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Vlachs

Vlachs Wallachians, is a historical term from the Middle Ages that designates an exonym for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube. As a contemporary term, in the English language, the Vlachs are the Balkan Romance-speaking peoples who live south of the Danube in what are now eastern Serbia, southern Albania, northern Greece, North Macedonia, southwestern Bulgaria, as indigenous ethnic groups, such as the Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Macedo-Vlachs. In Czech and Hungarian, derivations of the term were applied to Italians; the term became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherds, was used for non-Romance-speaking peoples, in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively. There is a Vlach diaspora in other European countries Romania, as well as in North America and Australia."Vlachs" were identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos. According to one origin theory, modern Romanians and Aromanians originated from Dacians. According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" have had Romanized Illyrian origins.

Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26–30 million people worldwide. The word Vlach/Wallachian is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe, adopted into Proto-Germanic *Walhaz, which meant "stranger", from *Wolkā-. Via Latin, in Gothic, as *walhs, the ethnonym took on the meaning "foreigner" or "Romance-speaker", was adopted into Greek Vláhi, Slavic Vlah, Hungarian oláh and olasz, etc; the root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon, in Switzerland for Romansh-speakers, in Poland Włochy or in Hungary olasz became an exonym for Italians. The term was used for the Romanians. Testimonies from the 13th to 14th centuries show that, although in the European space they were called Vlachs or Wallachians, the Romanians used for themselves the endonym "Rumân/Român", from the Latin "Romanus". Via both Germanic and Latin, the term started to signify "stranger, foreigner" in the Balkans, where it in its early form was used for Romance-speakers, but the term took on the meaning of "shepherd, nomad".

The Romance-speaking communities themselves however used the endonym "Romans". During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a social class of Vlachs in Serbia and Ottoman Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims. In Croatia, the term became derogatory, Vlasi was used for the ethnic Serb community who, despite being Slavic, were given the term due to the Orthodox faith which they shared with the Vlachs. Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen, who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages. Nowadays, the term Vlachs is used in scholarship for the Romance-speaking communities in the Balkans those in Greece and North Macedonia. In Serbia the term Vlach is used to refer to Romanian speakers those living in eastern Serbia.

Aromanians themselves use the endonym "Armãn" or "Rãmãn", etymologically from "Romanus", meaning "Roman". Megleno-Romanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla in their own language. Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers; the 7th century Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta wrote about “Blachernae” in connection with some historical data of the 6th century, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river. During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the "Slavs and Vlachs, the shepherds of the Romans " (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary. Chroniclers John Skylitzes and George Kedrenos wrote that in 971, during battles between Romans and Varangians led by Sveinald, the dwellers of North side of Danube came to Emperor John I Tzimiskes and they handed over their fortresses and the Emperor sent troops to guard the fortresses.

During those times, Northern part of Danube were dwelled by sedentary Vlachs and tribes of nomad Pechenegs who lived in tents. George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976; the Vlachs were guards of Roman caravans in Balkans. Between Prespa and Kastoria they fought with a Bulgarian rebel named David; the Vlachs killed David in their first documented battle. Mutahh

Billy King (vaudeville)

William "Billy" King was an African-American vaudeville comedian and showman, described as "a living link between the Harlem Renaissance and nineteenth-century black minstrelsy." He was born in Whistler, but left home when young. He formed his own company, "King and Bush, Wide-Mouth Minstrels", before joining the Georgia Minstrels. By around 1902 he was established as one of the leading comedians in the travelling troupe, he moved into vaudeville in 1911, established his own company, writing prolifically and touring between bases in Atlanta, Kansas City and elsewhere. The company included comedian Billy Higgins. In 1915, he established a permanent base for his company at the Grand Theater in Chicago. Between 1916 and 1923, he wrote and starred in a succession of shows at the theater changing shows every week, he was responsible for introducing girls clowning at the end of chorus lines, an innovation developed by Josephine Baker, his shows sometimes included satire on race issues, with Lester Walton likening one of his shows to an NAACP protest meeting.

Some of his shows went on tour to Harlem and other established vaudeville circuit stops, he employed a large group of performers who included his protégé Gertrude Saunders, Billy Higgins. King was involved in running theaters in Louisville, Chattanooga and elsewhere. From 1923 until 1925 he took his Billy King Road Show on tour; the band remained together as Walter Page's Oklahoma City Blue Devils, which in turn provided the basis for Count Basie's Orchestra. King continued to perform playing with Ethel Waters in 1926. In 1937 he was elected president of the Colored Actors' Protective Society in New York City, he is believed to have died in New York in 1951. Billy King at A Century of Musicals in Black and White

Building a Future

Building a Future is an international, philanthropic nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives of impoverished children in Latin America. BAF operates in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In December 2007, Building a Future became a 501 nonprofit organization. BAF was started in 2004 by a group of Texas A&M University students, they were inspired to do something of social importance that would have an impact at an international level. Jose Mahomar and Robert Furr took a leap of faith by proposing a philanthropic idea that would seek to provide education to impoverished children in Honduras; the idea for BAF started in a class titled ‘Academy for Future International Leaders’ and developed into an organized effort supported by Texas A&M University and is in process of forming a partnership with the Borlaug Institute. Jose and Robert decided to keep pursuing their vision and some of their closest friends at TAMU joined in. Since January 2006, Building A Future has served a community of over 500 children with the construction the Texaco Family Support Center.

