Visegrád Group

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Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four (V4)
Logo of Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four (V4)
Map of Europe indicating the four member states of the Visegrád Group
Map of Europe indicating the four member states of the Visegrád Group
Establishment 15 February 1991
• Total
533,615 km2 (206,030 sq mi)
• 2015 census
• Density
120.0/km2 (310.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
• Total
$1.767 trillion (15th)
• Per capita
$27,474 USD

The Visegrád Group, also called the Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – for the purposes of furthering their European integration, as well as for advancing military, economic and energy cooperation with one another.[1] The group used to be occasionally referred to as the Visegrád Triangle, due to the fact that it was originally an alliance of three states – the term has not been valid since 1993 due to the breakup of Czechoslovakia, but does continue to appear sometimes.

The Group traces its origins to the summit meeting of leaders from Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland held in the Hungarian castle town of Visegrád[2] on 15 February 1991. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent members of the group, thus increasing the total number of members to four. All four members of the Visegrád Group joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.

The Group's name in the languages of the four countries is Visegrádská čtyřka or Visegrádská skupina (Czech); Visegrádi Együttműködés or Visegrádi négyek (Hungarian); Grupa Wyszehradzka (Polish); and Vyšehradská skupina or Vyšehradská štvorka (Slovak).

Historical background[edit]

The name of the Group is derived, and the place of meeting selected, from a meeting of the Bohemian (Czech), Polish, and Hungarian rulers in Visegrád in 1335. Charles I of Hungary, Casimir III of Poland, and John of Bohemia agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets. The recognition of Czech sovereignty over the Duchy of Silesia was also confirmed. A second meeting took place in 1339, where it was decided that after the death of Casimir III of Poland, the son of Charles I of Hungary, Louis I of Hungary, would become King of Poland provided that Casimir did not have a son.[citation needed]

The countries have a long shared history, including various territories being ruled by the Habsburg Empire and its successors at various times from the 1500s to World War I. Most recently, during the Cold War, the countries were satellite states of the Soviet Union as the Polish People's Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The year 1989 marks the Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. By 1990, the three Communist People's Republics ended and in December, 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed; in between, the Visegrád Group was established on 15 February 1991.[citation needed]


The Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991

All four nations in the Visegrád Group are high-income countries with a very high Human Development Index. V4 countries have enjoyed more or less steady economic growth for over a century;[3] in 2009, Slovakia adopted the euro as its official currency.

If counted as a single nation state, the Visegrád Group is the fifth largest economy in Europe and 12th largest in the world.[4]

Based on Gross Domestic Product per capita (PPP) figures for the year 2015, the most developed country in the grouping is the Czech Republic (USD 34,017 per capita), followed by Slovakia (USD 29,209 per capita), Poland (USD 27,654 per capita) and Hungary (USD 26,941 per capita),[5] the average GDP (PPP) in 2013 for the entire group was USD 25,797.

Within the EU, the V4 countries are pro-nuclear power, and are seeking to expand or found (in the case of Poland) a nuclear power industry, they have sought to counter what they see as an anti-nuclear power bias within the EU, believing their countries would benefit from nuclear power's zero emissions and high reliability.[6][7]

Current member states[edit]


Warsaw, Poland

Poland has the region's largest economy (GDP PPP total of USD 1,051 billion, ranked 23rd in the world). According to the United Nations and the World Bank, it is a high-income country[8] with a high quality of life and a very high standard of living.[9][10] The Polish economy is the sixth-largest in the EU and one of the fastest-growing economies in Europe, with a yearly growth rate of over 3.0% before the late-2000s recession. Poland is the only European Union member to have avoided a decline in GDP, and in 2009 created the most GDP growth in the EU, as of December 2009, the Polish economy had not entered recession nor contracted. According to Poland's Central Statistical Office, in 2011 the Polish economic growth rate was 4.3%, the best result in the EU. The largest component of its economy is the service sector (67.3%), followed by industry (28.1%) and agriculture (4.6%). Since increased private investment and EU funding assistance, Poland's infrastructure has developed rapidly.

Poland's main industries are mining, machinery (cars, buses, ships), metallurgy, chemical, electrical, textile, and food processing. The high-technology and IT sectors are also growing with the help of investors such as Google, Toshiba, Dell, GE, LG, and Sharp. Poland is a producer of many electronic devices and components.[11] Mineral extraction includes black and brown coal, copper, lead, zinc, salt, sulfur, magnesite, kaolin, and small amounts of oil and natural gas.

