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Viterbo

Viterbo is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo. It absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento in its early history, it is 80 kilometres north of GRA on the Via Cassia, it is surrounded by the Monti Cimini and Monti Volsini. The historic center of the city is surrounded by medieval walls, still intact, built during the 11th and 12th centuries. Entrance to the walled center of the city is through ancient gates. Apart from agriculture, the main resources of Viterbo's area are pottery and wood; the town is home to the Italian gold reserves, an important Academy of Fine Arts, the University of Tuscia, the Italian Army's Aviation Command headquarters and training centre. It is located in a wide thermal area; the first report of the new city dates to the eighth century AD, when it is identified as Castrum Viterbii. It was fortified in 773 by the Lombard King Desiderius in his vain attempt to conquer Rome; when the popes switched to the Frankish support, Viterbo became part of the Papal States, but this status was to be contested by the emperors in the following centuries, until in 1095 it is known it was a free comune.

In a period in which the popes had difficulties asserting their authority over Rome, Viterbo became their favourite residence, beginning with Pope Eugene III, besieged in vain in the city walls. In 1164, Frederick Barbarossa made Viterbo the seat of his antipope Paschal III. Three years he gave it the title of "city" and used its militias against Rome. In 1172, Viterbo started its expansion, destroying the old city of Ferento and conquering other lands. In this age it was a rich and prosperous comune, one of the most important of Central Italy, with a population of 60,000. In 1207, Pope Innocent III held a council in the cathedral, but the city was excommunicated as the favourite seat of the heretical Patarines and defeated by the Romans. In 1210, Viterbo managed to defeat Emperor Otto IV and was again at war against Rome. In the thirteenth century it was ruled alternately by the tyrants of the Di Vico families. Frederick II drew Viterbo to the Ghibelline side in 1240, but when the citizens expelled his turbulent German troops in 1243 he returned and besieged the city, but in vain.

From that point Viterbo was always a loyal Guelph city. Between 1257 and 1261 it was the seat of Pope Alexander IV, who died there, his successor Urban IV was elected in Viterbo. In 1266–1268, Clement IV chose Viterbo as the base of his ruthless fight against the Hohenstaufen. Here, from the loggia of the papal palace, he excommunicated the army of Conradin of Swabia, passing on the Via Cassia, with the prophetical motto of the "lamb, going to the sacrifice". Other popes elected in Viterbo were Gregory X and John XXI, Nicholas III and the French Martin IV; the Viterbese, who did not agree with the election of a foreigner directed by the King of Naples, Charles I of Anjou, invaded the cathedral where the conclave was held, arresting two of the cardinals. They were subsequently excommunicated, the popes avoided Viterbo for 86 years. Without the popes, the city fell into the hands of the Di Vicos. In the fourteenth century, Giovanni di Vico had created a seignory extending to Civitavecchia, Bolsena, Todi and Amelia.

His dominion was crushed by Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1354, sent by the Avignonese popes to recover the Papal States, who built the castle. In 1375, the city gave its keys to Francesco Di Vico, son of the previous tyrant, but thirteen years the people killed him and assigned the city first to Pope Urban VI, to Giovanni di Sciarra di Vico, Francesco's cousin, but Pope Boniface IX's troops drove him away in 1396 and established a firm papal suzerainty over the city. The last Di Vico to hold power in Viterbo was Giacomo, defeated in 1431. Thenceforth Viterbo became a city of secondary importance, following the vicissitudes of the Papal States. In the 16th century it was the birthplace of Latino Latini, it became part of Italy in 1871. In 1927 Viterbo was made a provincial capital. During World War II Viterbo was occupied by the Wehrmacht after the Armistice of Cassibile and bombed by the Allies, suffering over twenty raids between July 1943 and June 1944. Viterbo has two heraldic badges in its coat of the Lion and the Palm Tree.

