Visconti of Milan

The Visconti of Milan rose to power in Milan during the Middle Ages. They ruled there from 1277 to 1447 as lords as dukes, several collateral branches still exist; the effective founder of the Visconti lordship of Milan was the archbishop Ottone, who wrested control of the city from the rival Della Torre family in 1277. The earliest members of the Visconti lineage appeared in Milan in the second half of the 11th century; the first evidence is on 5 October 1075, when "Ariprandus Vicecomes" and "Otto Vicecomes filius Ariprandi" attended and signed together some legal documents in Milan. The family of Ariprando Visconti and his son Ottone is believed to have pre-existed in Milan and to have obtained the title of viscount, which became hereditary throughout the male descent. In the years following 1075, Ottone Visconti is shown in the proximity of the sovereigns of the Salian dynasty, Henry IV and his son Conrad; this relationship is confirmed by the circumstances of his death, which occurred in Rome in 1111, when he was slaughtered after an attempt to defend Henry V from an assault.

In the first documents where they appear and his offspring declared that they abided by the Lombard law and acted in connection with other Milanese families of the noble upper class. A relationship with the Litta, a Milanese vavasour family subordinate to the Visconti in the feudal hierarchy, is documented; these circumstances make evident their participation to the Milanese society in the years before 1075 and their Lombard origin. In 1134, Guido Visconti, son of Ottone, received from the abbot of St. Gallen the investiture of the court of Massino, a strategic location on the hills above Lake Maggiore, near Arona, where another family member was present in the second half of the 12th century as a castellan of the local archiepiscopal fortress. In 1142, the investiture was confirmed by the King Conrad III, in a diploma released to Guido in Ulm. Another royal diploma, issued by Conrad III in 1142 as well, attests the entitlement of the Visconti to the fodrum in Albusciago and Besnate. On the basis of a document from the year 1157, the Visconti were considered holders of the captaincy of Marliano since the time of the archbishop Landulf.

A second Ottone, son of Guido, is attested in the documentary sources between the years 1134 and 1192. The primary role of Ottone in the political life of the Milanese commune emerges in the period of the confrontation with Frederick Barbarossa: his name is the first to be cited, March 1, 1162, in the group of Milanese leaders surrendering to the emperor after the capitulation of the city that took place in the previous weeks. A member of the following generation, Ariprando was bishop of Vercelli between 1208 and 1213, when he played the role of Papal legate for Innocent III. An attempt to have him elected archbishop of Milan failed in 1212 amidst growing tensions between opposite factions inside the city, his death, in 1213, was caused by poisoning. The family dispersed into several branches, some of which were entrusted fiefs far off from the Lombard metropolis; the members of the other branches added to their surname the name of the place where they chose to live and where a castle was available for their residence.

The first of such cases were the Visconti of Massino, the Visconti of Invorio and the Visconti of Oleggio Castello. In these localities the castle, its remains or a reconstruction of the initial building are still today visible; the Visconti ruled Milan until the early Renaissance, first as Lords from 1395, with the mighty Gian Galeazzo who endeavored to unify Northern Italy and Tuscany, as Dukes. Visconti rule in Milan ended with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447, he was succeeded by a short-lived republic and by his son-in-law Francesco I Sforza, who established the reign of the House of Sforza. With the death of Frederick II in 1250 and the ceasing of the war of the Lombard League against him, which itself was a reason for the Milanese commune to be united in its defence, a period of conflicts between rivaling factions began inside the city; the Della Torre family progressively acquired power in Milan after 1240, when Pagano Della Torre assumed the leadership of the Credenza di Sant'Ambrogio, a political party with a popular base.

