click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Virology

Virology is the study of viral – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine. A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, bacteriophages. Another classification uses the geometrical shape of the virus's structure. Viruses range in size from about 30 nm to about 450 nm, which means that most of them cannot be seen with light microscopes; the shape and structure of viruses has been studied by electron microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography.

The most useful and most used classification system distinguishes viruses according to the type of nucleic acid they use as genetic material and the viral replication method they employ to coax host cells into producing more viruses: DNA viruses, RNA viruses, reverse transcribing viruses. The latest report by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists 5450 viruses, organized in over 2,000 species, 287 genera, 73 families and 3 orders. Virologists study subviral particles, infectious entities notably smaller and simpler than viruses: viroids and prions. Taxa in virology are not monophyletic, as the evolutionary relationships of the various virus groups remain unclear. Three hypotheses regarding their origin exist: Viruses arose from non-living matter, separately from yet in parallel to cells in the form of self-replicating RNA ribozymes similar to viroids. Viruses arose by genome reduction from earlier, more competent cellular life forms that became parasites to host cells and subsequently lost most of their functionality.

Viruses arose from mobile genetic elements of cells that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and encodes much of the molecular machinery traditionally associated with bacteria. Two possibilities are that it is a simplified version of a parasitic prokaryote or it originated as a simpler virus that acquired genes from its host; the evolution of viruses, which occurs in concert with the evolution of their hosts, is studied in the field of viral evolution. While viruses reproduce and evolve, they do not engage in metabolism, do not move, depend on a host cell for reproduction; the often-debated question of whether they are alive or not is a matter of definition that does not affect the biological reality of viruses. One main motivation for the study of viruses is the fact that they cause many important infectious diseases, among them the common cold, rabies, many forms of diarrhea, Dengue fever, yellow fever, smallpox and AIDS.

Herpes simplex causes cold sores and genital herpes and is under investigation as a possible factor in Alzheimer's. Some viruses, known as oncoviruses, contribute to the development of certain forms of cancer; the best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain strains of this sexually transmitted virus. Another example is the association of infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and liver cancer; some subviral particles cause disease: the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which include Kuru, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, are caused by prions, hepatitis D is due to a satellite virus. The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis; the degree to which a virus causes disease is its virulence. When the immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it may produce specific antibodies which bind to the virus and neutralize its infectivity or mark it for destruction.

Antibody presence in blood serum is used to determine whether a person has been exposed to a given virus in the past, with tests such as ELISA. Vaccinations protect against viral diseases, in part, by eliciting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, specific to the virus, are used for detection, as in fluorescence microscopy. A second defense of vertebrates against viruses, cell-mediated immunity, involves immune cells known as T cells: the body's cells display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's surface, if a T cell recognizes a suspicious viral fragment there, the host cell is destroyed and the virus-specific T-cells p

Washington Park, Atlanta

Washington Park is a black neighborhood in northwest Atlanta encompassing historic residential and community landmark buildings. It is situated two miles west of the central business district of Atlanta; the combination of gridiron and curvilinear streets is a result of the neighborhood having been developed from four separate subdivision plats. One of these plats created Atlanta's first planned black neighborhood, while the other three were abandoned by white developers and adopted by Heman Perry, an early 20th-century black developer. Although Perry did not receive a formal education past the seventh grade, in 1913 he founded one of the largest black-owned companies in the United States, the Standard Life Insurance Company of Atlanta; the development of the Washington Park area is associated with the history of racial segregation in Atlanta. Prior to 1919, Ashby Street functioned as an early "color line" in the city; the area east of Ashby Street was established as an area for African Americans, the area west of Ashby Street was established as an area for white settlement.

Few white families were interested in residing so close to the black Atlanta University campus. Any plans for white settlement west of Ashby Street ended when the general manager of the Parks Department of Atlanta designated Washington Park as the first recreational park for African Americans in 1919; the Atlanta Board of Education re-designated Ashby Street School from white to black in that same year. With these two actions, the area west of Ashby Street was abandoned by white developers and this early "color line" was broken; the collection of historic residences within the district consists of one- and two-story buildings built between 1919 and 1958 featuring exterior wood clapboard or brick veneer. These close-knit residences are uniformly set back near the street-end of their narrow lots; the architectural types represented within the district include English and Georgian cottages, American Foursquare, the bungalow, the most found type. The architectural styles found include Colonial Revival, English Vernacular, Craftsman, the style most represented.