The lion represents one of the mythological founders of Viterbo. The palm tree was added sometime in the early Middle Ages when Viterbo conquered and absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento; the letters FAUL surround the badges. It is unclear; some suggest the four legendary Etruscan nobles families, believed to be involved in the founding of the city, while others claim that they are in reference to the four hills of Viterbo. Viterbo experiences a border line humid subtropical climate and Mediterranean climate as only one summer month is below the 40 mm precipitation limit. Viterbo's historic center is one of the best preserved medieval towns of central Italy. Many of the older buildings are built on top of ancient ruins, recognizable by their large stones, 50 centimeters to a side. Viterbo is unique in It

1965 UCLA Bruins football team

The 1965 UCLA Bruins football team represented University of California, Los Angeles in the 1965 NCAA University Division football season. The team was coached by Tommy Prothro. Under freshman quarterback Gary Beban, the team finished the season with an 8–2–1 record and the conference championship; the Bruins lost their season opening game 13–3 at Michigan State, who rose to become a top-ranked team in the country. The unheralded Bruins would go on a seven-game undefeated streak, surprising national powers like Syracuse and Penn State. Going into the 1965 UCLA-USC rivalry football game ranked #7, the conference championship and 1966 Rose Bowl were on the line. #6 USC, led by Heisman Trophy winner Mike Garrett led 16–6 until UCLA got a touchdown on a pass from Gary Beban to Dick Witcher with four minutes to play. After the two-point conversion made it 16–14, UCLA recovered an onside kick. Beban hit Kurt Altenberg on a 50-yard bomb and UCLA won, 20–16. Integrated UCLA faced all-white Tennessee in the newly built Liberty Bowl stadium in Memphis, Prothro's native city.

On the last play of the game, Tennessee defensive back Bob Petrella intercepted a UCLA pass to save a Volunteer win by a score of 37–34. Tennessee's winning drive was aided by a controversial pass interference call, the clock had questionably stopped twice, a dropped pass that appeared to be a lateral was recovered by UCLA but was ruled an incomplete forward pass. After the game, Prothro stated, "For the first time in my life, I am ashamed to be a Southerner." The Bruins went to the 1966 Rose Bowl as a 141/2 point underdog in a rematch with undefeated and #1 ranked powerhouse Michigan State. UCLA, now dubbed "The Miracle Bruins" by Sports Illustrated, vanquished the favored Spartans 14–12; that victory gave UCLA an 8–2–1 mark, prevented the Spartans from winning the AP title, resulted in Prothro earning Coach of the Year accolades from his coaching colleagues. UCLA finished #4 that season, due to their small size, earned the moniker "Gutty little Bruins." Source: 1st quarter scoring: No scoring 2nd quarter scoring: UCLA — Gary Beban 1-yard run.

10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

The 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party was held during March 8–16, 1921 in Moscow. Halfway through the Congress, the Kronstadt uprising started; the Congress was attended by 296 non-voting delegates. The Agenda consisted of: ) Report of the Central Committee. C. P.'s representative in the Comintern, its current tasks. C. P.'s representatives in the International Trade Union Council. Major decisions included: A ban on internal factions in the Russian Communist Party; these factions included Workers' Opposition, Democratic Centralists, who wanted more Soviet autonomy. The New Economic Policy was decided. Foreign trade and heavy industry would stay in state hands, the rest was privatized; the result of the debate on the trade unions was a rejection by the congress of the views of Trotsky, supported by the 9th Secretariat, the Workers' Opposition and the Democratic Centralists. The resolution On the Role and Tasks of the Trade Unions, which incorporated Lenin's definition of the role of the trade unions as educational organizations and schools of administration, economic management, communism, was adopted by a majority vote.

