors were "a knot too infirm to be relied on" for proper representation, "virtual" or otherwise. Local protest groups established Committees of Correspondence which created a loose coalition from New England to Maryland.
Protests and demonstrations increased initiated by the Sons of Liberty and involving hanging of effigies. Soon, all stamp tax distributors were intimidated into resigning their commissions, the tax was never collected. Opposition to the Stamp Act was not limited to the colonies. British merchants and manufacturers pressured Parliament because their exports to the colonies were threatened by boycotts; the Act was repealed on 18 March 1766 as a matter of expedience, but Parliament affirmed its power to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever" by passing the Declaratory Act. A series of new taxes and regulations ensued—likewise opposed by the colonists; the episode played a major role in defining the 27 colonial grievances that were stated within the text of the Indictment of George III section of the United States Declaration of Independence, enabling the organized colonial resistance that led to the American Revolution in 1775. The British victory in the Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War, had been won only at a great financial cost.
During the war, the British national debt nearly doubled, rising from £72,289,673 in 1755 to £129,586,789 by 1764. Post-war expenses were expected to remain high because the Bute ministry decided in early 1763 to keep ten thousand British regular soldiers in the American colonies, which would cost about £225,000 per year, equal to £32 million today; the primary reason for retaining such a large force was that demobilizing the army would put 1,500 officers out of work, many of whom were well-connected in Parliament. This made it politically prudent to retain a large peacetime establishment, but Britons were averse to maintaining a standing army at home so it was necessary to garrison most of the troops elsewhere. Stationing 10,000 troops to separate American Indians and frontiersmen was one role; the outbreak of Pontiac's Rebellion in May 1763 reinforced the logic of this decision, as it was an American Indian uprising against the British expansion. The main reason to send 10,000 troops deep into the wilderness was to provide billets for the officers who were part of the British patronage system.
John Adams said, "Revenue is still demanded from America, appropriated to the maintenance of swarms of officers and pensioners in idleness and luxury." George Grenville became prime minister in April 1763 after the failure of the short-lived Bute Ministry, he had to find a way to pay for this large peacetime army. Raising taxes in Britain was out of the question, since there had been virulent protests in England against the Bute ministry's 1763 cider tax, with Bute being hanged in effigy; the Grenville ministry therefore decided that Parliament would raise this revenue by taxing the American colonists without their consent. This was something new. Politicians in London had always expected American colonists to contribute to the cost of their own defense. So long as a French threat existed, there was little trouble convincing colonial legislatures to provide assistance; such help was provided through the raising of colonial militias, which were funded by taxes raised by colonial legislatures. The legislatures were sometimes willing to help maintain regular British units defending the colonies.
So long as this sort of help was forthcoming, there was little reason for the British Parliament to impose its own taxes on the colonists. But after the peace of 1763, colonial militias were stood down. Militia of
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was the elected representative element of the Virginia General Assembly, the legislative body of the Colony of Virginia. With the creation of the House of Burgesses in 1642, the General Assembly, established in 1619, became a bicameral institution. From 1642 to 1776, the House of Burgesses was an instrument of government alongside the royally-appointed colonial governor and the upper-house Council of State in the General Assembly; when the Virginia colony declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at the Fifth Virginia Convention in 1776 and became the independent Commonwealth of Virginia, the House of Burgesses became the House of Delegates, which continues to serve as the lower house of the General Assembly. A synonym of burgher or bourgeois, the word "burgess" came to mean a borough representative in local or parliamentary government; the Colony of Virginia was founded by an English stock company, the Virginia Company, as a private venture, though under a royal charter.
Early governors provided the stern leadership and harsh judgments required for the colony to survive its early difficulties. As early crises with famine, Native American attempts to retake land, the need to establish cash crops, insufficient skilled or committed labor, the colony needed to attract enough new and responsible settlers if it were to grow and prosper. To encourage settlers to come to Virginia, in November, 1618 the Virginia Company's leaders gave instructions to the new Governor Sir George Yeardley, which became known as "the great charter." Emigrants who paid their own way to Virginia would receive fifty acres of land and not be mere tenants. Civil authority would control the military. In 1619, based on the instructions, Governor Yeardley initiated the election 22 burgesses by the settlements and Jamestown, together with the royally-appointed Governor and six-member Council of State, would form the first General Assembly as a unicameral body; the governor could veto its actions and the Company still maintained overall control of the venture, but the settlers would have a limited say in the management of their own affairs, including their finances.
A House of Assembly was created at the same time in Bermuda and held its first session in 1620. A handful of Polish craftsmen, brought to the colony to supply skill in the manufacture of pitch, tar and soap ash, were denied the political rights of English settlers, they downed tools in protest, but returned to work after being declared free and enfranchised by agreement with the Virginia Company. On July 30, 1619, Governor Yeardley convened the General Assembly as the first representative legislature in the Americas for a six-day meeting at the new brick church on Jamestown Island, Virginia; the unicameral Assembly was composed of the Governor, a Council of State appointed by the Virginia Company and the 22 locally elected representatives. The Assembly's first session of July 30, 1619, accomplished little, being cut short by an outbreak of malaria; the assembly had 22 members from the following constituencies: James City, Charles City, the City of Henricus, Martin-Brandon, Smythe's Hundred, Martin's Hundred, Argall's Gift Plantation, Flowerdew Hundred Plantation, Captain Lawne's Plantation, Captain Ward's Plantation.
After the massacre of 400 colonists on March 22, 1621/22 by Native Americans, epidemics in the winters before and after the massacre, the governor and council ruled arbitrarily, showing great contempt for the assembly and allowed no dissent. By 1624, the royal government in London had heard enough about the problems of the colony and revoked the charter of the Virginia Company. Virginia became the governor and council would be appointed by the king. Nonetheless, the Assembly maintained management of local affairs with some informal royal assent, although it was not royally confirmed until 1639. In 1634, the General Assembly divided the colony into eight shires for purposes of government and the judicial system. By 1643, the expanding colony had 15 counties. All of the county offices, including a board of commissioners, sheriff and clerks, were appointed positions. Only the burgesses were elected by a vote of the people. Women had no right to vote. Only free and white men were given the right to vote, by 1670 only property owners were allowed to vote.
In 1642, Governor William Berkeley urged creation of a bicameral legislature, which the Assembly promptly implemented. In 1652, the parliamentary forces of Oliver Cromwell forced the colony to submit to being taken over by the English government. Again, the colonists were able to retain the General Assembly as their governing body. Only taxes agreed to by the assembly were to be levied. Still, most Virginia colonists were loyal to Prince Charles, were pleased at his restoration as King Charles II in 1660, he went on directly or indirectly to restrict some of the liberties of the colonists, such as requiring tobacco t