American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
James Otis Jr.
James Otis Jr. was a lawyer, political activist and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy which led to the American Revolution. His well-known catchphrase "Taxation without Representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position. Otis was born in West Barnstable, the second of 13 children and the first to survive infancy, his sister Mercy Otis Warren, his brother Joseph Otis, his youngest brother Samuel Allyne Otis became leaders of the American Revolution, as did his nephew Harrison Gray Otis. His father Colonel James Otis Sr. was a prominent militia officer. Father and son had a tumultuous relationship, his father sent him a letter articulating his disappointments and encouraging him to seek God's righteousness to better himself. In 1755, Otis married Ruth Cunningham, a merchant's daughter and heiress to a fortune worth ₤10,000, their politics were quite different. Otis "half-complained that she was a'High Tory,'" yet in the same breath declared that "she was a good Wife, too good for him", in the words of John Adams.
The marriage produced children James and Mary. Their son James died at age 18, their daughter Elizabeth was a Loyalist like her mother. Their youngest daughter Mary married Benjamin Lincoln, son of the distinguished Continental Army General Benjamin Lincoln. Otis rose to the top of the Boston legal profession. In 1760, he received a prestigious appointment as Advocate General of the Admiralty Court, he promptly resigned, when Governor Francis Bernard failed to appoint his father to the promised position of Chief Justice of the province's highest court. Otis represented the merchants who were challenging the legality of the "writs of assistance" before the Superior Court, the predecessor of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court; these writs enabled British authorities to enter any home with no advance notice, no probable cause, no reason given. Otis considered himself a loyal British subject, yet he argued against the writs of assistance in a nearly five-hour oration before a select audience in the State House in February 1761.
His argument failed to win his case. John Adams recollected years later: "Otis was a flame of fire. Adams promoted Otis as a major player in the coming of the Revolution. Adams said, "I have been young and now I am old, I solemnly say I have never known a man whose love of country was more ardent or sincere, never one who suffered so much, never one whose service for any 10 years of his life were so important and essential to the cause of his country as those of Mr. Otis from 1760 to 1770." Adams claimed that "the child independence was and there born, every man of an immense crowded audience appeared to me to go away as I did, ready to take arms against writs of assistance." Otis expanded his argument in a pamphlet published in 1765 to state that the general writs violated the British constitution harkening back to the Magna Carta. The text of his 1761 speech was much enhanced by Adams on several occasions. According to James R. Ferguson, the four tracts that Otis wrote during 1764–65 reveal contradictions and intellectual confusion.
Otis was the first leader of the period to develop distinctive American theories of constitutionalism and representation, but he relied on traditional views of Parliamentary authority. He refused to follow the logical direction of his natural law theory by drawing back from radicalism, according to Ferguson, who feels that Otis appears inconsistent. Samuelson, on the other hand, argues that Otis should be seen as a practical political thinker rather than a theorist, that explains why his positions changed as he adjusted to altered political realities and exposed the British constitutional dilemmas of colonial parliamentary representation and the imperial relationship between Britain and the American colonies. Otis did not identify himself as a revolutionary. Otis at times counseled against the mob violence of the radicals and argued against Adams' proposal for a convention of all the colonies resembling that of the British Glorious Revolution of 1688. Yet, on other occasions, Otis exceeded Adams in exhorting people to action.
He called his compatriots to arms at a town meeting on September 12, 1768, according to some accounts. Otis was in the rural Popular Party, but he made alliances with Boston merchants and he grew in popularity after the controversy over the writs of assistance, he was elected by an overwhelming margin to the provincial assembly a month later. He subsequently wrote several important patriotic pamphlets, served in the assembly, was a leader of the Stamp Act Congress, he was friends with Thomas Paine, the author of Common Sense. He was banished from Cambridge, Massachusetts to Watertown in 1743, he suffered from erratic behavior as the 1760s progressed, he received a gash on the head from British tax collector John Robinson's cudgel at the British Coffee House in 1769. Some attribute Otis's mental illness to this event alone, but John Adams, Thomas Hutchinson, many others mention his mental illness well
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger, a prime minister. Pitt was known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766. Pitt was a member of the British cabinet and its informal leader from 1756 to 1761, during the Seven Years' War, he again led the ministry, holding the official title of Lord Privy Seal, between 1766 and 1768. Much of his power came from his brilliant oratory, he was out of power for most of his career and became well known for his attacks on the government, such as those on Walpole's corruption in the 1730s, Hanoverian subsidies in the 1740s, peace with France in the 1760s, the uncompromising policy towards the American colonies in the 1770s. Pitt is best known as the wartime political leader of Britain in the Seven Years' War for his single-minded devotion to victory over France, a victory which solidified Britain's dominance over world affairs.
