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Visoko during the Middle Ages

The area of today's Visoko is considered to be a nucleus from where Bosnian statehood was developed in 10th century. The expanded valley of the river Bosna around today's Visoko was the biggest agriculture area in central Bosnia, so fertile ground around Visoko was ideal for development of early political center of Bosnian nobility; the settlement, in Visoko field has been associated with name Bosnia for a long time, only since the 1350s has the name Visoki became used. Visoko and its valley with Mile, Moštre, Podvisoki was an early center of the Bosnian medieval state, the site where the first Bosnian King Tvrtko I was crowned; the old town of Visoki, located on Visočica hill, was a politically important fortress, its inner bailey, was an early example of a Bosnian medieval urban area. In this early period, we know that first known ruler of Bosnia was Knyaz Stephen of Bosnia, who ruled the area of today's Sarajevo and Visoko fields. Pavao Anđelić considers Visoko field to be the core from where early Slavs in the 7th and 8th century expanded the term Bosnia as a territorial unit.

The place known as Bosnia is mentioned in 17 medieval sources. A number of documents in Latin mention Bosnia in the context of a settlement. Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, writes charter in 1334 in Bossina in curia nostra. Ragusans wrote in 1367 about the location of St. Nikola church as conventus sancti Nicolae de Bosna. With times Visoki has become a prevalent name for the medieval area, known as Bosna Names for Visoko varied in literature: Vizoka, Vissokium, Visuki, Visochium. Bosnia was a banate by 1154; the first domestic ruler was Kulin. His plate was found in a small place just outside of Visoko; the plate was once part of a church built by Kulin. According to Pavao Anđelić and others Bilino Polje abjuration happened in Visoko valley, as Latin sources do not indicate where this meeting took place, other than: by river, that monastery is located beside town Bosna, his plate one part of Kulin church, that's the reason some authors believe that meeting took place in Biskupići and not in today field of Bilino, near Zenica, as there are no records of significant settlement there.

Medieval settlement Bosna is mentioned in documents in 12th century. Mile are mentioned in 1244 as a place where Stephen II Kotromanić built Franciscan monastery of st. Nicholas. After the death of Stephen II, young ban Tvrtko will emerge. Important part of his early reign will be played by his mother Jelena, she will go to Kingdom of Hungary in 1354 and ask king Louis I of Hungary for confirmation of Tvrtko's rule in Bosnia. She held stanak in Mile, asking nobleman's to confirm all rights of Tvrtko, 15 years old by that time. Old town of Visoki on Visočica hill is first mentioned in charted, issued on 1 September 1355, where Tvrtko I granted Ragusians all benefits and freedom in trade, customary from the time of Kulin. Podvisoki is mentioned in 1363; the crowning of Tvrtko I Kotromanić was held on 26 October 1377 in the Church of St. Nicholaus, Mile; the Bosnian banate was now kingdom. Evidence that this happened in Visoko was proven archaeologically Tvrtko Kotromanić wrote to Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić on 12 March 1380, location of issuing was royal court of Moštre, located in Visoko basin.

The trading center of the Bosnian kingdom was Podvisoki, which had a considerable colony of Ragusian merchants. From 1404 to 1428, Podvisoki is frequent caravan destination. Milaš Radomirić was a prominent merchant from Visoko accepted as a Republic of Ragusa citizen. On April 9, 1428, wedding engagement was made between Tvrtko II and Dorothy Garai, by July 31 Ragusian asked for the queen to stop by Podvisoki so she could receive gifts; the biggest caravan shipment was recorded in 1428. On August 9, Vlachs committed to Ragusan lord Tomo Bunić, that they will with 600 horses deliver 1500 modius of salt. Mile was one of the places where kings held stanak. Ostoja of Bosnia was one of the most active kings, he assumed his role as a king in 1398. Nobility with Tvrtko II held a meeting in Mile and they decided to overthrow Ostoja because of his pro-Hungarian stance. Ostoja has lost support of all nobility at the time. Stanak, held in June 5, 1404 was difficult and long. Hungarians decided to send an army into Bosnia, Podvisoki will be looted on Mart 4, 1410.