This allowed them to have a role in the tax collection of the commune, essential to finance the war against Frederick II while affecting the great landowners. In 1247 Pagano was succeeded by his nephew Martino Della Torre. To underline the preeminence of his position, the new role of Senior of the Credenza was created. In this position the Della Torre began to be confronted with the Milanese noble families organized in their own political party, the Societas Capitaneorum et Valvassorum, having the Visconti among the most prominent figures. After a period of unrest between the opposite parties, in 1258 the so-called Sant'Ambrogio Peace was signed among the parties, strengthening the position of La Credenza and La Motta; the peace was undermined by new events in favour of the Della Torre. At the end of 1259, Oberto Pallavicino, a former partisan of Frederick II who got closer to the Guelph positions of the Della Torre, was appointed by the Milanese commune for five years in the role of General Captain of the People.

Pallavicino's position in Milan was enhanced by the victory he obtained in the Battle of Cassano on 16 September 1259, against Ezzelino da Romano, former

Gondi language

Gondi is a South-Central Dravidian language, spoken by about two million Gondi people, chiefly in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and in various adjoining areas of neighbouring states. Although it is the language of the Gond people, only one fifth of Gonds can speak the language, making it vulnerable to extinction. Gondi has examples of which are marriage songs and narrations. Gondi has substantives being either masculine or nonmasculine. Gondi departed from the parent Proto-Dravidian language by developing initial voiced stops and aspirated stops. Most of the Gondi dialects described; the more important dialects are Dorla, Madiya and Raj Gond. Some basic phonologic features separate the northwestern dialects from the southeastern. One is the treatment of the original initial s, preserved in northern and western Gondi, while farther to the south and east it has been changed to h. Other dialectal variations in the Gondi language are the alteration of initial r with initial l and a change of e and o to a.

Gondi writing can be split into two categories: that using non-native scripts and that using native scripts. Traditionally, for lack of a widespread native script, Gondi has been written in Devanagari and Telugu script, which encompass the non-native scripts that have been used to write Gondi. Efforts have been undertaken to create a native script for Gondi. In 1928, Munshi Mangal Singh Masaram designed a native script based on Brahmi characters and in the same format of an Indian alphasyllabary. However, this script did not become used, most Gonds remain illiterate. According to Maharashtra Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre of India, a dozen manuscripts were found in this script. Programs to create awareness and promotion of this script among the Gondi people are in development stage. Beine, David K. 1994. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Gondi-speaking Communities of Central India. M. A. thesis. San Diego State University. 516 p. Chenevix Trench, Charles. Grammar of Gondi: As Spoken in the Betul District, Central Provinces, India.

Madras: Government Press, 1919. Hivale and Verrier Elwin. Songs of the Forest. London: G. Allen & Unwin, ltd, 1935. Moss, Clement F. An Introduction to the Grammar of the Gondi Language.: Literature Committee of the Evangelical National Missionary Society of Sweden, 1950. Pagdi, Setumadhava Rao. A Grammar of the Gondi Language. [Hyderabad-Dn: s.n, 1954. Subrahmanyam, P. S. Descriptive Grammar of Gondi Annamalainagar: Annamalai University, 1968. Parable of the prodigal son in Gondi language, Specimen of the languages of the Gond tribes Gondi–Telugu–English–Hindi Dictionary and Phrasebook Gondi–Telugu–English–Hindi-Marathi Dictionary

Bronn (character)

Bronn is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, its television adaptation Game of Thrones. Introduced in 1996's A Game of Thrones, Bronn is a low-born sellsword of great skill and cunning who comes into the service of Tyrion Lannister as his personal bodyguard and enforcer, he subsequently appeared in A Storm of Swords. Through his relationship with Tyrion, Bronn is able to attain great wealth and influence in the royal court of King's Landing. Bronn is portrayed by Jerome Flynn in the HBO television adaptation, his role was expanded from that in the novels. Bronn is sarcastic, with a pragmatic, amoral philosophy for life. However, he is neither heartless nor sadistic, he expresses sympathy to Tyrion Lannister after making the pragmatic decision not to champion him during Lannister's second trial by combat. After Tyrion asks him if he would murder an innocent baby in front of her mother without question, Bronn denies it and claims that he would ask for a price, implying that he may do the deed, but not for free and not just because he was ordered to.