There were few commercial buildings located within the Washington Park neighborhood concentrated near the edges of the district at the crossroads of major streets, but many of these stores have been lost or altered. A c. 1930 gas station featuring an office block with a canopy remains, as well as a corner store with a large storefront window oriented towards the intersection. Community landmarks include the William A. Harris Memorial Hospital, the Ashby Street Theater, the Citizen Trust Company West Side Branch bank building, the E. R. Carter Elementary School. One of the focal points of the historic district is the recreational park. Prior to the construction of Washington Park in 1919, there were no recreational parks in Atlanta available to African Americans; the park started with a gift of six and a half acres and expanded to 25 acres when completed in 1928. It included a swimming pool, dance hall and tennis courts; the Washington Park neighborhood has retained many of its landscape features.

The neighborhood is served by PATH's "West Side Trail", the Beltline and access to the Ashby MARTA rail station. This article incorporates text from the National Park Service website, a work of the U. S. government, therefore under public domain

NewsNight with Aaron Brown

NewsNight with Aaron Brown is a live international news program which aired on the CNN and CNN International networks from 2001 to 2005. It was hosted by Aaron Brown. In its final year, Anderson Cooper co-hosted the show; the show had a strong emphasis on interviews. It included segments such as The Whip, On the Rise, Segment 7; the Morning Papers segment, known as The Rooster, featured a brief preview of compelling or interesting headlines from the next day's newspapers around the world. The segment concluded with the weather forecast in Chicago. To cover the increased amount of news generated by Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath in September 2005, CNN expanded NewsNight to two hours and added Anderson Cooper as a co-host; these changes were intended to last for the duration of the hurricane's aftermath, but CNN announced that it would keep the new format and make Cooper a permanent co-host. On November 2, 2005, CNN announced that it was cancelling NewsNight and that Brown would leave the network.

As of November 7, 2005 the timeslot was given to Cooper's show, Anderson Cooper 360°. "'Newsnight With Aaron Brown' Premieres Monday" Sample CNN.com page for Newsnight with Aaron Brown CNN anchor's away Sure, Anderson Cooper is cute and young, but get a grip, CNN The NewsNighters - The 1st and best online club for Aaron Brown of CNN's NewsNight NewsNight with Aaron Brown on IMDb

Still Waters (Bee Gees album)

Still Waters is the twenty-first studio album by the pop group the Bee Gees, released on 10 March 1997 in the UK by Polydor, on 6 May the same year in the US by A&M. In 1994, the Bee Gees and Polydor Records had planned a major tour to promote Size Isn't Everything but it was postponed in February the same year due to Barry Gibb's trouble with arthritis in his back, right hand and right knee. Following the cancellation of the tour, Robin Gibb told the press that the group was working on an album of acoustic versions of songs they had written for other artists; the project was called Love Songs, which featured some new recordings and was announced as the Bee Gees' new album in September 1994 and planned for release on 14 February of 1995. However, their record company rejected the album. Around 1994, the Bee Gees did record six songs, one of, called "Miracles Happen", written and recorded to be the title song for a new film version of Miracle on 34th Street; the filmmakers however decided to use only old Christmas songs.

On the same session, they did their own version of their compositions such as "Emotion", "Heartbreaker", "Love Never Dies" and "Rings Around the Moon", which were released as B-sides. In July 1995, they started with seven demos for what would become included on the album, along with four demos recorded in the second quarter of 1995. In the October 1995 sessions they recorded their rendition of "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" for a Carole King tribute album Tapestry Revisited: A Tribute to Carole King. In March 1996, they relocated to The Hit Factory in New York to record two songs. Around 1996, the Bee Gees used session musicians to complete the entire album, produced by Russ Titelman. In 1996, the Bee Gees recorded two songs with two members of P. M. Dawn, Attrel Cordes and Jarett Cordes; the producer on "With My Eyes Closed" was Raphael Saadiq. "Still Waters" was produced by Hugh Padgham. The last song recorded for the album was "Closer than Close" which features Maurice Gibb's lead vocals produced by the brothers themselves.