They captured some Ragusians merchants stationed in Podvisoki, for which Republic of Ragusa protested to Sigismund, King of Hungary In 1412 Vuk Kotromanić, nephew of king Ostoja killed and stole silver from one Ragusian merchant Jakša Bunić. Ragusians demanded that Vuk be punished for his crime, but there is no evidence that he was prosecuted. However, king Ostoja remained in power, Tvrtko II went into hiding. King Ostoja would die in 1418, that will spark another unrest in the kingdom, that will grow into a civil war. Nobility once again didn't approve of a new king, son of Ostoja, Stjepan Ostojić, he only had a handful of nobility behind him, namely Petar Pavlović and Radosav Vladimirić. Stjepan Ostojić ruled until June 1420, when a meeting of nobility in Visoko sealed his fate. Crucial event for Ostojić's demise would be conciliation between Radosav Pavlović and Duke Sandalj Hranić. Tvrtko II appeared around this time, he will have the support of Bosnian nobility in Visoko, that included voivod Vukmir, mayor Dragiša, knez Juraj Vojsalić, knez Pribić, knez Radič Radojević, knez Batić Mirk


Gharib Nawaz was a king of Manipur, ruling from c. 1709 until his death. He is notable for the introduction of Hinduism as the state religion of his kingdom and changing the name from the Meitei name Kangleipak to the Sanskrit Manipur, he changed his royal name from the Meitei Pamheiba to the Persianate Gharib Nawaz. During most of his reign he was engaged in warfare against the Kingdom of Burma, he was born on 23 December 1690 in Manipur to Pitambar Charairongba and was crowned Meidingu on 28 August 1709. During the early 18th century, Hindu missionaries from Sylhet arrived in Manipur to spread Gaudiya Vaishnavism, they were led by Shantidas Adhikari and his associate Guru Gopal Das who succeeded in converting the King from the old Meitei religion to Vaishnavism in 1710. During his reign, Pamheiba made Hinduism the official religion, converted nearly all the Meitei people to Hinduism, his reign lasted 39 years. During that time, the realm of Manipur extended from the Irrawaddy in the east to Cachar and Tripura in the west.

At some points during his reign, his realm extended into the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Shortly after taking power from his father Charairongba he invaded Burma after the Burmese King insulted his sister; the Burmese King asked for the hand of another of Charairongba's daughters in marriage. Instead of a princess, the King of Burma was met by cavalry, led by Pamheiba that massacred the Burmese army, brought many prisoners of war to Imphal. In 1734, Pamheiba invaded Tripura and captured 1100 prisoners, who were absorbed into the Meitei community. Pamheiba had eight wives, a large number of sons and daughters, his eldest son, Samjai Khurai-Lakpa, was assassinated by his younger son Chitsai, who came to power after Pamheiba's grandson Gaurisiam. The reign was followed by Ching-Thang Khomba


Binalbagan the Municipality of Binalbagan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 67,270 people. Major economic activities include manufacturing, services, cottage industries and tourism. Binalbagan is known for the Binalbagan Isabela Sugar Company. Binalbagan became a town on May 15, 1572 and was one of the first two settlements of Negros Occidental. On the record, Binalbagan is the oldest town in the whole Negros Island, thereby earning the title, “Banwang Panganay” or oldest town; the municipality celebrates an annual fiesta called "The Balbagan Festival" every month of May. Binalbagan is politically subdivided into 16 barangays: thirteen rural barangays and three urban barangays. Pagla-um San Pedro Santo Rosario Amontay Bagroy Bi-ao Canmoros Enclaro Marina Payao Progreso San Jose San Juan San Teodoro San Vicente Santol Remedios The people in the city speak the Hiligaynon language. Filipino and English are understood.

TertiaryBinalbagan Catholic College Carlos Hilado Memorial State College Southern Negros College Dynatech Industrial Institute Jose Miguel Tuason Arroyo Ignacio "Iggy" Tuason Arroyo, Jr. Augurio Abeto Ian Clark Bautista Rico Amancio Municipality of Binalbagan Official Website Binalbagan Profile at the Official Website of Negros Occidental Municipality of Binalbagan Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System

P&O Ferries

P&O Ferries is a British Ferry Operating Company. A subsidiary of Dubai based company DP World that operates ferries from the United Kingdom to Ireland and Continental Europe. P&O established ferry services in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s in the North Sea and the English Channel. In the late 1970s P&O was affected by a reduction in traditional shipping activities which saw the sale of a number of its businesses and assets; this continued into 1985 with the sale of its cross-channel ferry activities to European Ferries, which at the time consisted of services on the Port of Dover–Boulogne and Southampton–Le Havre routes. In January the following year, P&O purchased a 50.01% interest in European Financial Holdings Ltd, which held 20.8% of shares in European Ferries, followed in 1987 with the purchase of the remaining shares of the European Ferries Group whose ferry services were trading as Townsend Thoresen. Following the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster in March 1987, the operations of Townsend Thoresen were renamed P&O European Ferries on 22 October 1987, with operations from Portsmouth and Dover.

