Brookley Air Force Base
For the civil use of Brookley AFB after 1969, see: Mobile Downtown AirportBrookley Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in Mobile, Alabama. After it closed in 1969, it became. Brookley Air Force Base had its aeronautical beginnings with Mobile's first municipal airport, the original Bates Field. However, the site itself had been occupied from the time of Mobile's founding, starting with the home of Mobile's founding father, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, in the early 18th century. In 1938 the Army Air Corps took over the 1,000-acre Bates Field site and established the Brookley Army Air Field; the military was attracted to the site because of the area's good flying weather and the bay-front location, but Alabama Congressman Frank Boykin's influence in Washington was important in convincing the Army to locate the new military field in Mobile instead of Tampa, Florida. However that year, Tampa was chosen for a military flying installation of its own, which would be named MacDill Field, home of present-day MacDill Air Force Base.
During World War II, Brookley Army Air Field became the major Army Air Forces supply base for the Air Material Command in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean. Many air depot personnel, logisticians and other support personnel were trained at Brookley during the war. Both Air Materiel and Technical Services Command organized mobile Depot Groups at Brookley once trained were deployed around the world as Air Depot Groups, Depot Repair Squadrons, Quartermaster Squadrons, Ordnance Maintenance, Military Police, many other units whose mission was to support the front-line combat units with depot-level maintenance for aircraft and logistical support to maintain their operations. Air Transport Command operated large numbers of cargo and passenger aircraft from the base as part of its Domestic Wing. During the war, Brookley became Mobile's largest employer, with about 17,000 skilled civilians capable of performing delicate work with fragile instruments and machinery. In 1944, the Army decided to take advantage of Brookley's large, skilled workforce for its top-secret "Ivory Soap" project to hasten victory in the Pacific.
The project required 24 large vessels to be re-modeled into Aircraft Repair and Maintenance Units that had to be able to accommodate B-29 bombers, P-51 Mustangs, R-4B Sikorsky helicopters, amphibious vehicles. The Air Force delivered all 24 vessels to Alabama, in spring 1944 to start remodeling; some 5,000 men underwent a complex training process that prepared them to rebuild the vessels and operate them once on the water. By the end of the year, the vessels departed Mobile. One of the keys to Allied victory in Europe was the Norden Bomb Sight, which enabled bomber squadrons to target Germany's war-making industry and infrastructure much more accurately; the military repaired and calibrated the bombsights at Brookley in a secret facility, still standing and in use today. In 1944 with the closure of the Army contract flying school at nearby Bates Army Airfield, Air Transport Command operations were shifted to Bates to alleviate runway traffic at Brookley. Late in 1945 Bates Field was returned to civil ATC operations returned to Brookley.
Following World War II and the creation of an independent United States Air Force, the installation became Brookley Air Force Base. In 1947 with the closure of Morrison Field, the C-74 Globemaster project was moved to Brookley; the C-74 was, at the time, the largest military transport aircraft in the world. It was developed by Douglas Aircraft after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the long distances across the Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean to the combat areas indicated a need for a transoceanic heavy-lift military transport aircraft. The "C-74 squadron", Air Transport Command operated two squadrons of C-74 Globemasters from Brookley from 1947 until their retirement in 1955; the eleven aircraft were used extensively for worldwide transport of personnel and equipment, supporting United States military missions. They saw extensive service supporting the Berlin Airlift and the Korean War being used on scheduled MATS overseas routes though the late 1940s and mid-1950s. Additionally, logistic support flights for Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command saw the Globemaster in North Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, within the United States.
Two C-74s were used to support the first TAC Republic F-84 Thunderjet flight across the Pacific Ocean to Japan. SAC continued to use the Globemasters to rotate Boeing B-47 Stratojet Medium Bombardment Groups on temporary duty in England and Morocco as part of their REFLEX operation; the C-74s were retired in 1955 due to lack of logistical support. The 1701st ATW flew strategic airlift missions on a worldwide scale with its C-124 Globemaster II fleet after the retirement of the C-74 until 1957 when Military Air Transport Service moved out of Brookley AFB and the base came under the full jurisdiction of Air Material Command. In 1962, the Air Material Command was renamed as the Air Force Logistics Command and Brookley AFB became an AFLC installation and the host base of the modification and repair center's successor organization, the Mobile Air Materiel Area. After an immediate end to many of the wartime jobs of World War II, the base's civilian workforce again expanded to around 16,000 people by 1962, a result of both the Cold War and other USAF base closings in other areas of the country.