Despite Bronn's avaricious nature, sneered at by more honorable knights, he is a skilled and dangerous fighter. Bronn is a background character in the novels. Since he is not a point of view character in the novels, his actions are witnessed and interpreted through the eyes of other people, such as Catelyn Stark and Tyrion Lannister. Bronn is a skilled sellsword of low birth. Debuting in A Game of Thrones, he helps Catelyn Stark escort her prisoner, Tyrion Lannister, to the Eyrie in the hope of a reward. During the journey, he befriends Tyrion and demonstrates his skill with a sword when they are attacked by members of the Mountain Clans. Bronn accepts Tyrion's offer to champion for him in a trial by combat, recognizing there is more gain in helping Tyrion, he wins the duel against Ser Vardis Egen. Bronn wears minimal armor and uses his superior skill and speed to beat him, he becomes Tyrion's personal bodyguard and accompanies him to the camp of Tywin Lannister's army, King's Landing, serving as his captain of the guard and right-hand man.

When Stannis Baratheon attacks the capital, Bronn is knighted for his defense of the city, taking up the name "Ser Bronn of the Blackwater" and taking a green burning chain as his personal sigil in commemoration of his role in the battle. In A Storm of Swords, Tyrion is accused of murdering King Joffrey Baratheon and asks Bronn to champion him in a second trial by combat, this time against the monstrous Gregor Clegane. Bronn recognizes that although he can conceivably win, the benefits aren't worth the risks, declines. Instead he takes up Cersei's offer to marry Lollys of the wealthy House Stokeworth, an unmarried woman, pregnant from being raped during a riot; when his wife gives birth, Bronn names his stepson Tyrion in dubious honor of his former employer. Cersei tells Lollys' brother-in-law Balman Byrch fearing he is in league with Tyrion. However, Bronn kills him instead. After all members of House Stokeworth ahead of his wife die under mysterious circumstances, Bronn takes control of the house and styles himself as Lord Protector of Stokeworth.

Bronn is played by the English actor and singer Jerome Flynn in the television adaption of the series of books. Bronn serves under Catelyn Stark, he aids her in arresting Tyrion Lannister and taking him to the Vale to stand trial for the murder of Jon Arryn and attempted murder of Bran Stark. During the trial, he volunteers to fight for Tyrion. Bronn defeats Lysa Arryn's champion and becomes Tyrion's companion and protector, accompanying him back to King's Landing. Bronn's service to Tyrion earns him a position as Commander of the City Watch after his predecessor is revealed to be accepting bribes; when Stannis Baratheon attacks the city by sailing up the Blackwater Bay, he shoots a fire arrow to a ship containing wild fire which destroys half of Stannis' fleet, kills several of the attackers in defence of the city. Bronn is stripped of his position after Tywin Lannister takes his seat as Hand of The King, but is knighted for his service during the defense of King's Landing, taking the name Ser Bronn of Blackwater.

He subsequently demands more gold for protecting Lord Tyrion and remains his confidante, though discord is increasing between the two. When Tyrion is forced to marry Sansa Stark, Bronn claims he desires her sexually, which Tyrion takes as a grave insult. Tyrion pays Bronn to train Jaime Lannister in fencing with his left hand, as well as get Shae out of King's Landing, which he assures was completed. Bronn implores Jaime to visit and help Tyrion after he is accused of murdering Joffrey, telling Jaime that Tyrion named him as his defender while on trial in the Vale before Bronn volunteered. Bronn is offered betrothal to the wealthy House Stokeworth by Cersei, if he does not champion Tyrion in trial by battle again. Bronn visits Tyrion in his cell to inform him, tells him that he most would not have been prepared to fight Ser Gregor Clegane, Cersei's champion, anyway, he bids they part ways as friends. Jaime is sent to retrieve Myrcella Baratheon from Dorne and travels to Stokeworth to enlist Bronn, with his betrothed, Lollys Stokeworth.

Bronn reluctantly agrees to help Jaime after he is promised a larger castle. Arriving at Dorne's Water Gardens and Bronn rescue Myrcella before being confronted by Oberyn Martell's bastard daughters, the Sand Snakes, who had intended to kil