Following a consultation with the Competition Commission beginning 28 November 1996, P&O European Ferries split into three separate subsidiaries: P&O Portsmouth, P&O North Sea and the creation of a joint venture between P&O and the Swedish ferry company Stena Line's UK subsidiary Stena Line Ltd to create P&O Stena Line in Dover. In April 2002, P&O announced its intention to purchase Stena Line's 40% share of the joint venture; the purchase was completed by August, in October 2002 the Portsmouth and North Sea operations were merged with the Dover operations to create P&O Ferries Ltd, jointly managing all services from its head office, Channel House in Dover. In September 2004, P&O Ferries Ltd conducted a business review that concluded with the announcement of closure of several of its long-term Portsmouth-based routes, leaving only the Portsmouth – Bilbao route in operation; these closures were predominantly blamed on the expansion of low-cost airlines and the increasing usage of the Channel Tunnel as a faster alternative to ferry operations.

In 2006, the P&O Group, including P&O Ferries was sold to Dubai-based DP World. Shortly afterwards it was taken over by Dubai World. On 15 January 2010, P&O Ferries announced that it would be closing the Portsmouth–Bilbao route by the end of September to coincide with the end of its existing charter for Pride of Bilbao; this meant the closure of the final route served by P&O Ferries in Portsmouth. In January 2018, Janette Bell replaced Helen Deeble as CEO. Nine vessels in the fleet, including all six Dover-Calais vessels, are to have their duty-free shops outsourced. In January 2019 P&O Ferries announced that its UK fleet would be reflagged from Dover, UK to Limassol, Cyprus in response to the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union in 2019 "For operational and accounting reasons". Cyprus is a flag of convenience. According to the Rail and Transport union, the reflagging is "pure opportunism", saying that the firm's "long-term aim has always been to switch the UK fleet to a tax haven register".

On 20 February 2019, DP World announced it had repurchased P&O Ferries from Dubai World in a £322m deal. Over the years P&O Ferries operated various subsidiary ferry companies, each with their own distinctive name, these included: Pandoro Ltd, Ferrymasters Ltd, P&O European Ferries, P&O Portsmouth, P&O North Sea Ferries, P&O Irish Sea, P&O Stena Line Throughout its history, P&O Ferries has operated in five main areas, centred around Dover, Southampton, the Irish Sea and the North Sea. P&O began ferry operations in Dover in the 1960s with a route to Boulogne in France under the Normandy Ferries brand; this route was sold to European Ferries on 4 January 1985 which rebranded them, along with its Southampton–Le Havre route, as Normandy Ferries Ltd. Following the purchase of European Ferries, P&O operated routes from Dover to Calais in France and Zeebrugge in Belgium trading under the Townsend Thoresen brand. Prior to the acquisition, European Ferries had ordered two purpose-built vessels for the Dover–Calais route.

These were delivered in June and December 1987 as Pride of Dover and Pride of Calais, taking on the role of flagships for P&O European Ferries. P&O's Dover operations remained unchanged until 1998 when they were merged with Stena Lines Dover and Newhaven operations to form P&O Stena Line in response to the increased competition from the Channel Tunnel which opened in 1994 and the coming end to duty-free shopping within the EU in July 1999; as a result, vessels were renamed from the recognisable Pride of prefix to instead be prefixed with P&OSL in 1999. P&OSL operated eleven vessels, eight of which provided a freight and passenger service on the Dover–Calais route and the remaining three a freight service on the Dover–Zeebrugge route. In August 2002, P&O acquired Stena Line's 40% share of P&OSL, which were re-merged with the Portsmouth and North Sea operations under the P&O Ferries brand. In December 2002, the Dover–Zeebrugge route closed, leaving only the Dover–Calais route remaining. Vessel prefixes were again changed to PO before they were repainted into a new livery and resuming the use of the Pride of prefix in 2003.

