Visconti of Milan

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Coat of arms of the House of Visconti (1395).svg
Coat of arms of the Visconti of Milan
Founded1075 (1075)
FounderAriprando Visconti
Final rulerFilippo Maria Visconti
TitlesLord of Milan (1277–1395)
Duke of Milan (1395–1447)
MottoVipereos mores non violabo
(Latin for "I will not violate the customs of the serpent")
Cadet branchesVisconti di Modrone

Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. The Visconti of Milan rose to power in their city, where they ruled from 1277 to 1447, initially as Lords then as Dukes and where several collateral branches still exist. The effective founder of the Visconti lordship of Milan was Ottone, who wrested control of the city from the rival Della Torre family in 1277.[1]

Depiction of the biscione swallowing the hero Rentwin, the coat of arms of the House of Visconti, on the Archbishop's palace in Piazza Duomo in Milan, Italy


In the second half of the 11th century, Ariprando Visconti and his son Ottone were the first family members to obtain the title of viscount, which then became hereditary throughout the male descent.[2][3] The primary sources show the first evidence of "Ariprandus et Otto Vicecomes" in 1075. In the following years, Ottone is shown in the proximity of the sovereigns of the Salian dynasty, Henry IV and his son Conrad. This relationship is confirmed by the circumstances of his death, which occurred in Rome in 1111, when he was slaughtered after an attempt to defend Henry V from an assault.[a][b][4] In the first documents where they appear, Ottone and his offspring declared to follow the Lombard law and acted in connection with other Milanese families of the noble upper class (capitanei). A relationship with the Litta, a Milanese vavasour family subordinate to the Visconti in the feudal hierarchy, is also documented.[5] These circumstances make evident their participation to the Milanese society in the years before 1075 and ultimately their Lombard origin.

In 1134, Guido Visconti, son of Ottone, received from the abbot of St. Gallen the investiture of the court of Massino, a strategic location on the hills above Lake Maggiore, near Arona,[6] where another family member was present in the second half of the 12th century as a guardian of the local archiepiscopal fortress. In 1142, the investiture was confirmed by the King Conrad III, in a diploma released to Guido in Ulm.[7] Another royal diploma, issued by Conrad III in 1142 as well, attests the entitlement of the Visconti to the fodrum in Albusciago and Besnate.[8] On the basis of a document from the year 1157, the Visconti were considered holders of the captaincy of Marliano (today Mariano Comense) since the time of the archbishop Landulf;[9] however, the available documentation cannot infer such conclusion.[10]

A second Ottone, son of Guido, is attested in the documentary sources between the years 1134 and 1192. The primary role of Ottone in the political life of the Milanese commune emerges in the period of the confrontation with Frederick Barbarossa: his name is the first to be cited, March 1, 1162, in the group of Milanese leaders surrendering to the emperor after the capitulation of the city that took place in the previous weeks.[11][12] A member of the following generation, Ariprando was bishop of Vercelli between 1208 and 1213, when he played also the role of Papal legate for Innocent III. An attempt to have him elected archbishop of Milan failed in 1212 amidst growing tensions between opposite factions inside the city. His death, in 1213, was probably caused by poisoning.[13]

March 1st 1162, Ottone Visconti is the first Milanese appearing in the list of authorities surrendering to the Barbarossa after the capitulation of the city (19th century engraving)

The family dispersed into several branches, some of which were entrusted fiefs far off from the Lombard metropolis; the one which gave the Medieval lords of Milan is said to be descended from Uberto, who died in the first half of 13th century. The members of the other branches added frequently to their surname the name of the place where they chose to live and where a castle was available for their residence. The first of such cases were the Visconti of Massino, the Visconti of Invorio and the Visconti of Oleggio Castello.[14] In these localities the castle (Massino), its remains (Invorio) or a later reconstruction of the initial building (Oleggio Castello) are still today visible.

