Vitaphone was a sound film system used for feature films and nearly 1,000 short subjects made by Warner Bros. and its sister studio First National from 1926 to 1931. Vitaphone was the last major analog sound-on-disc system and the only one, used and commercially successful; the soundtrack issued separately on phonograph records. The discs, recorded at ​33 1⁄3 rpm and 16 inches in diameter, would be played on a turntable physically coupled to the projector motor while the film was being projected, achieving a frequency response of 4300 Hz. Many early talkies, such as The Jazz Singer, used the Vitaphone system; the name "Vitaphone" derived from the Latin and Greek words for "living" and "sound". The "Vitaphone" trademark was associated with cartoons and other short subjects that had optical soundtracks and did not use discs. In the early 1920s, Western Electric was developing both sound-on-film and sound-on-disc systems, aided by the purchase of Lee De Forest's Audion amplifier tube in 1913, consequent advances in public address systems, the first practical condenser microphone, which Western Electric engineer E.

C. Wente had created in 1916 and improved in 1922. De Forest debuted his own Phonofilm sound-on-film system in New York City on April 15, 1923, but due to the poor sound quality of Phonofilm and the impressive state-of-the-art sound heard in Western Electric's private demonstrations, the Warner Brothers decided to go forward with the industrial giant and the more familiar disc technology; the business was established at Western Electric's Bell Laboratories in New York City and acquired by Warner Bros. in April 1925. Warner Bros. introduced Vitaphone on August 5, 1926 with the premiere of their silent feature Don Juan, retrofitted with a symphonic musical score and sound effects. There was no spoken dialog; the feature was preceded by a program of short subjects with live-recorded sound, nearly all featuring classical instrumentalists and opera stars. The only "pop music" artist was guitarist Roy Smeck and the only actual "talkie" was the short film that opened the program: four minutes of introductory remarks by motion picture industry spokesman Will Hays.

Don Juan was able to draw huge sums of money at the box office, but was not able to match the expensive budget Warner Bros. put into the film's production. After its financial failure, Paramount head Adolph Zukor offered Sam Warner a deal as an executive producer for Paramount if he brought Vitaphone with him. Sam, not wanting to take any more of Harry Warner's refusal to move forward with using sound in future Warner films, agreed to accept Zukor's offer, but the deal died after Paramount lost money in the wake of Rudolph Valentino's death. Harry agreed to accept Sam's demands. Sam pushed ahead with a new Vitaphone feature starring Al Jolson, the Broadway dynamo who had scored a big hit with early Vitaphone audiences in A Plantation Act, a musical short released on October 7, 1926. On October 6, 1927, The Jazz Singer premiered at the Warner Theater in New York City, broke box-office records, established Warner Bros. as a major player in Hollywood, is traditionally credited with single-handedly launching the talkie revolution.

At first, the production of Vitaphone shorts and the recording of orchestral scores were a New York phenomenon, taking advantage of the bountiful supply of stage and concert hall talent there, but the Warners soon migrated some of this activity to their more spacious facilities on the West Coast. Dance band leader Henry Halstead is given credit for starring in the first Vitaphone short subject filmed in Hollywood instead of New York. Carnival Night in Paris featured the Henry Halstead Orchestra and a cast of hundreds of costumed dancers in a Carnival atmosphere. From the perspective of the cast and crew on the sound stage, there was little difference between filming with Vitaphone and a sound-on-film system. In the early years of sound, the noisy cameras and their operators were enclosed in soundproofed booths with small windows made of thick glass. Cables suspended the microphones in fixed positions just above camera range, sometimes they were hidden behind objects in the scene; the recording machines were located in a separate building to isolate them from sound stage floor vibrations and other undesirable influences.

The audio signal was sent from an on-stage monitoring and control booth to the recording room over a heavy shielded cable. Synchronization was maintained by driving all the cameras and recorders with synchronous electric motors powered from a common source; when music and sound effects were being recorded to accompany existing film footage, the film was projected so that the conductor could synchronize the music with the visual cues and it was the projector, rather than a camera, electrically interlocked with the recording machine. Except for the unusual disc size and speed, the physical record-making process was the same one employed by contemporary record companies to make smaller discs for home use; the recording lathe cut an audio-signal-modulated spiral groove into the polished surface of a thick round slab of wax-like material rotating on a turntable. The wax was much too soft to be played in the usual way, but a specially supported and guided pickup could be used to play it back in order to detect any sound problems that might have gone unnoticed during the filming.

If problems were found, the scene could be re-shot while everything was still in place, minimizing additional expense. The lightest playback caused some damage to the wax master, so it was customary to employ two recorders and record tw

Mary Hyde

Mary Lord nee Hyde was an English Australian woman who in the period 1855 to 1859 sued the Commissioners of the City of Sydney and won compensation for the sum of over £15,600 for the inundation of her property at Botany. Hyde is noted for her pertinacity. Despite in late 1855 winning her case through the New South Wales courts, Mary appealed and three years in early 1859 won after taking her case as far as the Privy Council in England, the final court of appeal available to a British subject living in the Colony of New South Wales. In 1859, in the 70-year-old Colony of New South Wales, her court case, although ignored by historians, was an achievement: women did not have the vote. Married women had no power at all, Mary was only able to sue as being a widow she was no longer married. Having experienced life as a woman in Victorian society, single and widowed, Mary became concerned with what today would be called a feminist issue, she stipulated in her will that any bequests made to her daughters and granddaughters were to be given to them in their own right and that their husbands should not have any say.

