Vitruvian Man

The Vitruvian Man is a drawing made by the Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci in about 1490. It is accompanied by notes based on the work of the Roman architect Vitruvius; the drawing, in ink on paper, depicts a man in two superimposed positions with his arms and legs apart and inscribed in a circle and square. It is kept in the Gabinetto dei disegni e delle stampe of the Gallerie dell'Accademia, in Venice, under reference 228. Like most works on paper, it is displayed to the public only so it is not part of the normal exhibition of the museum; the work is, however, on display at the Louvre's exhibit of Da Vinci's work, from 24 October 2019 to 24 February 2020 as part of an agreement between France and Italy. The drawing represents ideal human body proportions, its inscription in a square and a circle comes from a description by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise De architectura. Yet, as it has been demonstrated, Leonardo did not represent Vitruvius's proportions of the limbs but included those he found himself after measuring male models in Milan.

While the drawing is named after Vitruvius, some scholars today question the appropriateness of such a title. This image demonstrates the blend of mathematics and art during the Renaissance and demonstrates Leonardo's deep understanding of proportion. In addition, this picture represents a cornerstone of Leonardo's attempts to relate man to nature. Encyclopædia Britannica online states, "Leonardo envisaged the great picture chart of the human body he had produced through his anatomical drawings and Vitruvian Man as a cosmografia del minor mondo, he believed the workings of the human body to be an analogy for the workings of the universe."According to Leonardo's preview in the accompanying text, written in mirror writing, it was made as a study of the proportions of the human body as described in Vitruvius' De architectura 3.1.2–3, which reads: For the human body is so designed by nature that the face, from the chin to the top of the forehead and the lowest roots of the hair, is a tenth part of the whole height.

If we take the height of the face itself, the distance from the bottom of the chin to the under side of the nostrils is one third of it. The length of the foot is one sixth of the height of the body; the other members, have their own symmetrical proportions, it was by employing them that the famous painters and sculptors of antiquity attained to great and endless renown. In the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole. Again, in the human body the central point is the navel. For if a man be placed flat on his back, with his hands and feet extended, a pair of compasses centred at his navel, the fingers and toes of his two hands and feet will touch the circumference of a circle described therefrom, and just as the human body yields a circular outline, so too a square figure may be found from it. For if we measure the distance from the soles of the feet to the top of the head, apply that measure to the outstretched arms, the breadth will be found to be the same as the height, as in the case of plane surfaces which are square.

Yet, while Leonardo shows direct knowledge of Vitruvius, his drawing does not follow the description of the ancient text. In drawing the circle and square he observes that the square cannot have the same centre as the circle, but is centered at the groin; this adjustment is the innovative part of Leonardo's drawing and what distinguishes it from earlier illustrations. He departs from Vitruvius by drawing the arms raised to a position in which the fingertips are level with the top of the head, rather than Vitruvius's much lower angle, in which the arms form lines passing through the navel, it may be noticed by examining the drawing that the combination of arm and leg positions creates sixteen different poses. The pose with the arms straight out and the feet together is seen to be inscribed in the superimposed square. On the other hand, the spread-eagle pose is seen to be inscribed in the superimposed circle. Leonardo's collaboration with Luca Pacioli, the author of Divina proportione have led some to speculate that he incorporated the golden ratio in Vitruvian Man, but this is not supported by any of Leonardo's writings, its proportions do not match the golden ratio precisely.

The Vitruvian man is to have been drawn before Leonardo met Pacioli. Many artists attempted to design figures which would satisfy Vitruvius' claim that a human could fit into both a circle and a square. Leonardo may have been influenced by the work of his friend Giacomo Andrea, a Renaissance architect and an expert on Vitruvius. Andrea's drawing features erasure marks; as with Leonardo's Vitruvian Man, Andrea's circle is centered on the navel, but only one pose is included. The text is in two parts and below the image; the upper part paraphrases Vitruvius: Vetruvio, puts in

Roy Rogers Restaurants

Roy Rogers Franchise Company, LLC is a chain of fast food restaurants located in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. The chain originated as the rebranding of the RoBee's House of Beef chain of Fort Wayne, Indiana acquired by the Marriott Corporation in February 1968. However, Marriott first used the Roy Rogers Roast Beef name on conversions of the company's Junior Hot Shoppes in the Washington D. C. area in April 1968 the existing RoBee's stores. An aggressive nationwide franchising campaign was launched. At its peak, the chain included over 600 locations; the Chain has 48 locations. The Roy Rogers chain was sold in 1990 to Imasco the parent company of Hardee's, experienced severe decline as many locations were converted to Hardee's stores. In 2002, the trademark was purchased by Plamondon Companies; as of August 2019, Roy Rogers has 48 locations. Roy Rogers' menu consists of hamburgers, roast beef sandwiches, fried chicken, nine side items, beverages. Many locations serve breakfast.