Lords and Dukes of Milan[edit]

The Visconti ruled Milan until the early Renaissance, first as Lords, then, from 1395, with the mighty Gian Galeazzo who endeavored to unify Northern Italy and Tuscany, as Dukes. Visconti rule in Milan ended with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447. He was succeeded by a short-lived republic and then by his son-in-law Francesco I Sforza, who established the reign of the House of Sforza.[15][16]

Rise to the lordship[edit]

With the death of Frederick II in 1250 and the ceasing of the war of the Lombard League against him, which itself was a reason for the Milanese commune to be united in its defence, a period of conflicts between rivaling factions began inside the city. The Della Torre family progressively acquired power in Milan after 1240, when Pagano Della Torre assumed the leadership of the Credenza di Sant'Ambrogio, a political party with a popular base. This allowed them to have a role in the tax collection of the commune (estimo), which was essential to finance the war against Frederick II while affecting the great landowners. In 1247 Pagano was succeeded by his nephew Martino Della Torre. To underline the preeminence of his position, the new role of Senior of the Credenza (Anziano della Credenza) was created. In this position the Della Torre began to be confronted with the Milanese noble families organized in their own political party, the Societas Capitaneorum et Valvassorum, having the Visconti among the most prominent figures. After a period of unrest between the opposite parties, in 1258 the so called Sant'Ambrogio Peace was signed among the parties, strengthening the position of La Credenza and La Motta (a second political party with popular tendencies).[17][18]

The peace was undermined by new events in favour of the Della Torre. At the end of 1259, Oberto Pallavicino, a former partisan of Frederick II who got closer to the Guelph positions of the Della Torre, was appointed by the Milanese commune for five years in the role of General Captain of the People. Pallavicino's position in Milan was greatly enhanced by the victory he obtained in the Battle of Cassano on 16 September 1259, against Ezzelino da Romano, formerly his ally on the Ghibelline side in the war against Milan, the Lombard League and the Papacy. In Ezzelino the noble expelled from Milan during the clashes preceding the Sant'Ambrogio Peace placed their hopes to get back in the city to their old power. In 1264, when Pallavicino left his office (preparing another change of alliance), Martino Della Torre remained the sole ruler of Milan and de facto its Lord.[19][18][20]

A decisive event in the confrontation between the Della Torre and the Visconti factions was the appointment of Ottone Visconti to archbishop of Milan in 1262. Ottone was preferred by Pope Urban IV to Raimondo, another candidate member of the Della Torre family. Prevented from assuming his office and forced by the opposite faction to remain outside the city, Ottone tried to settle in Arona, at the border of the Milanese archdiocese. At the end of 1263, Della Torre forces with the support of Oberto Pallavicino dislodged him from Arona. Ottone sought refuge in central Italy near the pope. The Della Torre party under the guidance of Filippo Della Torre, brother of Martino and his successor after 1263, took advantage also of the favour of Charles of Anjou. Milan forged an alliance with him and with other northern Italian cities (Lega Guelfa) to fight the Hohenstaufen rule in southern Italy. Francesco Della Torre led the Milanese expedition in southern Italy, which ended in 1266 with the allied victory against Manfred of Sicily in the Battle of Benevento. Charles of Anjou became the new King of Sicily, having also an indirect rule (exercised through the Della Torre) on Milan.[21]

Trying to take advantage from the favourable moment, in 1266 the Della Torre made an attempt to advocate their cause against the Visconti in a concistory held by Pope Clement IV in Viterbo and attended by the archbishop Ottone. Despite the presence of a delegate of Charles of Anjou the decision of the pope was in favour of Ottone. An attempt was then made by the Pope to appease the Milanese factions by means of an oath of allegiance demanded to the Milanese population. Part of it was the acceptance of Ottone as archbishop. The events however were changed again by new circumstances in favour of the Della Torre. At the end of 1266 in Germany was taken the decision to support Conradin, the last member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in an attempt to recovery the domains in southern Italy lost after the defeat of Benevento and the death of Manfred of Sicily. This reinstated again the Della Torre in their position of leaders of the Lega Guelfa. Moreover, in 1268, Clement IV died, initiating a period of papal vacancy that left without practical consequences the dispositions in favour of Ottone.[22]