On 8 August 2008, P&O Ferries announced it had placed a €360 million order with STX Europe for two new ships to replace the ageing Pride of Dover and Pride of Calais

Eileen Myles

Eileen Myles is an American poet and writer who has produced more than twenty volumes of poetry, nonfiction, libretti and performance pieces over the last three decades. Novelist Dennis Cooper has described Myles as "one of the savviest and most restless intellects in contemporary literature." In 2012, Myles received a Guggenheim Fellowship to complete Afterglow, which gives both a real and fantastic account of a dog's life. Eileen Myles was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on December 9, 1949, to a family with a working-class background, they attended Catholic schools in Arlington and graduated from UMass Boston in 1971. Myles moved to New York City in 1974 with the intention of becoming a poet. In New York they participated in writing workshops held at St. Mark's Poetry Project, which promoted the idea of the "working artist," a pragmatic notion that Myles found appealing given their background. There, Myles first met the poet Allen Ginsberg, whom they admired and who became the subject of several of their poems and essays.

In 1979 they worked as an assistant to the poet James Schuyler. In 1984 Myles was hired as the artistic director of St. Mark's Poetry Project, they have stated, gave them the opportunity to rethink the institution that influenced their early work. During Reagan's presidency, 1981-1988, Myles dealt with the cuts to the NEA art budget and focused their energies on broadening the aesthetic and cultural range of the St. Mark's Poetry Project. Myles' leadership of the Project represented a generational shift away from the church's base, which until been run by the second generation members of the New York School. Program Coordinators in this period were Patricia Spears Jones, Jessica Hagedorn, Myles invited Alice Notley and Dennis Cooper to teach. Charles Bernstein ran the lecture series, Chris Kraus, Marc Nasdor, Richard Elovich coordinated performance, Tim Dlugos and James Ruggia edited the Newsletter. During Myles tenure at St. Mark's, Myles performed "An American Poem" for the first time at P.

S. 122. In 1991–1992 Myles conducted an "openly female" write-in campaign for the office of President of the United States from the East Village that spiraled into a project of national interest. Part performance art, part protest, this gesture was meant to offer an alternative glimpse into what progressive and committed politics could look like. Campaigning in 28 states, via MTV and other media outlets, they were unsuccessful, when Bill Clinton defeated George Bush amongst other candidates. Zoe Leonard's 1992 samizdat poem, "I want a president", which begins with the line: "I want a dyke for president", was written to celebrate Myles's presidential run. Beginning in 2002, Myles began serving as a Professor of Writing at the University of California, San Diego. UCSD funded the research and travel grant that enabled the creation of Inferno, as well as Hell, an opera composed by Michael Webster, for which Myles wrote the libretto. Since leaving UCSD in 2007, Myles has been a Visiting Writer at Bard College, Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University, Washington University, University of Montana-Missoula, Columbia's School of the Arts, New York University.

In 2016, Myles endorsed Hillary Clinton for president in a Buzzfeed piece entitled Hillary Clinton: The Leader You Want When The World Ends. Myles was approached by Clinton's campaign to write a poem, as part of "Artists for Hillary", a mostly-female group which included Jenny Holzer and Maya Lin, whose creative statements were testament to their support for Clinton's presidential bid. Myles's poem was entitled MOMENTUM 2016. By their own account, Myles moved from Boston to New York in 1974 "to be a poet," where they became associated with a group of poets at St. Mark's Poetry Project. Myles's first book, The Irony of the Leash, was published by Jim Brodey from the St. Mark's Poetry Project in 1978. In 1977 and 1979, Myles published issues of dodgems, a literary magazine, a title referring, in the vernacular of Great Britain, to bumper cars those of Revere Beach, MA; the title is said to serve as a metonym for the collision of aesthetic differences that characterized the poetry scene of that time.

The dodgems issues featured poems by John Ashbery, Barbara Guest, Charles Bernstein, as well as a letter from Lily Tomlin and an angry note from a neighbor. Myles's next collection, A Fresh Young Voice From the Plains, earned their first major review, by Jane Bosveld in Ms.. Not Me is Myles's most popular collection of poetry, it contains Myles work, "An American Poem," in which they fictionalize their identity and claims to be a "Kennedy", comfortably addresses politics in the work. They first performed the work at P. S. 122 in New York City, during their tenure at St. Mark's. Since "An American Poem" has been filmed and shown in film festivals all over the world, screening in New York and other major cities, it has been included, in translation, in German and Italian anthologies of American writing. The trajectory of "An American Poem" is documented in Myles's novel Inferno. Myles produced Maxfield Parrish/early and new poems, a collection of both new and selected poems on the theme of the surreality of sex.