She attempted to give her granddaughters control over their own inheritances. The law of the day overrode her stated wishes. Remembering that colonies in Australia were governed by English law, prior to the English 1887 Married Woman's Property Act a married woman could own no property, was the chattel of her husband. Any property that she had owned as a single woman, or that she inherited as a married woman whether in goods, money, or land, passed into the ownership of her husband. Hyde was born in Halesowen, England in 1779, the eldest child of Edward Hyde and Sarah Blunn. Mary had a younger brother John, born two years later. After being transported to Sydney as a teenage convict, Mary became the unmarried partner of Captain John Black the privateer, ship's captain and master mariner who named King Island. In November 1795, at the age of 16, Mary was accused of stealing items of clothing from Francis Deakin, her employer, including 1 black silk cloak, 1 muslin shawl, 1 cotton gown, 1 dimity petticoat, 2 pair of cotton stockings and 1 pair of scissors.

On 21 March 1796, at the age of 17, who used her mother’s name as an alias, was sentenced at the Warwickshire Assizes to seven years' transportation to New South Wales for theft. She was not transported until 1798. On 18 July 1798 Mary arrived in Sydney, one of 95 female convicts on board the Britannia, a whaling ship that had previously brought convicts to Sydney in May 1797. Females were in short supply in the colony, competition for the newly arrived female convicts on that day was described by David Collins in An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales as like a cattle auction; the lot of the women who arrived that day was to be a servant or a “wife” to a stranger, or a hut-keeper for convict males at Parramatta for those who would not go with one man. As Mary stayed in Sydney, it can only be assumed that she was chosen by one of the men in the “cattle auction” on board the deck of the Britannia II. In August 1798, when they were both 19 years old, Mary met John Black, a ship's officer who had survived the mutiny on the Lady Shore in 1797, who that month had arrived in Sydney on board the Indispensable.

Mary came under John’s “protection” and fell pregnant immediately, they went on to have two children. Mary, was "keeping the home fires burning" as John was away for months at a time either whaling or otherwise working his trade as a ship's captain; the longest time that Mary got to spend with Black was from 11 January 1801 to 1 January 1802, when he entered into the liquor trade and established a shop on his leased land. On 31 May 1799, Mary gave birth at home to John Henry Black. Home since March had been on land leased from the government by John Black, near what is now De Mestre Place in Sydney, on the eastern side of George Street, between Hunter Street and Martin Place. Three days after the birth Black again sailed, Mary was left to care for her newborn alone until he next returned. John Black's business saw him sailing in and out of the port of Sydney, their child was not baptised until he was three months old. In 1800 it was recorded that ‘’Mary Hide and her son were off the’’ ‘’stores’’.

This was because Mary "living on the lease of Mr. Black. On 7 September 1801, Governor Philip Gidley King granted Mary Hyde an Absolute Pardon, eighteen months before her sentence would have expired. Back in January 1801, when John Black had returned to Sydney from one of his long voyages, Mary Hyde became pregnant with their second child. Mary Ann Black was born at home on 1 October 1801. On 1 January 1802, after being home for nearly 12 months, Black sailed for Bombay and Calcutta in the Fly. Mary was left at home as the sole parent of two children under the age of three, one only 3 months old. In about May 1802, on the return voyage from Kolkata, John Black's ship was lost at sea with all hands. News did not reach Sydney until 12 m

Hush! Girls Don't Scream

"Hush! Girls Don't Scream", it is about a woman on death row for killing a man. Most of the movie's characters seem to feel her actions were justified, unlike the judicial system of Iran, her lawyer tries to save her. The film stars Shahab Hosseini and Merila Zarei. On her wedding night, Shirin is arrested for murdering the janitor of their home building, she refuses to talk to the police, who believe the janitor was blackmailing her with something until she grew tired and decided to kill him. The detective informs her fiance that she has canceled her marriage with two other men which appears to be what she did not want to get revealed; the fiance gets angry and his father encourages him to forget her. Shirin's parents hire a famously skilled lawyer, who visits Shirin in detention and manages to make her state her first words after arrest; the lawyer considers this a start and learns from Shirin's mother that in contrast to Shirin's two previous marriage attempts, she chose the last one herself. The lawyer meets the fiance, who agrees to help.

He asks her for her motive. She begins to reveal her story: When she was a child, her parents were at work most of the time and entrusted her to an assistant named Morad, who abused her and took pictures of her while they were alone; the police arrest Morad. However, when pictures of other girls are found in his house, he is tortured until he confesses to dozens of sexual abuses; as a result, he is sentenced to death. Shirin is asked of the reason she killed the janitor, she reveals that as she was preparing to join her fiance, she noticed her neighbors' daughter being abused by the janitor. She killed the janitor; the detective and the lawyer debrief the abused girl and her parents, who refuse to testify, as the disclosure of the daughter's abuse can ruin the family's reputation and become a scandal, not accepted in Iranian culture. The lawyer tries another way to help Shirin's case, she brings a psychologist to the trial, where the latter states that traumatic events in childhood can affect the person's mental state and behavior.

The court does not accept sentences Shirin to death for the murder. Since the death sentence can be replaced by blood money if a family member of the victim exists, the lawyer and the fiance search for the janitor's family, they discover that there is a living brother, the fiance meets a carpet salesman who knows of the brother's whereabouts. The salesman refuses to talk; the fiance threatens to burn the carpets and the salesman reveals the location. The fiance and the lawyer discover the brother is dying of a drug overdose, they take him to a hospital but the brother dies. As a result, Shirin is transferred for execution. Tannaz Tabatabaei as ShirinShahab Hosseini as the detectiveMerila Zarei as Shirin's lawyerBabak Hamidian as MoradJamshid Hashempur as a police officerNima Safayi as Shirin's fianceAmir Aghaei as Shirin's neighborFarhad A-Ish as the wardenShirin Bina as Shirin's neighborSetareh Eskandari as the psychologistReza Tavakkoli as the carpet salesman Hush! Girls don't scream official website Hush!

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