After the definitive end of the Hohenstaufen threat (Conradin was defeated and executed in Naples in 1268), the confrontation between the two Milanese factions assumed more and more a military connotation. A leading figure on the Visconti side was Simone Orelli da Locarno, whose military ability became legendary during the wars against Fredrick II. Notwithstanding this, being in favour of the Visconti, he was arrested in 1263 and jailed in Milan. In 1276 he was freed in the context of a compromise between the two factions about Como and after his promise of not acting against the Della Torre. He joined altogether the Visconti army assuming the role of General Captain. The Visconti forces took progressively advantage in the area of Lake Maggiore. In 1276 Tebaldo Visconti, nephew of Ottone, was captured with other leading figures of the Visconti forces. Brought to Gallarate, they were executed by beheading. The Visconti eventually defeated the Della Torre army in the decisive Battle of Desio on 27 January 1277, opening the way for Ottone to enter in Milan.[20] Napoleone, son of Pagano, was arrested with other Della Torre family members. He died in jail few months later. These events are generally considered to mark the foundation of the Visconti lordship on Milan.[23]

January 21st 1277, after the victory obtained against the Della Torre in Desio, the archbishop Ottone Visconti enters in Milan (14th century fresco in the Rocca Borromeo di Angera)

Ottone initially granted power in Milan to Simone Orelli, appointing him Captain of the People. In 1287, he transferred this role to his grandnephew Matteo Visconti (the son of Tebaldo executed in 1277), who one year later obtained also the title of Imperial vicar from the emperor Rudolf of Habsburg. Ottone died in 1295, leaving Matteo Lord of Milan. In 1302, the Della Torre took again the power, forcing Matteo to leave the city. After an intervention of Henry VII, appeasing the dispute between the two families, the lordship of the Visconti on Milan was definitely restored in 1311.[24][18][20]

Rulers and their families[edit]

Matteo, Galeazzo, Azzone, Luchino and Giovanni (1311-1354)[edit]

The reconciliation agreement with the Della Torre, reached in the December 1310 on the initiative of Henry VII, was attended by Matteo, his brother Uberto and their cousin Ludovico, also known as Lodrisio.[25] In the following years Matteo acted alone as Lord of Milan and after him the authority on the city and on a growing territory in northern and central Italy was assumed by seven members of his offspring along four generations. Matteo ruled for about eleven years, providing to his family the legal basis for the hereditary lordship on Milan and extending the territory under Milanese influence against the traditional opponents of the Visconti: the Della Torre and Anjou dynasties allied with the Papacy. After being accused of necromancy and heresy, he was excommunicated by the Church. In 1331, looking for a reconciliation, he transferred the power to his eldest son Galeazzo and left Milan for the Augustinian monastery of Crescenzago, where he died in 1323.[26]

After Matteo's death, Galeazzo associated his brothers Marco, Luchino, Stefano, and Giovanni (a cleric) in the controls of the inherited domains. He died five years later, succeeded by his son Azzone, who ruled between 1329 and 1339. Stefano, married to Valentina Doria from Genoa, died in 1327 under unclear circumstances. He left three children: Matteo (Matteo II), Bernabò and Galeazzo (Galeazzo II). Marco felt in disgrace and was killed by hitmen in 1329. The deaths of two brothers restricted the future successions to Luchino, Giovanni (since 1342 archbishop of Milan) and the three sons of Stefano.[27]

During Azzone's rule, Lodrisio (the cousin of Matteo who in 1310 attended the reconciliation with the Della Torre) raised against him trying to revert the line of succession in favour of his own family. He obtained the support of the Della Scala family of Verona, but in 1339, in the Battle of Parabiago, he was defeated by an army led by Azzone and backed by his uncles Luchino and Giovanni. When Azzone died, in 1339, the young age of his sons motivated the transfer of the power to his uncle Luchino, who ruled until his death in 1349. During this period the three sons of Stefano were suspected of a conspiracy against him. The archbishop Giovanni sent them away from Milan, saving them from the possible violent reaction of Luchino.[28]

Under Giovanni the territorial expansion continued (to Genoa and Bologna) as a result of his diplomacy. Part of his initiatives were the marriages of the sons of Stefano to members of the nearby noble dynasties of northern Italy: in 1340 Matteo II to Egidiola Gonzaga, in 1350 Bernabò to Regina Della Scala and Galeazzo II to Bianca of Savoy.[29][30] In 1353 Petrarch accepted an invitation of Giovanni and moved to Milan, where he lived until 1361. He took part to the diplomatic initiatives of the Visconti, providing in his letters first-hand accounts of his life in Milan and of Visconti family events.[31]