The Bee Gees recorded further new songs in 1996 and 1997, Still Waters was released in March 1997. Though receiving lukewarm reviews from critics, the album was their most successful album in twenty years; the album sold over 5 million copies worldwide, peaking at No. 2 on the UK Albums Chart and reaching No. 11 in the United States. The Bee Gees made the album with a variety of top producers, including Russ Titelman, David Foster, Hugh Padgham, Arif Mardin; the first single off the album, "Alone", was a worldwide hit, peaking at No. 5 in the UK and No. 28 in the United States, where it began as a "hot shot debut" at No. 34. "I Could Not Love You More" and "Still Waters" reached the UK top 20. In a special agreement with Target, Polydor sold a special edition of the album which included a bonus CD of songs from their VH1 Storytellers concert; this CD has never been made commercially available outside of the Target agreement. “There is life in the old dog yet! The water is still flowing in the river under the family name of Bee Gees!

The brothers Barry and Robin Gibb did their best once again, for the umpteenth time, or rather to be said, in their own style, as always,” the album left a good impression on the stuff of the newspaper “Muzykalnaya Gazeta”. In 2003 Robin Gibb re-recorded the track "My Lover's Prayer" as a duet with Alistair Griffin; this reached No. 5 on the UK Singles Chart as a double A-side single with Griffin's solo recording of "Bring It On". It appears on Griffin's debut album Bring It On, which reached No. 12 on the UK Albums Chart. The album became one of the first of the Bee Gees' catalogue to be re-released on Reprise Records after the group regained the rights to all of their recordings in 2006. All songs written by Barry and Maurice Gibb. "Alone" – 4:49 "I Surrender" – 4:18 "I Could Not Love You More" – 3:43 "Still Waters Run Deep" – 4:08 "My Lover's Prayer" – 4:00 "With My Eyes Closed" – 4:19 "Irresistible Force" – 4:36 "Closer Than Close" – 4:34 "I Will" – 5:08 "Obsessions" – 4:43 "Miracles Happen" – 4:12 "Smoke and Mirrors" – 5:00 Bonus tracks "Rings Around the Moon" – 4:30 "Love Never Dies" – 4:07 Barry Gibb – vocals, drum programming Robin Gibb – vocals Maurice Gibb – vocals, guitarAdditional personnel

David Feige

David Feige is an American lawyer, legal commentator, author. He is the author of the memoir, Indefensible: One Lawyer's Journey into the Inferno of American Justice, co-creator of the TNT legal drama Raising the Bar, both of which center on the life of the public defender, he is the co-founder and board chair of The Bronx Freedom Fund, the first charitable bail organization in New York State. In 2016 he won the Albert Maysles New Documentary Director Award for "Untouchable" a documentary feature he wrote and directed; the film premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival. Feige was raised in Wisconsin, his mother was a social worker and his father was an economics professor. Feige pursued his undergraduate studies at University of Chicago. After law school, Feige declined an offer to work as an associate at Dewey Ballantine and accepted an offer to work as a public defender in New York City. Feige began his legal career as a staff attorney at the Criminal Defense Division of the Legal Aid Society, held positions at the Civilian Complaint Review Board of New York City and the Neighborhood Defender Service of Harlem, before becoming, in 1997, one of the founding members of The Bronx Defenders.

In 1999 Feige was promoted to Trial Chief. In March 2001, he filed the first motion for a double-blind sequential line up in People v. Leo Franco, spawning a series of legal challenges to eyewitness identification procedures around the country. Feige is the author of the 2006 book Indefensible: One Lawyer's Journey into the Inferno of American Justice, which recounts his experiences as a public defender in The Bronx, New York City. Feige is co-creator with Steven Bochco of the TV series, Raising the Bar, which debuted on TNT September 1, 2008 to the highest ratings for a pilot episode in the history of ad-supported cable television, it was Feige's first attempt at screenwriting. The action takes place in the courthouses of New York City and the show deals with issues similar to those of Indefensible, though with fictional characters; the show was renewed by the TNT Cable network. He has written or produced over 100 hours of episodic television having worked as a Consulting Producer and writer on the television show The Firm. and a Co-Executive Producer on a number of shows, including Drop Dead Diva, the CBS legal drama Doubt, the ABC series For Life.