This was BAF’s first project initiative and its success has confirmed the desire to create a bigger impact in other communities in Honduras. In June 2008, BAF secured another additional donation from Chevron Texaco to provide educational material, such as a computer, a projector, a photocopier, to the center. In February 2009, BAF in partnership with the Borlaug Institute at Texas A&M University will host the Junior Master Gardener Program; this program includes curriculum which educates children with a special focus on agriculture and has the potential to be implemented at other educational facilities throughout Honduras as. In July 2009, BAF began a campaign to keep eight family support centers in Tegucigalpa, Honduras from closing due to a lack of funding; as a result of the political turmoil, the centers did not receive subsidies that they depend on to remain operational. To prevent these centers from closing or reducing operations, BAF sought to raise at least $12,000USD to fill the gap.

As part of this campaign, BAF plans to host a fundraising event in Coconut Grove's Kennedy Park near Miami, FL on August 15, 2009. The event will have food and entertainment and in exchange for suggested donations to support the campaign. Official Building a Future website Official Building a Future Facebook Page

Chlebowo, Lubusz Voivodeship

Chlebowo is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Gubin, within Krosno Odrzańskie County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, close to the German border. It lies on the northeastern rim of the historic Lower Lusatia region 15 kilometres north-east of Gubin, 16 km west of Krosno Odrzańskie, 45 km west of Zielona Góra; the name of the village is derived from Slavic chleb. It was first documented as Schwchleb and Nemascleb in the 1295 Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis document by the Bishops of Wrocław; the settlement was located at the eastern border of the German March of Lusatia, close to the Silesian Duchy of Głogów. The area was part of the Bohemian crown lands before it passed to the Electorate of Saxony according to the 1635 Peace of Prague. Ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia, it was incorporated into the Province of Brandenburg in 1815. Under Nazi German rule, the village's name was Germanised to Lindenhain in 1937.

1811 Independence Movement

The 1811 Independence Movement known in El Salvador as the Primer grito de independencia was the first of a series of revolts in Central America in El Salvador against Spanish colonialism and dependency on the Captaincy General of Guatemala. At the beginning of the 19th century, agitation grew in the American territories dominated by the Spanish crown; the previous century was dominated by the growing support of ideas of individual freedom, which characterized the Enlightenment that took place in Europe and the Americas. Most influential was the American Revolution, with the resulting liberation of the British North American colonies, the French Revolution, which seeded the restlessness and search for freedom in the Spanish American territories under dominion of the Spaniards. In the Intendancy of San Salvador, many Creoles and other settlers wanted to separate control of the colony from the Guatemalan Captaincy General; this was due to economic and political reasons. Greater administrative autonomy or outright independence for San Salvador would reduce the high level of taxes paid to Spain and Guatemala and would raise finances for the colony.

Napoleón Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 and the removal of Ferdinand VII from the Spanish throne created an atmosphere of unrest in San Salvador. The insurrectionists organized themselves along with prominent middle-class supporters of the cause of independence such as doctors and priests who took part in the event; these included doctors such as the brothers and the priest José Matías Delgado. Others included Juan Manuel Rodríguez and Pedro Pablo Castillo. On November 5 the revolt began in San Salvador. According to tradition, the rebels waited for a signal from the bell tower of the Church of La Merced, but this did not occur on the scheduled time; the rebels assembled on the town square outside the church where Manuel José Arce proclaimed in front of the public: "There is no King, nor Intendant, nor Captain General. We only must obey our alcaldes," meaning that since Ferdinand VII had been deposed, all other officials appointed by him no longer legitimately held power. A tumult in the square grew to the point that the intendant, Antonio Gutierrez y Ulloa, asked that the gathered name somebody to formally receive their demands.

Manuel José Arce himself was selected as the leader by the crowd. Despite this, the insurrectionists took arms and proclaimed the total independence of San Salvador from the Spanish crown, but were subdued. In the following days, the independence movement extended to the cities of Santiago Nonualco, Usulután, Santa Ana and Cojutepeque; the two other notable revolts occurred on November 24 in the city of Metapán and on December 20 in Sensuntepeque. Despite the efforts of the insurrectionists, the cause of independence was not shared by the city councils of the Intendancy. Neither San Miguel, nor San Vicente nor Santa Ana joined them. Unable to amass support, the rebels decided to negotiate with a delegation sent in from the Guatemalan capital to take control; the new Intendant Colonel Jose de Aycinena, arrived on December 8 with Guatemalan troops and priests to force them to swear obedience to the crown and reclaimed the city. The new government was well received by the majority of the population due to Aycinena's policy of understanding and nonconfrontation.