Petrarch lived in Milan from 1353 to 1361 providing in his letters first-hand accounts from the Visconti court (portrait by Altichiero da Verona)

Joint lordship of Matteo II, Bernabò and Galeazzo II (1354-1385)[edit]

On 5 October 1354 the archbishop Giovanni died. In his honour, few days after, Petrach held a commemorative oration. In the same month the three sons of Stefano agreed to share the power, dividing the Visconti domains according to geographic criteria. Matteo II died the following year and his territory was divided between Bernabò and Galeazzo II. The two brothers settled their courts separately: Bernabò in Milan, Galeazzo II in Pavia.[32][33] Through the marriages of their sons and daughters, Bernabò and Galeazzo II extended the Visconti relationships to a number of other European noble dynasties.

In 1360 Gian Galeazzo, the eldest son of Galeazzo II, married Isabelle of Valois, daughter of King John II of France. The marriage was the result of negotiation participated also by Petrarch with a journey to Paris[31] and leading the Visconti to contribute with 600,000 francs to the ransom paid by France to England to obtain the freedom of the King in an episode of the Hundred Years' War.[34][35] Violante, the eldest daughter of Galeazzo II, married in 1368 Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence, third son of King Edward III of England. After her husband's death, only few months after the marriage, in 1377 Violante married Secondotto, Marquess of Montferrat. Remained again widow, in 1381 she married her cousin Lodovico, one of the sons of Bernabò.[36][37]

Bernabò and his wife Regina Della Scala had 15 children. Nine daughters (Taddea, Viridis, Valentina, Agnese, Antonia, Maddalena, Anglesia, Lucia, Elisabetta) married scions of other European dynasties, connecting the Visconti to the houses of Wittelsbach (Taddea, Maddalena, Elisabetta), Habsburg (Viridis), Poitiers-Lusignan (Valentina, Anglesia), Württemberg (Antonia), Gonzaga (Agnese), Kent (Lucia). Their sons Marco and Carlo married respectively Elisabeth of Bavaria and Beatrice of Armagnac. Caterina, another daughter of Bernabò, married in 1380 her cousin Gian Galeazzo, widow of Isabelle of Valois, who died in 1373 in Pavia while giving birth to her fourth child.[38]

When Galeazzo II died in 1378, his son Gian Galeazzo was the only heir of his half of the Visconti territories. Bernabò, being 28 years older than his nephew, tended to assume a leading role towards him. The two Visconti had different personalities and ruling styles: instinctive, bad tempered and establisher of a terror regime Bernabò; circumspect and relatively mild to his subjects Gian Galeazzo. In the following years the relationship between the two Visconti progressively deteriorated.[39][40]

Few months after the death of his wife and counselor, Bernabò was deposed by his nephew in a coup, probably prepared for years and kept secret. On 5 May 1385, accompanied by his generals (Jacopo dal Verme, Antonio Porro and Guglielmo Bevilacqua) and with an heavy armed escort, Gian Galeazzo moved from Pavia for an apparent pilgrimage journey to Santa Maria del Monte di Velate near Varese. The following day, passing by Milan, he arranged to meet Bernabò for what was expected to be a familiar greeting. Bernabò, unprotected, was intercepted and arrested. The coup led also to the arrest of two sons of Bernabò, who were accompanying him.

May 6th 1385, Bernabò Visconti is arrested by the men of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Visconti (19th century engrave)

The people living in the domains of Bernabò, firstly the Milanese, promptly submitted to Gian Galeazzo, an attitude widely attributed to their desire to abandon the ruthless regime under which they had been living. Incarcerated in his own castle at Trezzo sull'Adda, Bernabò died few months later after being submitted a poisoned meal.[41][42]

Gian Galeazzo, sole ruler and Duke of Milan (1385-1402)[edit]

The death of Bernabò left Gian Galeazzo the sole ruler of the Visconti territories. The sons of Bernabò arrested with him (Ludovico and Rodolfo) spent the rest of their life in jail; the three still free (Marco, Carlo and Mastino) lived far from Milan and never posed a threat to Gian Galeazzo. Only the Della Scala in Verona, the family of their mother, continued to support them, but they ended their life in exile, in Bavaria and in Venice, after having reached some agreement with their cousin. The younger and unmarried daughters of Bernabò (Anglesia, Lucia, Elisabetta) continued their life in Pavia under the care of their sister Caterina, the second wife of Gian Galeazzo, until their wedding.[43][44]