Speeches by V. I. Lenin at the Tenth Congress of the R. C. P. Collected Works, 1st English Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965, Volume 32, pages 165-271

Chegaste

"Chegaste" is a song recorded by Brazilian recording artist Roberto Carlos and American recording artist Jennifer Lopez. The song was first written in Spanish and recorded in Portuguese; the latter version was released on her YouTube on December 15, 2016 and was released for digital download and on Spotify the next day being included on Carlos' 2017 self-titled extended play. The original version of the song, "Llegaste", was released on Carlos' Spanish album Amor Sin Límite. In October 2016, Billboard magazine confirmed that Lopez is working on her second Spanish album, set to be released in 2017 through Sony Music Latin. Marc Anthony serves as executive producer for the album; the following month, she released a cover version of the single "Olvidame y Pega la Vuelta", a duet with Anthony, as the album's first single. Puerto Rican singer-songwriter Kany García posted a photo with Lopez and Carlos on October 17, revealing that the singers had collaborated. Carlos traveled to Los Angeles. O Globo reported.

"Chegaste" was released via digital platforms on December 16, 2016. Of working with Carlos, Lopez tweeted: "Honored & excited to have worked with such a living legend like Roberto Carlos." "Chegaste" is a ballad, composed by Kany García. It is Lopez's first song to feature her singing in Portuguese, its instrumentation includes the chords of a guitar. Carlos described the song lyrically as "a romantic ballad"; the official music video for "Chegaste" was shot in Los Angeles, premiered on Carlos' special on Rede Globo on December 23, 2016

Samuel Grant

Samuel Grant, Maroon officer from Charles Town, Jamaica. Sam Grant was an officer of the Jamaican Maroons. Grant first came to prominence as a member of a team of Windward Maroons that came under the command of Scott's Hall officer Davy the Maroon, who may have been his father. In 1774, Grant killed a white sea captain named Townshend and his black slave while hunting runaways near Hellshire Beach, fled to Moore Town for refuge. Admiral George Rodney, in Kingston at the time, sent a fleet to Port Antonio in anticipation of a Maroon revolt. There was a stand-off as the Maroons stood by Grant, but the white Superintendent-General, Robert Brereton, persuaded the Moore Town Maroons to hand over Grant, who stood trial at Spanish Town. However, much to the surprise of local planters, Grant was acquitted of the murder of Townshend. Grant returned to Charles Town, where he rose through the ranks of the Maroon officer class becoming a major and nominally leader of the Maroon town, a post he held for many years.

In 1781, Grant was a part of the Maroon party that hunted and killed the notorious leader of a community of runaway slaves, Three Fingered Jack. Grant made a career hunting runaway slaves for neighbouring planters, but in 1797 he lodged a complaint about the length of time it took for the colonial authorities to pay him his rewards. During the Second Maroon War of 1795-6, the Windward Maroons remained neutral, but the governor, Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres, ordered Grant to lead a party of Charles Town Maroons to Kingston to await his orders. However, an obeah man advised Grant that Balcarres planned to deport them, Grant, suspicious of the governor, led his men back to their Maroon town in the Blue Mountains. Balcarres admitted that he had indeed planned to deport the Windward Maroons. From the 1790s until his death, Grant was the leading Maroon officer in Charles Town, first as a major and promoted to colonel. In 1807, the colonial authorities exposed a slave conspiracy, one of the informers claimed that the Charles Town Maroons were conspirators.

Grant, the elderly leader of Charles Town, denied the charges. William Anderson Orgill, the magistrate who investigated the case, dismissed the evidence of the slave conspirators, chose to believe Grant's expressions of loyalty. Sam Grant died in 1808

Transport vessels for the cancelled British invasion of Île de France (1794)

In 1794, after the onset of the French Revolutionary Wars the British government contemplated an invasion of Île de France. To that end it detained at Portsmouth a large number of East Indiamen sailing for the British East India Company; the government in May 1794 released the vessels it had detained. When it did so, it paid demurrage for having delayed the vessels' voyages to the China; the British government invaded and captured Île de France in 1810. This time the transport vessels the British government hired were "country ships", vessels registered in ports of British India such as Bombay and Calcutta, it hired a small number of EIC vessels that had arrived at Madras or Calcutta