However, several days unrest broke out in the neighboring Intendancy of Nicaragua, where uprisings broke out in León on December 13 and in Granada on December 22. Both were soon suppressed. Many of those involved in the events in El Salvador and Nicaragua were incarcerated, but José Matías Delgado was taken back with the delegation to Guatemala City. Despite his past activities, or because of them, Delgado was elected in 1813 as a representative on the Provincial Deputation of Guatemala created by the Spanish Constitution of 1812, he became director of the Tridentino Seminary in the capital city, therefore, he was not in El Salvador at the time of the second insurrection in 1814, so did not take part in it. He was once again elected provincial deputy in 1820 when the Spanish Constitution was restored, on September 15, 1821, he was among those who signed the Act of Independence of Central America in Guatemala City. On November 28, 1821, he became political chief of the Province of San Salvador, as its executive officer, he led its separation from Guatemala to prevent the former intendancy from becoming part of First Mexican Empire.

Arce became president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1825 to 1829, once full independence from both Spain and Mexico became a reality. In El Salvador the independence movement and 1811 Revolt is commemorated every year on November 5 and recognized as the "First Shout for the Independence of Central America". 1814 Independence Movement Dym, Jordana. 2006. From Sovereign Villages to National States: City and Federation in Central America, 1759–1839. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-3909-6 Ministerio de Educación.. Historia de El Salvador Tomo I. Mexico City, Comisión Nacional de los Libros de Texto Gratuitos. Monterrrey, Francisco J.. Historia de El Salvador anotaciones cronológicas 1810–1842. San Salvador: Editorial Universitaria. Vidal, Manuel.. Nociones de historia de Centro América. San Salvador: Editorial Universitaria

Separable polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial P over a given field K is separable if its roots are distinct in an algebraic closure of K, that is, the number of distinct roots is equal to the degree of the polynomial. This concept is related to square-free polynomial. If K is a perfect field the two concepts coincide. In general, P is separable if and only if it is square-free over any field that contains K, which holds if and only if P is coprime to its formal derivative D P. In an older definition, P was considered separable if each of its irreducible factors in K is separable in the modern definition. In this definition, separability depended on the field K, for example, any polynomial over a perfect field would have been considered separable; this definition, although it can be convenient for Galois theory, is no longer in use. Separable polynomials are used to define separable extensions: A field extension K ⊂ L is a separable extension if and only if for every α ∈ L, algebraic over K, the minimal polynomial of α over K is a separable polynomial.

Inseparable extensions may occur only in characteristic p. The criterion above leads to the quick conclusion that if P is irreducible and not separable D P = 0, thus we must have P = Qfor some polynomial Q over K, where the prime number p is the characteristic. With this clue we can construct an example: P = Xp − Twith K the field of rational functions in the indeterminate T over the finite field with p elements. Here one can prove directly that P is irreducible, not separable; this is a typical example of why inseparability matters. Such mappings are fundamental to the algebraic geometry of finite fields. Put another way, there are coverings in that setting. If L is the field extension K,in other words the splitting field of P L/K is an example of a purely inseparable field extension, it is of degree p, but has no automorphism fixing K, other than the identity, because T1/p is the unique root of P. This shows directly. A field such that there are no such extensions is called perfect; that finite fields are perfect.

One can show that the tensor product of fields of L with itself over K for this example has nilpotent elements that are non-zero. This is another manifestation of inseparability: that is, the tensor product operation on fields need not produce a ring, a product of fields. If P is separable, its roots form a group P is an additive polynomial. Separable polynomials occur in Galois theory. For example, let P be an irreducible polynomial with integer coefficients and p be a prime number which does not divide the leading coefficient of P. Let Q be the polynomial over the finite field with p elements, obtained by reducing modulo p the coefficients of P. Then, if Q is separable the degrees of the irreducible factors of Q are the lengths of the cycles of some permutation of the Galois group of P. Another example: P being as above, a resolvent R for a group G is a polynomial whose coefficients are polynomials in the coefficients of P, which provides some information on the Galois group of P. More if R is separable and has a rational root the Galois group of P is contained in G.

For example, if D is the discriminant of P X 2 − D is a resolvent for the alternating group. This resolvent is always separable if P is irreducible, but most resolvents are not always separable. Frobenius endomorphism Pages 240-241 of Lang, Algebra, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-55540-0, Zbl 0848.13001