Czech Republic[edit]

Prague, Czech Republic

The economy of the Czech Republic is the group's second largest (GDP PPP of USD $359.054 billion[5] total, ranked 50th in the world). Before the Second World War, the Czech Republic was one of the most advanced countries in the world. However, the transition from the socialist to the capitalist economic model in the early 1990s had a significant impact on the country's economy, since the Velvet Revolution, the Czech Republic has successfully transformed itself into a free market economy. Today, the Czech Republic is a highly industrialized country and is, according to the World Bank, one of the world's thirty most developed countries.

The principal industries in the Czech Republic are chemicals, machinery, food processing, metallurgy and smelting. Other major industry sectors are energy, construction and consumer. Less important are the arms industry and glass, but these have a long tradition in Bohemia. Industry accounts for 35% of the Czech economy, the Czech Republic produces per capita second most cars, first being Slovakia. Main producers are Škoda auto, Peugeot-Citroen, Toyota and Hyundai. Other major companies are ČEZ (biggest company in central and eastern Europe), Škoda works (manufacturer of rail vehicles), Panasonic (electronics), Tatra (Heavy truck manufacturer), Arcelor Mittal (Metallurgy), PPF (largest Central European investment group) Pilsner Urquell (brewing) Aero (aerospace), and many others.[citation needed]


Budapest, Hungary

Hungary has the group's third largest economy (total GDP of USD $265.037 billion, 57th in the world). Hungary was one of the more developed economies of the Eastern bloc, with about $18 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) since 1989, Hungary has attracted over one-third of all FDI in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union. Of this, about $6 billion came from American companies. Now it is an industrial agricultural state, the main industries are engineering, mechanical engineering (cars, buses), chemical, electrical, textile, and food industries. The service's sector accounted for 64% of GDP in 2007 and its role in the Hungarian economy is steadily growing.

The main sectors of Hungarian industry are heavy industry (mining, metallurgy, machine and steel production), energy production, mechanical engineering, chemicals, food industry, and automobile production, the industry is leaning mainly on processing industry and (including construction) accounted for 29.32% of GDP in 2008.[12] The leading industry is machinery, followed by the chemical industry (plastic production, pharmaceuticals), while mining, metallurgy and textile industry seemed to be losing importance in the past two decades; in spite of the significant drop in the last decade, the food industry still contributes up to 14% of total industrial production and amounts to 7-8% of the country's exports.[13]

Agriculture accounted for 4.3% of GDP in 2008 and along with the food industry occupied roughly 7.7% of the labor force.[14][15]

Tourism employs nearly 150,000 people and the total income from tourism was 4 billion euros in 2008.[16] One of Hungary’s top tourist destinations is Lake Balaton, the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe, with 1.2 million visitors in 2008. The most visited region is Budapest; the Hungarian capital attracted 3.61 million visitors in 2008. Hungary was the world’s 24th most visited country in 2011.[17]


Bratislava, Slovakia

The smallest, but still considerably powerful V4 economy is that of Slovakia (GDP of USD $158.428 billion total, 70th in the world).[18] Along with the Czech Republic, Slovakia was the most developed country of the Eastern Bloc, the first years after the revolution in 1989 saw stagnation. At the end of the 1990s, the economy grew and attracted much investment.[citation needed] Slovakia produces per capita the most cars.


The population is 64,301,710 inhabitants, which would rank 22nd largest in the world and 4th in Europe (very similar in size to France, Italy or the UK) if V4 were a single country. Most people live in Poland (38 million),[19] followed by the Czech Republic (nearly 11 million),[20] Hungary (nearly 10 million)[21] and Slovakia (5.5 million).[22]

V4 capitals[edit]

  • Budapest (Hungary) - 1,759,407 inhabitants (metro - 3,303,786)
  • Warsaw (Poland) - 1,748,916 inhabitants (metro - 3,105,883)
  • Prague (Czech Rep.) - 1,267,449 inhabitants (metro - 2,156,097)
  • Bratislava (Slovakia) - 432,801 inhabitants (metro - 659,578)

Other important cities[edit]