He is known for his popular appeal, his opposition to corruption in government, his support for the colonial position in the run-up to the American War of Independence, his advocacy of British greatness and colonialism, his antagonism toward Britain's chief enemies and rivals for colonial power and France. Peters argues his statesmanship was based on a clear and distinct appreciation of the value of the Empire; the British parliamentary historian Peter D. G. Thomas argues that Pitt's power was based not on his family connections but on the extraordinary parliamentary skills by which he dominated the House of Commons, he displayed a commanding manner, brilliant rhetoric, sharp debating skills that cleverly utilised broad literary and historical knowledge. Pitt was the grandson of Thomas Pitt, the governor of Madras, known as "Diamond" Pitt for having discovered a diamond of extraordinary size and sold it to the Duke of Orléans for around £135,000; this transaction, as well as other trading deals in India, established the Pitt family fortune.
After returning home the Governor was able to raise his family to a position of wealth and political influence: in 1691 he purchased the property of Boconnoc in Cornwall, which gave him control of a seat in Parliament. He made further land purchases and became one of the dominant political figures in the West Country controlling seats such as the rotten borough of Old Sarum. William's father was Robert Pitt, the eldest son of Governor Pitt, who served as a Tory Member of Parliament from 1705 to 1727, his mother was Harriet Villiers, the daughter of Edward Villiers-FitzGerald and the Irish heiress Katherine FitzGerald. Both William's paternal uncles Thomas and John were MPs, while his aunt Lucy married the leading Whig politician and soldier General James Stanhope. From 1717 to 1721 Stanhope served as effective First Minister in the Stanhope–Sunderland Ministry and was a useful political contact for the Pitt family until the collapse of the South Sea Bubble, a disaster which engulfed the government.
William Pitt was born at Golden Square, Westminster, on 15 November 1708. His older brother Thomas Pitt had been born in 1704. There were five sisters: Harriet, Ann and Mary. From 1719 William was educated at Eton College along with his brother. William disliked Eton claiming that "a public school might suit a boy of turbulent disposition but would not do where there was any gentleness", it was at school. In 1726 Governor Pitt died, the family estate at Boconnoc passed to William's father; when he died the following year, Boconnoc was inherited by William's elder brother, Thomas Pitt of Boconnoc. In January 1727, William was entered as a gentleman commoner at Oxford. There is evidence, if not a minutely accurate classical scholar. Demosthenes was his favourite author. William diligently cultivated the faculty of expression by the practice of translation and re-translation. In these years he became a close friend of George Lyttelton, who would become a leading politician. In 1728 a violent attack of gout compelled him to leave Oxford University without finishing his degree.
He chose to travel abroad. He spent some time in France and Italy on the Grand Tour and from 1728 to 1730 he attended Utrecht University in the Dutch Republic, he had recovered from the attack of gout, but the disease proved intractable, he continued to be subject to attacks of growing intensity at frequent intervals until his death. On Pitt's return home in 1730 it was necessary as the younger son, to choose a profession. For around eighteen months Pitt stayed at his brother's estate in Cornwall, he had at one point been considered to join the Church but instead opted for a military career. Having chosen the army, he obtained, through the assistance of his friends, a cornet's commission in the dragoons with the King's Own Regiment of Horse. George II never forgot the jibes of "the terrible cornet of horse", it was reported that the £1,000 cost of the commission had been supplied by Robert Walpole, the prime minister, out of Treasury funds in an attempt to secure the support of Pitt's brother Thomas in Parliament.
Alternatively the fee may have been waived by the commanding officer of the regiment, Lord Cobham, related to the Pitt brothers by marriage. Pitt was to grow close to Cobham, whom he regarded as a surrogat
George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham, he emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham. In 1754 Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister, his government pursued an assertive foreign policy. His best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which instigated widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was repealed.
Grenville had strained relations with his colleagues and the King and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham. For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt. George Grenville was born at Wotton House on 14 October 1712, he was the second son of Hester Temple. He was one of five brothers, his sister Hester Grenville married the leading political figure William Pitt. His elder brother was Richard Grenville the 2nd Earl Temple, it was intended by his parents. Grenville received his education at Eton College and at Christ Church and was called to the bar in 1736, he entered Parliament in 1741 as one of the two members for Buckingham, continued to represent that borough for the next twenty-nine years until his death. He was disappointed to be giving up what appeared to be a promising legal career for the uncertainties of opposition politics. In Parliament he subscribed to the "Boy Patriot" party.