For his court, Gian Galeazzo preferred Pavia to Milan. There he continued to develop the renowned library of the castle and to support the local university. The relationship between Gian Galeazzo and the French royal family, interrupted by the death of his first wife Isabelle, was revived by their daughter Valentina, who married in 1389 Louis I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Charles VI, King of France. The three sons of Gian Galeazzo and Isabelle died before reaching adulthood.[45][46]

Gian Galeazzo and Caterina had two sons: Giovanni Maria in 1388 and Filippo Maria in 1392. In 1395 Gian Galeazzo obtained from the Emperor Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, for the price of 100,000 florins, the title of Duke of Milan. During the years of his rule, the Visconti domains reached the greatest territorial extension in northern and central Italy. Of all the domains of the previous years only Genoa, ruled by the archbishop Giovanni, remained excluded. After a short disease, the plague or the gout, Gian Galeazzo died on 3 September 1402.[47][48]

Giovanni Maria and Filippo Maria (1402-1447)[edit]

The difficulties posed to the Visconti court by the unexpected death of Gian Galeazzo is revealed by the secrecy under which the news of his end was kept. The funeral was held a couple of months after his death. The two sons, being only 12 and 10 years old, remained under the care of their mother Caterina. A Council of Regency with a leading role of Facino Cane, one of the generals of Gian Galeazzo, was set up, but contrasts soon emerged inside it. In 1404 Giovanni Maria formally assumed power. Ruling under the influence of Facino Cane, he forced his mother to leave Milan for Monza. There, she ended in the hands of two of the illegitimate sons of Bernabò, who probably caused her death.[49][50]

With Giovanni Maria a period of political crisis began. The policy of Facino Cane, who for himself obtained the title of Count of Biandrate, favoured the local powers and led to the fragmentation of the territorial unity. Peripheral regions were lost to nearby powers. This situation ended in 1412 with the death of Facino Cane. Few months later a conspiracy against Giovanni Maria ended his reign and life. In the same year, his brother Filippo Maria married the widow of Facino Cane, the 42-year-old Beatrice of Tenda, taking advantage of a testamentary disposition in favour of any Visconti that would have married her. The marriage ended with the accusation of adultery to Beatrice, her incarceration and the sentence to death, carried out in the Binasco castle in 1418.[51]

In 1428 Filippo Maria secondly married Mary of Savoy, but they never had sons. In 1425 his mistress Agnese Del Maino gave birth to an illegitimate daughter, Bianca Maria. Considered by his father his only heir, she grew up with her mother in the Abbiategrasso and Cusago castles.[52] In 1432 Bianca Maria was betrothed to Francesco Sforza, a condottiero of Filippo Maria. In 1441 she married him, granting him the succession of the Duchy of Milan. A sign of their marriage is visible today in the twin churches of Santa Maria Incoronata in Milan.[53]

The twin façades of Santa Maria Incoronata in Milan reveals the addition of a second church, erected by Bianca Maria Visconti as a sign of the indissolubility of her marriage to Francesco Sforza, builder of the original church

The heirs of Bianca Maria and Valentina, dukes of Milan (1450-1535)[edit]

After the death of Filippo Maria in 1447 and the short-lived Ambrosian Republic, in 1450 Francesco Sforza became the new Duke of Milan. Bianca Maria and her husband initiated a new dynasty that ruled Milan discontinuously until 1535.[54]

When Louis XII of France entered Milan in 1499 after the First Italian War, he leveraged on a clause of the marriage contract of his grandmother Valentina, the daughter of Gian Galeazzo, and assumed the title of Duke of Milan. After his death and the short rule of Maximilian Sforza (1512-1515), the Duchy was inherited by his son Francis I. After France was defeated by an Imperial-Spanish army in the Battle of Pavia in 1525, the rule on Milan was assumed again by a Sforza, Francesco II. His death and a new war led the Duchy of Milan in the hands of Philip II of Spain, bringing to an end the line of succession initiated by Ottone and Matteo Visconti.