  • Poland - Kraków (762,448), Łódź (698,688), Wrocław (637,075), Poznań (541,561)
  • Czech Rep. - Brno (377,440), Ostrava (294,200), Plzeň (169,033) Liberec (102,562)
  • Hungary - Debrecen (203,914), Szeged (162,593), Miskolc (159,554), Pécs (145,985) Kecskemét (111, 724)
  • Slovakia - Košice (240,688), Prešov (91,638), Žilina (81,515), Banská Bystrica (79,775)

Rotating presidency[edit]

Visegrad Group leaders' meeting in Prague, 2015

The country holding the Group's presidency changes each year, in July:[citation needed]

International Visegrád Fund[edit]

SÚZA in Bratislava, former seat of the International Visegrád Fund (2000–2006).

The only solid organization of the Visegrád co-operation is the International Visegrád Fund (IVF), established in 1999, with its seat in Bratislava. According to a decision of the prime ministers, the Fund has an annual budget of EUR 8 million as of 2014, with more than 11 annual deadlines and irregular calls for proposals the fund awards grants, scholarships and research fellowships, and artist residencies. Main recipients of its funding are citizens and non-governmental organizations from the V4 region, as well as countries of the Western Balkans, the Eastern Partnerships, and other countries.


Defence Cooperation[edit]

Visegrád Battlegroup[edit]

On 12 May 2011, Polish Defence Minister Bogdan Klich said that Poland will lead a new EU Battlegroup of the Visegrád Group, the decision was made at the V4 defence ministers' meeting in Levoča, Slovakia, and the battlegroup became operational and was placed on standby in the first half of 2016. The ministers also agreed that the V4 militaries should hold regular exercises under the auspices of the NATO Response Force, with the first such exercise to be held in Poland in 2013, the battlegroup included members of V4 and Ukraine.[23] Another V4 EU Battlegroup will be formed in the second semester of 2019.[24]

Other cooperation areas[edit]

On 14 March 2014, in response to the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, a pact was signed for a joint military body within the European Union.[25] Subsequent Action Plan defines these other cooperation areas:[26]

  • Defence Planning
  • Joint Training and Exercises
  • Joint Procurement and Defence Industry
  • Military Education
  • Joint Airspace Protection
  • Coordination of Positions
  • Communication Strategy

Expert Working Group on Energy[edit]

In 2002 Hungary initiated establishment of an Expert Working Group on Energy, this expert group meets once or twice a year in V4 capitals on a rotation basis, and the head of the host country delegation always chairs the meeting.

On 27 April 2006 the Working Group met in Prague with the aim of discussing recommendations for V4 energy ministers concerning topics negotiated at ministerial level meetings, the WG elaborated recommendations concerning four groups of problems:

  • Recommendations of general nature in the sphere of energy policy, including energy research and development.
  • Recommendation to consider development of emergency natural gas storage.
  • Recommendation to consider construction of new gas and oil pipelines and of new marine LNG terminals.
  • Recommendations in the field of interconnecting power transmission grids.

Visegrad Patent Institute[edit]

Created by an agreement signed in Bratislava on February 26, 2015, the Institute aims at operating as an International Searching Authority (ISA) and International Preliminary Examining Authorities (IPEA) under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) as from July 1, 2016.

Relations with Austria[edit]

The countries participating in the Austerlitz format. (From North to South: Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria.)

On 3 April 2014, Czech President Miloš Zeman announced at a press conference in the Slovenian capital Ljubljana that in the future Slovenia and Austria will also attend meetings of an extended Visegrád group.[27] On 4 April 2014, however, the Hungarian Foreign Ministry, through its spokesman Gábor Kaleta, indicated that an expansion of the Visegrád group was not planned and thus withdrew Zeman's offer to Slovenia and Austria,[28] as an alternative solution following Hungary's rejection, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria launched the Austerlitz format for the three countries in spring 2015. The first meeting in this format took place on January 29, 2015 in Slavkov u Brna (Austerlitz) in the Czech Republic. Petr Drulák, the deputy minister of the Czech Republic, emphasized, however, that the Austerlitz format was not a competition, but an addition to the Visegrád group.[29]