During this time, AFLC's Mobile Air Materiel Area provided depot-level maintenance for various USAF aircraft of the period, to include the C-119 Flying Boxcar
Monroe County, Alabama
Monroe County is a county in the southern part of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,068, its county seat is Monroeville. Its name is in honor of James Monroe, fifth President of the United States, it is a dry county, in which the sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or prohibited, but Frisco City and Monroeville are wet cities. In 1997, the Alabama Legislature designated Monroeville and Monroe County as the "Literary Capital of Alabama." It is the birthplace of notable writer Harper Lee and served as the childhood home for Truman Capote, her lifelong friend and a fellow writer. Lee lived here most of her life, the enduring popularity of her novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, has attracted tourists to the city and area. For thousands of years the area was inhabited by indigenous peoples. In historic times, it was the territory of the Creek peoples, who became known to European-American settlers as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast; the prominent Upper Creek chief Red Eagle, of the Wind Clan, settled here after the Creek War.
At the time, the United States was involved in the War of 1812 against Great Britain. Red Eagle established a successful cotton plantation, he was of Creek and European descent, had adopted the system of chattel slavery to gain workers for his plantation and horse breeding. The United States forced the removal of most of the Creek people from Alabama to Indian Territory in the 1830s; the area was settled by European Americans of English and Scots-Irish descent. It was developed as cotton plantations in the antebellum years. Planters moving from the Upper South sometimes brought slave workers with them, or purchased more slaves from traders and markets after acquiring land; the population was made up of numerous slaves. Following the American Civil War and Emancipation, in the period after the Reconstruction era and into the early 20th century, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature and worked to restore and maintain white supremacy; the legislature passed a new constitution in 1901 that disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites, excluding them from the political system.
The legislators passed laws imposing racial segregation and other forms of Jim Crow, centralized power in the legislature. White physical attacks against blacks were part of the oppressive social system. Racial terrorism was accomplished through lynchings of African Americans of men, which took place outside the justice system but were public displays on the courthouse square, spectacles attended by large white mobs in a public display of their power. Monroe had a total of 17 lynchings from 1877 to 1950, the third-highest number of any county in Alabama; the county seat, Monroeville, is the home of two notable 20th-century authors, Truman Capote and Nelle Harper Lee, who were childhood neighbors. The novelist Mark Childress and journalist Cynthia Tucker are Monroe County natives. In 1997 the Alabama legislature designated Monroeville and Monroe County as the "Literary Capital of Alabama." The county is affected by storms from the Gulf. It has twice been declared a disaster area by the federal government due to extensive hurricane damage: in September 1979 due to Hurricane Frederic, in September 2004 due to Hurricane Ivan.
Attorney Bryan Stevenson published his memoir, Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption in 2014. He has worked since his early 20s in Montgomery, establishing the Equal Justice Initiative and serving as legal counsel for people on death row in Alabama prisons, he has succeeded in gaining freedom for more than 100 men. Among the cases he discusses is that of Walter McMillan of Monroeville, wrongfully convicted of murder in 1989. McMillan, an African American from Monroe County, was sentenced to death by the trial judge, who overrode the sentence reached by the jury. McMillan was kept on death row for 6 years, nearly 2 of which were prior to his trial, in an effort to make him confess; the Alabama Appeals Court ruled in 1993 that McMillan should be freed because of the lack of evidence, his alibi, the unreliability of witnesses, mishandling of the trial. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,034 square miles, of which 1,026 square miles is land and 8.7 square miles is water.
U. S. Highway 84 State Route 21 State Route 41 State Route 47 State Route 59 State Route 83 State Route 136 Wilcox County Butler County Conecuh County Escambia County Baldwin County Clarke County According to the 2010 United States Census: 55.1% White 41.7% Black 1.1% Native American 0.3% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.4% Two or more ethnicites 1.0% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2000, there were 24,324 people, 9,383 households and 6,774 families residing in the county. The population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 11,343 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the ethnic makeup of the county was 57.75% White, 40.07% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from ], 0.79% from two or more ethnicities while 0.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any ethnicity. There were 9,383 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.30% married couples living together, 16.10% with a female householder and no husband present and 27.80% non-families.
More than a quarter (25.70%
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
James Howard Meredith is a Civil Rights Movement figure, political adviser and Air Force veteran. In 1962, he became the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, after the intervention of the federal government, an event, a flashpoint in the Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address, Meredith decided to exercise his constitutional rights and apply to the University of Mississippi, his goal was to put pressure on the Kennedy administration to enforce civil rights for African Americans. In 1966 Meredith planned a solo 220-mile March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, he did not want major civil rights organizations involved. The second day, he suffered numerous wounds. Leaders of major organizations vowed to complete the march in his name after he was taken to the hospital. While Meredith was recovering, more people from across the country became involved as marchers, he rejoined the march and when Meredith and other leaders entered Jackson on June 26, they were leading an estimated 15,000 marchers, in what was the largest civil rights march in Mississippi.