Visconti rulers of Milan[15][edit]

Visconti's Lordship, 14th century

Family tree[edit]

Uberto Visconti
*? †1248
*? †?
*? †?
*1207 †1295
*? †?
*1230 †1276
Matteo I il Magno[f]
*1250 †1322
Uberto il Pico
*1280? †1315
*1277 †1328
*? †1329
*1287 †1349
*1288 †1327
*1290 †1354
*? †?
*1302 †1339
*? †1399
Matteo II[l]
*1319 †1355
Galeazzo II[m]
*1320? †1378
*1323 †1385
*? †?
Line of Visconti
of Modrone
Gian Galeazzo[p]
*1351 †1402
Giovanni Maria[q]
*1388 †1412
Filippo Maria[r]
*1392 †1447
Bianca Maria[s]
*1425 †1468
Francesco Sforza
*1401 †1466
House of Sforza

Visconti di Modrone[edit]

Coat of arms of Visconti di Modrone

From Uberto Visconti (c. 1280–1315), brother of Matteo I Visconti, came the lateral branch of Dukes of Modrone. To this family belonged Luchino Visconti di Modrone, one of the most prominent film directors of Italian neorealist cinema.

Some members of this branch were:

Other members[edit]


  1. ^ Landulfi de Sancto Paolo Historia Mediolanensis, p. 31, rr. 33-35: "Otto autem Mediolanensis vicecomes cum multis pugnatoribus eiusdem regis in ipsa strage coruit in mortem, amarissimam hominibus diligentibus civitatem Mediolanensium et ecclesiam."
  2. ^ Leonis Marsicani et Petri Diaconi Chronica Monasterii Casinensis, p. 780, rr. 37-40: "Hoc ubi Otto comes Mediolanensis perspexit, pro imperatore se ad mortem obiciens, equum suum contradidit; nec mora, a Romanis captus, et in Urbem inductus, minutatim concisus est, eiusque carnes in platea canibus devorandae relictae."
  3. ^ Bishop of Ventimiglia (1251 - 1262).
  4. ^ Archbishop of Milan (1262), lord of Milan (1277-78) and (1282-85).
  5. ^ Console di giustizia in Milan (1236)).
  6. ^ Capitano del popolo of Milan (1287-1298), lord of Milan (1287-1302) e (1311-1322).
  7. ^ Lord of Milan (1322-1327).
  8. ^ Lord of Milan (1339-1349).
  9. ^ Archbishop of Milan (1339), lord of Milan (1339-1354), lord of Bologna and Genoa (1331-1354).
  10. ^ Podestà of Vercelli (1317) and Novara (1318-1320). Line of the Visconti di Modrone (marquesses of Vimodrone 1694, later Dukes of Vimodrone 1813) whose members include the film directors Luchino Visconti and Eriprando Visconti.
  11. ^ Lord of Milan (1329-1339).
  12. ^ Lord of Milan (1354-1355).
  13. ^ Lord of Milan (1354-1378).
  14. ^ Lord of Milan (1354-1385).
  15. ^ Presumed. Lord of Bologna (1355-1360).
  16. ^ Lord of Milan (1378-1395) and Duke of Milan (1395-1402).
  17. ^ Duke of Milan (1402-1412).
  18. ^ Duke of Milan (1412-1447).
  19. ^ Illegitimate, by Agnese del Maino; in 1441 married to Francesco I Sforza, later duke of Milan.