Austria is Visegrád Group's southwestern neighbour. The leadership of the Freedom Party of Austria, the third largest Austrian party following the 2017 Austrian legislative election, has expressed its willingness to closely cooperate with or to eventually apply for joining the Visegrád Group.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] Thus, the FPÖ confirms its demands of 2016,[38][39] on 16 December 2017 formed the FPÖ with the ÖVP (which decided against it)[31][32][34] a black-blue coalition.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Bratislava Declaration of the Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Visegrád Group". Official web portal of the Visegrád Group. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Engelberg, Stephen (17 February 1991). "Three Eastern European Leaders Confer, Gingerly". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  3. ^ "Aggregate And Per Capita GDP in Europe, 1870-2000: Continental, Regional and National Data With Changing Boundaries, Stephen Broadberry University of Warwick" (PDF). 27 October 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  4. ^ European Union. "The Visegrád Group – Growth Engine of Europe", international conference Speech by Johannes Hahn, Commissioner for Regional Policy. Budapest: 24 June 2014
  5. ^ a b "V4". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Visegrád group backs nuclear energy". 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  7. ^ "Don't impede our nuclear, V4 tells EU". 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  8. ^ "Country and Lending Groups | Data". Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  9. ^ "SPI PROGRESS INDEX 2015". Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  10. ^ "Quality of Life Index by Country 2017 Mid-Year". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  11. ^ Toshiba Invests in a Subsidiary of LG.Philips LCD in Poland. (2006-10-10). Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
  12. ^ "Elemzői reakciók az ipari termelési adatra (Analysts' Reaction on Industrial Production Data)" (in Hungarian). 7 April 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  13. ^ "Food Industry". Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  14. ^ "Value and distribution of gross value added by industries". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Number of employed persons by industries". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Táblamelléklet (Tables)" (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  17. ^ "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer" (PDF). World Tourism Organisation. January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  18. ^ "IMF -- International Monetary Fund Home Page". 
  19. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 16 January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  20. ^ "Czech Republic Population 2016". World Population Review. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  21. ^ "2011. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS : 3. Országos adatok" (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  23. ^ Visegrad grounds of Ukraine. Mirror Weekly. May 13, 2011
  24. ^ "Bratislava Declaration of the Visegrád Group Heads of Government on the Deepening V4 Defence Cooperation". Visegrád Group. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "Today's Stock Market News and Analysis". Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  26. ^ "Visegrad Group Defence Cooperation". Visegrad Group. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  27. ^ Lothar Martin (2014-04-03). "Slowenien und Österreich werden an Sitzungen der Visegrad-Staaten teilnehmen" (in German). Radio Prag. Retrieved 2016-12-03. 
  28. ^ "Expanding Visegrád Group not on the agenda". Ungarisches Außenministerium. 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2016-12-03. 
  29. ^ Schubert, Gerald (2015-04-11). "Österreich, Tschechien, Slowakei: Gemeinsame Politik im Austerlitz-Format" (in German). Der Standard. 
  30. ^ Stephan Löwenstein. Zwischen Wien und Budapest. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Published on 15.10.2017.
  31. ^ a b Kurz: Kein Visegrad-Beitritt Österreichs. oe24 Published on 19.10.2017.
  32. ^ a b Kurz will keinen Beitritt Österreichs zu Visegrád-Staaten. Der Standard Published on 19.10.2017.
  33. ^ Was bringt Straches Flirt mit den Visegrád-Staaten?. Kurier Published on 11.10.2017.
  34. ^ a b Kurz schließt Beitritt Österreichs zu EU-kritischer Visegrad-Gruppe kategorisch aus. Epoch Times Published on 19.10.2017.
  35. ^ Kein Klub für Österreich. Die Presse Published on 24.10.2017.
  36. ^ Österreich rückt nach Rechts: ÖVP und FPÖ legen deutlich zu. sh:z Published on 15.10.2017.
  37. ^ Eine Angelobung der neuen Regierung noch vor Weihnachten wäre wünschenswert. Österreich Journal Published on 04.12.2017.
  38. ^ Gegenpol zu Angela Merkel: FPÖ-Chef Strache fordert Österreichs Beitritt zur Visegrad-Gruppe. Epoch Times Published on 17.09.2016.
  39. ^ Strache will Österreichs Beitritt zur Visegrad-Gruppe. Die Presse Published on 16.09.2016.

External links[edit]