In particular he enjoyed the patronage of Lord Cobham, the leader of a faction that included George Grenville, his brother Richard, William Pitt and George Lyttelton that became known as Cobham's Cubs. In December 1744 he became a Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham, he allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt in forcing Pelham to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business. In June 1747, Grenville became a Lord of the Treasury. In 1754 Grenville was made Treasurer of the Privy Councillor. Along with Pitt and several other colleagues he was dismissed in 1755 after speaking and voting against the government on a debate about a recent subsidy treaty with Russia which they believed was unnecessarily costly, would drag Britain into Continental European disputes. Opposition to European entanglements was a cornerstone of Patriot Whig thinking, he and Pitt joined the opposition. Grenville and Pitt both championed the formation of a British militia to provide additional security rather than the deployment of Hessian mercenaries favoured by the government.
As the military situation deteriorated following the loss of Minorca, the government grew weak until it was forced to resign in Autumn 1756. Pitt formed a government led by the Duke of Devonshire. Grenville was returned to his position as Treasurer of the Navy, a great disappointment as he had been expecting to receive the more prestigious and lucrative post of Paymaster of the Forces; this added to what Grenville regarded as a series of earlier slights in which Pitt and others had passed him over for positions in favour of men he considered no more talented than he was. From on Grenville felt a growing resentment towards Pitt, grew closer to the young Prince of Wales and his advisor Lord Bute who were both now opposed to Pitt. In 1758, as Treasurer of the Navy, he introduced and carried a bill which established a fairer system of paying the wages of seamen and supporting their families while they were at sea, praised for its humanity if not for its effectiveness, he remained in office during the years of British victories, notably the Annus Mirabilis of 1759 for which the credit went to the government of which he was a member.
However his seven-year-old son died after a long illness and Grenville remained by his side at their country house in Wotton and came to London. In 1761, when Pitt resigned upon the question of the war with Spain, subsequently functioned as Leader of the House of Commons in the administration of Lord Bute. Grenville's role was seen as an attempt to keep someone associated with Pitt involved in the government, in order to prevent Pitt and his supporters opposing the government. However, it soon led to conflict between Pitt. Grenville was seen as a suitable candidate because his reputation for honesty meant he commanded loyalty and respect amongst independent MPs. In May 1762, Grenville was appointed Northern Secretary, where he took an hard line in the negotiations with France and Spain designed to bring the Seven Years' War to a close. Grenville demanded much greater compensation in exchange for the return of British conquests, while Bute favored a more generous position which formed the basis of the Treaty of Paris.
In spite of this, Grenville had now become associated with Bute rather than his former political allies who were
The Queen-in-Parliament, sometimes referred to as the Crown-in-Parliament or, more in the United Kingdom, as the King or Queen in Parliament under God, is a technical term of constitutional law in the Commonwealth realms that refers to the Crown in its legislative role, acting with the advice and consent of the parliament. Bills passed by the houses are sent to the sovereign, or governor-general, lieutenant-governor, or governor as her representative, for Royal Assent, once granted, makes the bill into law. An act may provide for secondary legislation, which can be made by the Crown, subject to the simple approval, or the lack of disapproval, of parliament. Several countries, although having received their independence from the United Kingdom, operate under a system of President-in-Parliament, which formally designates the President as a component of Parliament alongside the House or two Houses; the concept of the Crown as a part of parliament is related to the idea of the fusion of powers, meaning that the executive branch and legislative branch of government are fused together.
This is a key concept of the Westminster system of government, developed in England and used across the Commonwealth and beyond. It is in contradistinction to the idea of the separation of powers; the specific language of "the Crown", "the King", or "the Queen" in parliament used in the Commonwealth realms alludes to the constitutional theory that ultimate authority or sovereignty rests with the monarch, but is delegated to elected and/or appointed officials. In federal realms of the Commonwealth, the concept of the Crown-in-the-legislature only applies to those units which are considered separate divisions of the monarchy, sovereign within their own sphere, such as Australian states or the Canadian provinces; the legislature of a territory does not receive its authority directly from the monarch, being instead delegated by the federal parliament. With city councils and other local governments in the Commonwealth, the idea of the Crown-in-council is not used, as the authority of local governments is derived from a charter or act that can be unilaterally amended by a higher level of government.
Because of the sovereign's place in the enactment of laws, the enacting clause of acts of Parliament may mention him or her, as well as the other one or two bodies of parliament. For example, British acts of parliament will start with: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, by the authority of the same, as follows..." The phrasing, however, is different when the bill is passed under the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, without the consent of the House of Lords. Canadian acts of Parliament contain the following enacting clause: "NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..." Because the Queen remains a part of parliament, the enacting clause does not need to explicitly mention her, as in realms such as Australia and Tuvalu, where the clause is "The Parliament of Australia enacts" and "ENACTED by the Parliament of Tuvalu...", respectively.