During the course of it, more than 4,000 African Americans had registered to vote, the march was a catalyst to continued community organizing and additional registration. In 2002 and again in 2012, the University of Mississippi led year-long series of events to celebrate the 40th and 50th anniversaries of Meredith's integration of the institution, he was among numerous speakers invited to the campus. The Lyceum-The Circle Historic District at the center of the campus has been designated as a National Historic Landmark for these events. Meredith was born in 1933 in Kosciusko, the son of Roxie and Moses Meredith, he is of African-American, British Canadian and Choctaw heritage. His family nickname was "J-Boy". European traders intermarried with some Choctaw during the colonial period. In the 1830s, thousands of Choctaw chose to stay in Mississippi and become United States citizens when most of the tribe left their traditional homeland for Indian Territory during the federally imposed removal; those in the state had unions with European Americans and African Americans, adding to the multi-racial population in the developing territory.
Meredith completed the 11th grade at Attala County Training School and he completed the 12th grade at Gibbs High School in St. Petersburg, Florida, he graduated from high school in 1951. Meredith enlisted in the United States Air Force, he served from 1951 to 1960. Afterward Meredith attended Jackson State University for two years. In 1961, inspired the day before by President John F. Kennedy, Meredith started to apply to the University of Mississippi, intending to insist on his civil rights to attend the state-funded university, it still admitted only white students under the state's culture of racial segregation, although the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, as they are supported by all the taxpayers. Meredith wrote in his application that he wanted admission for his country, race and himself, he said, Nobody handpicked me... I believed, believe now, that I have a Divine Responsibility... I am familiar with the probable difficulties involved in such a move as I am undertaking and I am prepared to pursue it all the way to a degree from the University of Mississippi.
He was twice denied admission. During this time, he was advised by Medgar Evers, head of the state chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. On May 31, 1961, with backing of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, filed suit in the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi, alleging that the university had rejected him only because of his race, as he had a successful record of military service and academic courses; the case went through many hearings, after which the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that Meredith had the right to be admitted to the state school. The state appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, which supported the ruling of the appeals court. On September 13, 1962, the District Court entered an injunction directing the members of the Board of Trustees and the officials of the University to register Meredith; the Democratic Governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, declared "no school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your governor".
The state legislature created a plan. They passed a law that denied admission to any person "who has a crime of moral turpitude against him" or, convicted of any felony offense or not pardoned; the same day it became law, Meredith was accused and convicted of "false voter registration," in absentia, in Jackson County. The conviction against Meredith was trumped up: Meredith both owned land in northern Mississippi and was registered to vote in Jackson, where he lived. "Later the clerk testified that Meredith was qualified to register and vote in Jackson." On September 20, the federal government gained an enjoinment against enforcement of this Act and of the two state court decrees that had barred Meredith's registration. That day Meredith was rebuffed again by Governor Barnett in his efforts to gain admission, though university officials were prepared to admit him. On September 28, the Court of Appeals, en banc and
Northwestern University Press
Northwestern University Press is affiliated with Northwestern University in Evanston, IL. It publishes 70 new titles each year in the areas of continental philosophy, Slavic studies, German studies, literary criticism, world classics, poetry, theater, critical ethnic studies and Chicago regional studies, it is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Founded in 1893, Northwestern University Press was dedicated to the publication of legal periodicals and scholarly legal texts. In 1957, the Press was established as a separate university publishing company and began expanding its offerings with new series in various fields. In 1963, the Press published Viola Spolin's landmark volume, Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, which has sold more than 100,000 copies since its publication; the 1960s saw the beginnings of the Northwestern University Press-Newberry Library alliance in publishing the definitive edition of the writings of Herman Melville in conjunction with the Modern Language Association.
In 1992, Northwestern University Press and TriQuarterly magazine partnered to establish the TriQuarterly Books imprint, dedicated to contemporary American fiction and poetry. In 2010, Northwestern University Press acquired the publisher of international literature and Latin American voices, Curbstone Press. Northwestern University Press publishes a wide range of theater titles. Anchored by Viola Spolin's Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, Northwestern's theater list includes works by Tony and Academy Award winners such as Mary Zimmerman, Tracy Letts, Bruce Norris, Horton Foote, as well as playwrights David Ives and Craig Wright; the Press has received many accolades, including major translation awards for Fyodor Dostoevsky's Writer's Diary: Volume I, 1873–1876, translated by Kenneth Lantz. In 1997 the Press won the National Book Award for Poetry for William Meredith's Effort at Speech, followed by a 2011 win for Nikky Finney's Head Off & Split. Several of the Press's titles, including Fording the Stream of Consciousness, Still Waters in Niger, The Book of Hrabal, have been named Notable Books by the New York Times Book Review.
Florida, a novel by Christine Schutt, was a finalist for a National Book Award in 2004. The Press published two novels by the winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize for Literature, Hungarian author Imre Kertész. Northwestern University Press published Herta Müller's novel Traveling on One Leg which won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2009. NU Press's "Forest Primeval" won the 2017 Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award, Patricia Smith's "Incendiary Art" won the same award in 2019. For "Incendiary Art," Patricia Smith won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for poetry in 2018. Official website of Northwestern University Press