  1. ^ a b Tolfo, Maria Grazia; Colussi, Paolo (February 7, 2006). "Storia di Milano: I Visconti" [History of Milan: The Visconti]. Storia di Milano (in Italian). Milano. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
  2. ^ Biscaro (1911), p. 20-24
  3. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 33-42
  4. ^ Filippini (2014), pp. 44-45, 83
  5. ^ Keller, Hagen (1979). Adelsherrschaft und städtische Gesellschaft in Oberitalien: 9. bis 12. Jahrhundert. Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom (in German). 52. p. 207.
  6. ^ Conradi III. et filii eius Heinrici Diplomata, doc. 21
  7. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 58-65
  8. ^ Conradi III. et filii eius Heinrici Diplomata, doc. 20
  9. ^ Biscaro (1911), p. 28
  10. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 73-74
  11. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 100-101
  12. ^ Das Geschichtswerk des Otto Morena und seiner Fortsetzer über die Taten Friedrichs I. in der Lombardei, p. 152
  13. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 105-113
  14. ^ Filippini (2014), p. 62-63
  15. ^ a b c Hale, John Rigby (1981). A concise encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 338–341, 352. OCLC 636355191.
  16. ^ a b Williams, George L. (1998). "Two: The Papal Families at the Close of the Middle Ages, 1200-1471". Papal genealogy: The families and descendants of the popes. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. pp. 33–35. ISBN 978-0-7864-0315-8. OCLC 301275208. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
  17. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 33-45
  18. ^ a b c Menant, François (2005). L’Italie des communes (1100-1350) (in French). Édition Belin. pp. 67, 111–112, 117–118.
  19. ^ Cognasso (2016), p. 45-51
  20. ^ a b c Jones, Philip (2004). The Italian City-State. From Commune to Signoria. Oxford University Press. pp. 520–521, 603, 619.
  21. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 56-62
  22. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 64-67
  23. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 67-71
  24. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 87-100, 109-124
  25. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 109-114
  26. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 125-131, 142-146, 152
  27. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 152-154, 163-164, 173-174
  28. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 189-190, 191-192, 207-210
  29. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 208, 210-213
  30. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 6-7
  31. ^ a b Wilkins, Ernest Hatch (1958). Petrarch’s eight years in Milan. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  32. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 208, 235-236, 240
  33. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 8-9
  34. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 208, 255-256
  35. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 10
  36. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 256, 263
  37. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 12-13
  38. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 292-293, 283-284, 333-334
  39. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 284-285
  40. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 13-14
  41. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 289-302
  42. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 31-34
  43. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 333-334, 338
  44. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 144, 171
  45. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 325-326, 368-371
  46. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 63-68, 79-80, 105
  47. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 3119-323, 379-380
  48. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 173-175, 297-298
  49. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 3882-395
  50. ^ Bueno de Mesquita (1941), p. 298-301
  51. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 397-414, 415-416
  52. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 452-453, 457
  53. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 457, 484-486
  54. ^ Cognasso (2014), p. 528-540, 541-547
  55. ^ Visconti, Alessandro (1952). Storia di Milano (in Italian) (2 ed.). p. 275.
  56. ^ "Violante Visconti di Modrone -". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  57. ^ "The Story Behind the Italian Villa in Call Me By Your Name - Architectural Digest". Retrieved 4 April 2018.

Primary sources[edit]

  • Conradi III. et filii eius Heinrici Diplomata, edited by Friedrich Hausmann. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata regum et imperatorum Germaniae (in German). 9. Vienna, Cologne, Graz: MGH. 1969.
  • Landulfi de Sancto Paolo Historia Mediolanensis, edited by Ludwig Bethmann and Philipp Jaffé. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores (in folio) (in Latin). 20. Hannover: MGH. 1868. pp. 17–49.
  • Leonis Marsicani et Petri Diaconi Chronica Monasterii Casinensis, edited by Wilhelm Wattenbach. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores (in folio) (in Latin). 7. Hannover: MGH. 1846. pp. 727–844.
  • Das Geschichtswerk des Otto Morena und seiner Fortsetzer über die Taten Friedrichs I. in der Lombardei, edited by Ferdinand Güterbock. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum, Nova series (SS rer. Germ. N.S.) (in German). 7. Berlin: MGH. 1930.

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Biscaro, Gerolamo (1911), "I maggiori dei Visconti, signori di Milano", Archivio Storico Lombardo, serie 4 (in Italian), 16: 5–76
  • Bueno de Mesquita, Daniel Meredith (1941). Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1351–1402): A Study in the Political Career of an Italian Despot. Cambridge at the University Press. ISBN 0521234557.
  • Cognasso, Francesco (2014). I Visconti. Storia di una famiglia (in Italian) (2 ed.). Odaya. ISBN 9788862883061.
  • Filippini, Ambrogio (2014). I Visconti di Milano nei secoli XI e XII. Indagini tra le fonti (in Italian). Tangram Edizioni Scientifiche. ISBN 9788864580968.