Vivien Leigh (, born Vivian Mary Hartley and styled as Lady Olivier after 1947, was a British stage and film actress. She won two Academy Awards for Best Actress, for her definitive performances as Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind and Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire, a role she had played on stage in London's West End in 1949, she won a Tony Award for her work in the Broadway musical version of Tovarich. After completing her drama school education, Leigh appeared in small roles in four films in 1935 and progressed to the role of heroine in Fire Over England. Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that her physical attributes sometimes prevented her from being taken as an actress. Despite her fame as a screen actress, Leigh was a stage performer. During her 30-year career, she played roles ranging from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra and Lady Macbeth. In life, she performed as a character actress in a few films.
At the time, the public identified Leigh with her second husband, Laurence Olivier, her spouse from 1940 to 1960. Leigh and Olivier starred together in many stage productions, with Olivier directing, in three films, she earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, for much of her adult life, she suffered from bipolar disorder, as well as recurrent bouts of chronic tuberculosis, first diagnosed in the mid-1940s and claimed her life at the age of 53. Although her career had periods of inactivity, in 1999 the American Film Institute ranked Leigh as the 16th greatest female movie star of classic Hollywood cinema. Leigh was born Vivian Mary Hartley on 5 November 1913 in British India on the campus of St. Paul's School in Darjeeling, Bengal Presidency, she was the only child of Ernest Richard Hartley, a British broker, his wife, Gertrude Mary Frances. Her father was born in Scotland in 1882, while her mother, a devout Roman Catholic, was born in Darjeeling in 1888 and may have been of Irish and Armenian or Indian ancestry.
Gertrude's parents, who lived in India, were Michael John Yackjee, an Anglo-Indian man of independent means, Mary Teresa Robinson, born to an Irish family killed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and grew up in an orphanage, where she met Yackjee. Ernest and Gertrude Hartley were married in 1912 in London. In 1917, Ernest Hartley was transferred to Bangalore as an officer in the Indian Cavalry, while Gertrude and Vivian stayed in Ootacamund. At the age of three, young Vivian made her first stage appearance for her mother's amateur theatre group, reciting "Little Bo Peep". Gertrude Hartley tried to instill an appreciation of literature in her daughter and introduced her to the works of Hans Christian Andersen, Lewis Carroll and Rudyard Kipling, as well as stories of Greek mythology and Indian folklore. At the age of six, Vivian was sent by her mother from Loreto Convent, Darjeeling, to the Convent of the Sacred Heart situated in Roehampton, southwest London. One of her friends there was future actress Maureen O'Sullivan, two years her senior, to whom Vivian expressed her desire to become "a great actress".
She was removed from the school by her father, travelling with her parents for four years, she attended schools in Europe, notably in Dinard, the Sacred Heart in San Remo on the Italian Riviera, in Paris, becoming fluent in both French and Italian. The family returned to Britain in 1931, she attended A Connecticut Yankee, one of O'Sullivan's films playing in London's West End, told her parents of her ambitions to become an actress. Shortly after, her father enrolled Vivian at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. Vivian met Herbert Leigh Holman, known as Leigh Holman, a barrister 13 years her senior, in 1931. Despite his disapproval of "theatrical people", they married on 20 December 1932 and she terminated her studies at RADA, her attendance and interest in acting having waned after meeting Holman. On 12 October 1933 in London, she gave birth to a daughter, Suzanne Mrs. Robin Farrington. Leigh's friends suggested she take a small role as a schoolgirl in the film Things Are Looking Up, her film debut, albeit uncredited as an extra.
She engaged an agent, John Gliddon, who believed that "Vivian Holman" was not a suitable name for an actress. After rejecting his many suggestions, she took "Vivian Leigh" as her professional name. Gliddon recommended her to Alexander Korda as a possible film actress, but Korda rejected her as lacking potential, she was cast in the play The Mask of Virtue, directed by Sidney Carroll in 1935, received excellent reviews, followed by interviews and newspaper articles. One such article was from the Daily Express, in which the interviewer noted "a lightning change came over her face", the first public mention of the rapid changes in mood which had become characteristic of her. John Betjeman, the future poet laureate, described her as "the essence of English girlhood". Korda attended her opening night performance, admitted his error, signed her to a film contract, she continued with the play but, when Korda moved it to a larger theatre, Leigh was found to be unable to project her voice adequately or to hold the attention of so large an audience, the play closed soon after.