Feige has appeared on Court TV, MSNBC and National Public Radio to comment on legal issues. He has written about the law for newspapers such as The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post and Boston Globe, magazines like Fortune, The New Yorker, The Nation, he was on the faculty of the National Criminal Defense College at Walter F. George School of Law in Macon, is on leave as Professor of Law and Director of Advocacy Programs at Seton Hall University School of Law in Newark, New Jersey. David Feige on IMDb Seton Hall Faculty page http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/06/opinion/06feige.html?scp=1&sq=David+Feige&st=nyt http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2006/07/16/innocence_by_the_numbers/

Racial segregation of churches in the United States

Racial segregation of churches in the United States is a pattern of Christian churches having segregated congregations based on race. As of 2001, as many as 87% of Christian churches in the United States were made up of only White or African-American parishioners. Racially segregated churches have existed within the United States since before it became a country, lasted well through the post slavery era into the modern age. There are many reasons for the history and continued prevalence of racial segregation in U. S. churches, including racism, denominational differences, isolation. This segregation has effects on individuals and the larger society, including increased racism and segregation outside of the church. However, segregated Black churches have been a positive place for community organizing for civil rights and other issues, as well as offering a respite for Black individuals from the racism which they face in integrated society. Before the American Civil War, churches in the Northern United States and the Southern United States were segregated and legally.

The first Black church was founded in 1773 in South Carolina. In the 19th century, both the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church were founded, had African American leaders and control of their own property. Many White Christians in the 18th century did not consider African Americans human and did not believe that they had souls; when this view changed, White Christians began to try to convert slaves to Christianity, although slave owners resisted this conversion because they were afraid of slaves revolting. In trying to convert slaves to Christianity, Christian leaders reinforced and approved slavery as well as any means of punishment for slaves who revolted; some Christian leaders claimed that slavery was a good thing in that it allowed, or oftentimes forced, slaves to become Christians. By the 1830s, many Northern white Christians had changed their views about slavery and turned to being abolitionists. Many felt that slavery went against many of the ideals that they had fought for in the American Revolutionary War.

However, while many Northern Christians began to speak out against slavery, they did not speak out against racism and many held fears of "miscegenation" and felt that interracial relationships were unchristian. Church leaders still called for having segregated congregations and resisted instilling Black people into the church leadership or elders. In the South, church leaders and Christians began to use the Bible and church doctrine to defend slavery, they had biblical, evangelistic and political reasonings behind their defense of slavery, including arguments like Biblical figures having owned slaves and that slavery allows African Americans to become Christian. Another prominent reason used to justify slavery was the idea that Christians should focus on evangelism, stay out of politics, follow the law. By 1860, one year before the start of the American Civil War, 11% of African Americans belonged to a Christian church. After the American Civil War and the emancipation of slaves in the United States, many Northern African American religious groups created missionary church plants in the South, to connect newly freed African Americans with the African-American denominations of the North.

By 1870, attendance at the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church had grown significantly. In urban areas after the 1870s there was a large push towards multi-denominational evangelism with both White and African American congregations. However, while White evangelicals focused on textual interpretation and history, African American groups focused on social injustices and racism, it was during this time that African Americans began forming their own churches, in part because of the unequal treatment they were facing in integrated churches in both the North and the South. Christian theology was used to justify this split, with the implication that it was God's plan to have people separated by race. A survey was conducted of African American churchgoers in 1948 found that 94% of African Americans were a part of predominantly African American congregations. Of the other 6% who were part of integrated denominations, 99% went to segregated churches. During this time African American churches did not focus on critiquing or challenging segregation and racism, but rather focused on the promise of a better life after death.

During the Civil Rights Movement, African American churchgoers used their presence in church to unite people on civil rights issues. This was more successful in the South than in the North, as Southern problems of legal segregation were easier to identify and fix in comparison to their Northern counterparts of problems like emerging ghettos. While at the beginning of the Civil Rights Era there was some push from White Christians to integrate churches, after there was "a white backlash against black progress," the push ended as White Americans were less inclined to push for social segregation. However, many historians have noted that religion was an important motivator for people to be in favor of civil rights, as they saw racism as sinful or unchristian; this may have varied by region, as Southern pastors were much more racist than their Northern counterparts. Additionally, many evangelical Christians believed that integration and equality may be impossible, as they believed that the world was descending into chaos as a precursor to "the second coming," when Jesus would return to the Earth as described in the Book of Revelation.

During this era Black churches were an important place for social organizing. African-American church members and leaders played a large role in the Civil Rights Movement