In 1967 the Azar's Big Boy restaurant franchise started RoBee's House of Beef restaurants in Ft. Wayne, Indiana; the Marriott Corp. which had acquired Bob's Big Boy and the Big Boy trademark in 1967, acquired RoBee's in February 1968 with plans to expand nationwide. RoBee's franchises would first be offered to Big Boy franchisees to coincide with their existing Big Boy territory. At the time there were 13 RoBee's restaurants in six states. During the acquisition, in January 1968, the competing roast beef chain Arby's sued RoBee's for trademark infringement and unfair competition; because "RoBee's" sounded too much like "Arby's" the settlement required a new brand name and Marriott wanted something recognizable. Big Boy founder Bob Wian sitting on Marriott's board of directors, was friends with Roy Rogers' agent and suggested that the company approach Rogers about the use of his name. Interested in associating with a chain restaurant, Rogers was in similar discussions with another company when Marriott called.

Nonetheless, he accepted Marriott's offer: Rogers would receive a licensing fee for use of his name and be paid for personal appearances at the restaurants. The restaurants would be called "Roy Rogers Roast Beef Sandwich" restaurants, despite Arby's complaints, it retained RoBee's building design and covered wagon logo design. Several major Big Boy franchisees accepted Marriott's offer and became Roy Rogers regional franchisees, including Abdow's, Frisch's, Elias Brothers, Marc's, Shoney's which together covered much of the Northeastern and Southern US. Pittsburgh franchisee Eat'n Park rejected the offer and took public offense at paying fees to Rogers. In the Pittsburgh area and elsewhere, other regional franchisees were sought who would subfranchise to smaller operators, by January 1969 Marriott claimed regional franchises for every state but Alaska. Roy Rogers' restaurants opened in Canada, franchised to that nation's Big Boy franchisee, JB's of Canada. Marriott divided the United States into 33 franchise regions and required regional franchisees open a set number of restaurants in a four-year period.

Regional franchisees would pay Marriott a 2% royalty, subfranchisees pay the regional franchisee 3%, who would keep the additional 1%. A restaurant required a $35,000 cash investment upfront, including $7,500 paid to Marriott. Additionally, the cost of the building and equipment, with seating for 42 persons, cost about $100,000 in 1968, excluding the cost of land. Marriott charged an interest rate of 12 % on land and 17 % for the building; the prototype restaurant seated 40 to 45 persons with additional outdoor seating on an optional patio in front of the building, but actual restaurants varied, one franchisee's dining area accommodating 75 persons. The first Roy Rogers restaurant opened in April 1968 in the Bailey's Crossroads section of Falls Church, Virginia, on the corner of Leesburg Pike and Carlin Springs Road. Another opened in Bethesda, Maryland; the area was selected because Marriott was headquartered in metropolitan Washington, D. C. the River Road unit located directly across the street.

These first locations were conversions of Jr. Hot Shoppes, Marriott's existing fast food chain. In May 1968, RoBee's units began to open as Roy Rogers. Rogers made a four state tour of namesake restaurants in the Southern U. S. appearing at each location for an hour, shaking hands and handing out signed photographs. Filming for the first television commercials advertising Roy Rogers Restaurants took place in the Apple Valley, California area where Rogers lived with his family. In 1968 and 1969, Rogers and friends, Earl Bascom and Mel Marion, were filmed at various locations including the historic Las Flores Ranch in Summit Valley and the Campbell Ranch in Victorville. Rapid growth began in 1968 and Marriott made optimistic projections. In October 1968, there were 38 units open and 65 under construction, by December, 56 open and 39 under construction. Marriott projected 700 or more Roy Rogers restaurants in four years. By June 1969, 105 units were open with a new projection of 870 in four years. A February 1970 newspaper article reported.

However, growth halted in 1970, when Marriott suspended Roy Rogers franchising, due to financial losses from closings of failing locations. The following year, the Texas–based regional franchise, Ram-Hart Systems, filed for Chapter 11 protection, asking to terminate leases found unprofitable, which were making the entire chain unprofitable. After franchising resumed, only 172 restauran


Liddeston is a small coastal village in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It belongs to the Milford North ward of the community of Milford Haven in the historical hundred of Roose, it is located to the north of the village of Hubberston. The area which became Liddeston, was a small hamlet or farm, granted to the nearby Benedictine priory known as Pill Priory in the mid thirteenth century; the original settlement was recorded as'Lidden's township'. The settlement, along with the priory, was acquired in the 16th century by the Barlows of Slebech, it formed a main thoroughfare linking the hamlets of Lower Priory where the 12th century Pill Priory ruins are situated and Hubberston. Before the construction of Milford Docks, the waterway at Liddeston, known as Havens Head, provided shelter for vessels and processed unloaded lime; the opening of the docks meant that this trade ceased, brought unemployment to the community. To the north west of Liddeston, on an exposed crest of a nearby hill, is the'Long Stone', a standing stone.

The Long Stone is of redstone, but little of it now remains