In the playbill, Carroll had revised the spelling of her first name to "Vivien". In 1960 Leigh recalled her ambivalence towards her first experience of critical a
In total there are 317 listed buildings in the city of Southampton, of which 14 are Grade I, 20 are Grade II* and the remainder Grade II. In England, a building or structure is defined as "listed" when it is placed on a statutory register of buildings of "special architectural or historic interest" by the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, a Government department, in accordance with the Planning Act 1990. English Heritage, a non-departmental public body, acts as an agency of this department to administer the process and advise the department on relevant issues. There are three grades of listing status; the Grade II designation is the lowest, is used for "nationally important buildings of special interest". Grade II* is used for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest", while Grade I, is the highest of the three grades; this list summarises 42 Grade II-listed buildings and structures whose names begin with D to L. Numbered buildings with no individual name are listed by the name of the street on which they stand.
A Location is given first as a grid reference, based on the British national grid reference system of the Ordnance Survey. B Unless otherwise stated, the descriptions are based on those on the Historic England database. C The Historic England database is the official listing and includes a description of the property, the reasons for designation, the date of listing and an extract from the Ordnance Survey map at a scale of 1:2500 pinpointing the exact location of the building. D The British Listed Buildings database includes the details of the property from the Historic England database, together with links to Google/street view, Ordnance Survey and Bing maps/birds eye view. Southampton City Council: Historic Environment Record – Listed Buildings in Southampton British Listed Buildings – Listed Buildings in Southampton
Lawrence Paros is an author and high school teacher, best known for his work in alternative education. Paros was born in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1934, he received a B. A. in History and Political Science at University of Massachusetts in Amherst, MA. In 1958, Paros received an M. A. in American Diplomatic History and Russian Studies at Yale University. Paros taught high school in many areas before becoming the chairman of the History Department at Wilbur Cross High School in New Haven, CT. While there, he developed an area-wide program that focused on contemporary issues for high school students; this program was the basis of a featured article in the Yale Alumni Magazine, which described the program and its genesis. Paros was appointed the director of the Yale Summer High School, a project to identify and educate talented youths living in poverty nationwide. After forty years, he traveled the country interviewing former students and school staff members, his accomplishments are shown in a film called Walk Right In.
The film was screened at more than a dozen venues, including the Tacoma Film Festival, International Black Film Festival of Nashville, Doc Miami International Film Festival and Show Me Social Justice International Film Festival. It was displayed at several dozen colleges and universities, including the University of WA and their TV show, Backstory. and the Harvard Graduate School of Education. It exists online at "Culture Unplugged". In Providence, R. I. he created and directed two experimental schools—The Alternate Learning Project and School One. Central to the schools’ philosophy was an effort to blur and eradicate the artificial distinction between learning and life. In keeping with the philosophy of "Project-Based Learning," all students held site-placements in the community; the school was Conformity in the American High School. Paros' published works ranging from etymology to children's books, he is the author of Dancing on the Contradictions — a book of transforming our schools, our students, ourselves.
Grounded in real life, rather than abstract theory, it features vivid snapshots of interactions with students — in their own words — the struggles that they and the author faced together, their resilience, their mutual transformation. His other published works include The Black and the Blue: The Story of the Other Yale, The Great American Cliché, The Erotic Tongue, Bawdy Language and Smashcaps, his column, A Word with You, was available in the early days of the internet. The columns served as the basis of a two volume work: A Word with You America. Bawdy Language is an updated, unexpurgated and illustrated version of The Erotic Tongue. Paros has been an op-ed page columnist for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and a commentator on KUOW-FM, the NPR affiliate in Seattle, his most recent works include three films: The Journey, the story of an immigrant’s trek to America, Walk Right In, the story of the Yale Summer High School, a short animated film, "Bawdy: The Movie." The Great American Cliché, The Erotic Tongue, Smashcaps, A Word with you America, Bawdy Language, Dancing on the Contradictions, The Journey Walk Right In Bawdy: The Movie