In the same year, Myles co-edited The New Fuck You: Adve

Chiyotaikai Ryƫji

Chiyotaikai Ryūji, is a Japanese former sumo wrestler. He made his professional debut in 1992 and reached the top makuuchi division in 1997, he held the second highest rank of ōzeki or champion for 65 consecutive tournaments from 1999 until 2009, making him the longest serving ōzeki in the modern era. He won three top division yūshō or tournament championships, was a runner-up on seven other occasions. However, he held the dubious record of being in danger of demotion from ōzeki fourteen times, he wrestled for Kokonoe stable until his retirement in January 2010 at the age of 33. He remained in sumo as a coach at his stable, became the head coach in August 2016 following the death of Chiyonofuji. After his father's death, Chiyotaikai's family moved to Ōita, considered his hometown and listed as such on the banzuke ranking sheets; when he was eleven, his mother remarried, to a local businessman. He was an enthusiastic player of soccer as well as martial arts, he excelled at karate, in judo he came third in the All-Japan Middle School Judo Championships.

However, he got into fights and petty crime as a member of a gang of youths. After graduating junior high school, he worked as a construction worker before he decided on his mother's prompting to apprentice himself to Kokonoe-oyakata, the former Chiyonofuji, the 58th Yokozuna and one of the strongest wrestlers in sumo history, who managed the Kokonoe stable. Kokonoe refused the new wrestler because of his bleached hair and obliged him to get a haircut before allowing him to join. Chiyotaikai was given his shikona in honour of his stablemaster and joined professional sumo in November 1992 and became a sekitori in July 1995 upon entering the second highest jūryō division, he remained in jūryō for another two years, but after winning two jūryō championships in March and July 1997 he reached makuuchi, the top division. In May 1998, Chiyotaikai was never left the san ` yaku ranks after that, he won the prestigious Technique Prize three times that year. In January 1999, he won his first top division championship, defeating yokozuna Takanohana and Wakanohana on the last two days, Wakanohana once again in a play-off.

He had compiled a three tournament record of 32–13, he was promoted to ōzeki after the tournament, the first newcomer to the rank since Musashimaru and Takanonami five years earlier. Though he had to bow out from his first tournament that he fought as an ōzeki in March 1999 after breaking his nose, he retained his rank until November 2009. In July 2007 he broke Takanohana Kenshi's record of fifty tournaments at ōzeki rank, which had stood for over 25 years, extended his record to 65 consecutive tournaments; the reverse side of his longevity as an ōzeki was his inability to achieve promotion to yokozuna. After his first tournament win he performed at a rather mediocre level for some time. After finishing as runner-up in May 2002 he won his second championship in the next tournament in Nagoya, his first title since becoming an ozeki was achieved losing just one match, his best result. However, he was able to win only ten bouts in the next tournament, following injury problems it took him until March 2003 to achieve his third and final tournament victory.

After finishing as a runner-up in July 2003, September 2003 and March 2004, he struggled again until the November 2005 tournament where he was runner-up for the sixth time. After another lean couple of years, in November 2007 he was the tournament co-leader until the 14th day when he lost to Hakuhō, he had to default on the final day. He was still troubled by the injury in the January 2008 tournament and withdrew after losing his first seven bouts, he was never again to produce a winning score in double figures. Chiyotaikai's 2–13 score in March 2009 was the worst record compiled by an ōzeki, meant he was kadoban for a record thirteenth time in May. After bringing a 7–7 record into the final day's competition, he managed to win his last match and thereby return to full ōzeki status, he had been restricted by a left side ache and high blood sugar levels, sat out the regional tour in April due to a fractured rib. In September 2009 Chiyotaikai withdrew from the tournament after suffering eight defeats in the first ten days.

He had an injury to his left knee in addition to his elbow problem, commented, "I have no power to fight once I get in the ring." Kadoban for the fourteenth time in the Kyushu tournament in November, he won his first two bouts but lost eight in a row, his demotion from ōzeki being confirmed on Day 10 when he was lifted out by Asashōryū. He withdrew from the tournament after this defeat, but announced that he would return at sekiwake rank in January to try to win necessary 10 bouts designated by the JSA that would allow him to regain his ōzeki status, he stated. After three straight losses in the January 2010 tournament, Chiyotaikai announced his retirement from sumo, his final match was against his longtime ōzeki rival Kaiō "I gave myself an ultimatum, so I don't have any regrets. I just don't have the power to continue wrestling my brand of sumo anymore," said Chiyotaikai, he remained as a coach at his stable under the toshiyori name of Sanoyama-oyakata. He had his danpatsu-shiki, or formal retirement ceremony, at the Ryōgoku