This may represent a distinction between whether parliament or the Queen is the primary legislator, however. The Canadian province of Quebec does not use a Westminster-style enacting clause. Provincial statutes instead use the clause: "The Parliament of Québec enacts as follows." The Scottish Parliament follows a different approach. Although its acts require Royal Assent, the Scottish Parliament's authority is delegated from the United Kingdom Parliament, there is no directly equivalent concept of "Queen-in- Parliament". Instead of the enacting clause seen in UK acts, acts of the Scottish Parliament bear the following text above the long title: "The Bill for this Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed by the Parliament on and received Royal Assent on"
No taxation without representation
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized one of 27 colonial grievances of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, one of the major causes of the American Revolution. In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, were a denial of their rights as Englishmen; the firm belief that a government should not tax a populace unless that populace is somehow represented in the government developed in the English Civil War following the refusal of parliamentarian John Hampden to pay ship money tax. "No taxation without representation," in the context of British American Colonial taxation, appeared for the first time in the February 1768 London Magazine headline, on page 89, in the printing of Lord Camden's "Speech on the Declaratory Bill of the Sovereignty of Great Britain over the Colonies."
The English Parliament had controlled colonial trade and taxed imports and exports since 1660. By the 1760s, the Americans were being deprived of a historic right; the English Bill of Rights 1689 had forbidden the imposition of taxes without the consent of Parliament. Since the colonists had no representation in Parliament, the taxes violated the guaranteed Rights of Englishmen. Parliament contended that the colonists had virtual representation, but the idea "found little support on either side of the Atlantic"; the person who first suggested the idea appears to have been Oldmixon, an American annalist of the era of Queen Anne or George I. It was afterwards put forward with approbation by Adam Smith, advocated for a time, but afterwards rejected and opposed, by Benjamin Franklin."The eloquent 1768 Petition and Remonstrance objecting to taxation, written by the Virginia House of Burgesses and endorsed by every other Colony, was sent to the British Government, which seems to have ignored it. The phrase had been used for more than a generation in Ireland.
By 1765, the term was in use in Boston, local politician James Otis was most famously associated with the phrase, "taxation without representation is tyranny." In the course of the Revolutionary era, many arguments were pursued that sought to resolve the dispute surrounding Parliamentary sovereignty, self-governance and representation. In the course of the 1760s and 1770s, William Pitt the Elder, Sir William Pulteney, George Grenville, amongst other prominent Britons and colonial Americans, such as Joseph Galloway, James Otis Jr. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, the London Quaker Thomas Crowley, Royal Governors such as Thomas Pownall M. P. William Franklin, Sir Francis Bernard, the Attorney-General of Quebec, Francis Maseres and circulated plans for the creation of colonial seats in London, imperial union with Great Britain, or a federally representative British Parliament with powers of taxation, to consist of American, West Indian and British Members of Parliament. Despite the fact that these ideas were considered and discussed on both sides of the Atlantic, it appears that neither the American Congress, nor the colonial Assemblies, nor the British Government in Westminster, at least prior to the Carlisle Peace Commission of 1778 proposed such constitutional developments.
It must be noted, that Governor Thomas Hutchinson referred to a colonial representational proposal when he wrote that, The Assembly of Massachusetts Bay... was the first which took exception to the right of Parliament to impose Duties or Taxes on the Colonies, whilst they had no representatives in the House of Commons. This they did in a letter to their Agent in the summer of 1764... And in this letter they recommend to him a pamphlet, wrote by one of their members, in which there are proposals for admitting representatives from the Colonies to fit in the House of Commons... an American representation is thrown out as an expedient which might obviate the objections to Taxes upon the Colonies, yet... it was renounced... by the Assembly of the Colony which first proposed it, as utterly impracticable. Jared Ingersoll Snr. colonial agent for Connecticut, wrote to his American colleague, the Royal Governor of Connecticut Thomas Fitch, that following Isaac Barre's famous Parliamentary speech against the Stamp Act in 1764, Richard Jackson, M.
P. supported Barre and other pro-American M. P.s by producing before the House copies of earlier Acts of Parliament that had admitted Durham and Chester seats upon their petitions for representation. The argument was put forward in Parliament that America ought to have representatives on these grounds too. Richard Jackson supposed that Parliament had a right to tax America, but he much doubted the expediency of the Stamp act, he said if it was necessary, as ministers claimed, to tax the colonies, the latter should be permitted to elect some part of the Parliament, "otherwise the liberties of America, I do not say will be lost, but will be in danger." William Knox, an aide of George Grenville and subsequent Irish Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, received an appointment in 1756 to the American provinces, after his return to London in 1761, he recommended the creation of a colonial aristocracy and colonial representation in the British Parliament. He was shortly afterwards appointed agent for Georgia and East Florida, a post which he forfeited by writing in favour of the Stamp Act.
In his Grenville-backed pamphlet of 1769, The Controversy between Great Britain and her Colonies Reviewed, Knox suggested that colonial representatives might have been offered seats in the B