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Volkswagen

Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded in 1937 by the German Labour Front, a Nazi labour union, headquartered in Wolfsburg. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group, the largest automaker by worldwide sales in 2016 and 2017; the group's biggest market is in China, which delivers 40 % of its profits. Volkswagen translates to "people's car" in German; the company's current international advertising slogan is just "Volkswagen", referencing the name's meaning. Volkswagen was established in 1937 by the German Labor Front in Berlin. In the early 1930s cars were a luxury: most Germans could afford nothing more elaborate than a motorcycle. Only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "people's car" projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1.3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior.

In Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS "Kommissbrot", a small, cheap rear-engined car, from 1925 to 1928. In Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra T77, a popular car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision. Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family, he built a car named the "Volksauto" from the ground up in 1933, using many popular ideas and several of his own, putting together a car with an air-cooled rear engine, torsion bar suspension, a "beetle" shape, the front hood rounded for better aerodynamics. In 1934, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler became involved, ordering the production of a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h, he wanted all German citizens to have access to cars. The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings plan at 990 Reichsmarks —about the price of a small motorcycle.

Despite heavy lobbying in favor of one of the existing projects, it soon became apparent that private industry could not turn out a car for only 990 RM. Thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsche's design; the intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, which around 336,000 people paid into. However, the entire project was financially unsound, only the Nazi party made it possible to provide funding. Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen", appeared from 1938 onwards; the car had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included things such as outings; the prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to other products in Germany. On 28 May 1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, or Gezuvor for short, was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront in Berlin. More than a year on 16 September 1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH.

Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsche's hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype, recognizably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s; the car designs were put through rigorous tests, achieved a record-breaking million miles of testing before being deemed finished. The construction of the new factory started in May 1938 in the new town of "Stadt des KdF-Wagens", purpose-built for the factory workers; this factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None were delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1944. War changed production to military vehicles—the Type 82 Kübelwagen utility vehicle, the amphibious Schwimmwagen—manufactured for German forces; as was common with much of the production in Nazi Germany during the war, slave labor was utilized in the Volkswagen plant, e.g. from Arbeitsdorf concentration camp.

The company would admit in 1998. German historians estimated. Many of the slaves were reported to have been supplied from the concentration camps upon request from plant managers. A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by survivors for restitution for the forced labor. Volkswagen would set up a voluntary restitution fund; the company owes its post-war existence to one man, wartime British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME. In April 1945, KdF-Stadt and its bombed factory were captured by the Americans, subsequently handed over to the British, within whose occupa

Appoquinimink Hundred

Appoquinimink Hundred is an unincorporated subdivision of New Castle County, Delaware. Hundreds were once used as a basis for representation in the Delaware General Assembly, while their names still appear on all real estate transactions, they presently have no meaningful use or purpose except as a geographical point of reference. Appoquinimink Hundred is that portion of New Castle County that lies south of Appoquinimink Creek, extended westward from its headwaters to the Maryland state line, north of Blackbird Creek and Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Chester River, it was one of the original hundreds in Delaware created in 1682 and was named for Appoquinimink Creek that flows along its northern boundary. When created it included the area now in Blackbird Hundred, split off in 1875; the default boundary of Delaware and Maryland was the vague height of land between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay drainage basins and Appoquinimink Hundred extended only to that point. With the running of the Mason–Dixon line in 1767, the western boundary of Delaware was established in its present location and became Appoquinimink Hundred’s western boundary.

The town of Townsend and a portion of the town of Middletown are in the hundred. Appoquinimink Hundred remains rural and agricultural, but there is significant development beginning around Townsend and Middletown; the important geographical features of the hundred, in addition to Appoquinimink Creek and Blackbird Creek, include the Delaware River, which forms its eastern boundary, Noxontown Pond, the headwaters of the Sassafras River. It is in the coastal plain region on the Delmarva Peninsula. Important roads include portions of the Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway, the DuPont Highway, the Townsend Road, Augustine Beach Road and Taylor’s Bridge Road. A portion of the old Delaware Railroad, subsequently the Delmarva branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad, now the Delmarva Central Railroad's Delmarva Subdivision, runs north-south through Townsend, Middletown, a portion of the Maryland & Delaware Railroad's Northern Line runs west from Townsend. List of Delaware Hundreds The University of Delaware Library.

The Hundreds of Delaware. Retrieved August 17, 2005

Alfred Choubrac

Alfred Choubrac was a French painter, draughtsman, poster artist and costume designer. Together with Jules Chéret he is considered to be one of the pioneers of the modern coloured and illustrated poster of the Belle Époque in France, in particular in Paris. Alfred Choubrac was born in Montmartre. With his elder brother Léon Choubrac, Alfred was trained as a classical artist with the painters Charles Doërr and Isidore Pils at the École des Beaux Arts; the Choubrac brothers came soon to the poster, practicing since 1875 the modern treatment of colors and typography, associated with images thanks to chromolithography. In the early 1870s, the Choubrac brothers and Jules Chéret reduced the cost of colour lithography introducing technical advances. Additionally, in 1881 restrictions on bill-posting were lifted and eased state control of the media in France. In 1884, the Paris city council started to rent out surfaces belonging to the municipality, paving the way for a rapid increase in the production and distribution of advertising posters.

Posters with clear colours and dashing images appeared all over town during the vibrant spirit of the Belle Époque. They worked with the printing press F. Appel. Léon and Alfred created the Ateliers Choubrac, one time hosted by the printing press G. Massias, 17 passage Daudin, one of the first graphic design agencies in Paris, operating their prints on a lithographic press. Around 1898, the name of the Atelier was associated with the name of Imprimerie Bourgerie & Cie, 83 rue du Faubourg, St Denis in Paris. Although his brother Leon died young, Alfred went on to produce an impressive number of posters for Parisian entertainers, theatres and various commercial products. Alfred Choubrac specialized in posters for shows in the Parisian night-life scene of the Belle Époque, for places such as the Théâtre des Variétés, Théâtre du Châtelet, Folies Bergère, Opéra comique, Moulin rouge, Casino de Paris, the Eldorado, the Circus Fernando. With Chéret and Toulouse-Lautrec, amongst others, Choubrac was among the most important poster artist of his time.

His most famous poster is that of Au Joyeux Moulin Rouge, based on the popular Parisian nightclub Moulin Rouge. The 1880s and 1890s were an intermediary period in the development of the poster in which its primary political function shifted to a promotional one as advertising in the emerging consumer economy if not through the commoditisation of female sexuality. In April 1891, under orders from the Minister of the Interior, the prefect of Paris, Henri-Auguste Lozé, seized and destroyed hundreds of posters considered to a violation of public decency. Many artists and their printers were charged. Several of Choubrac's posters were prohibited and he was brought to court along with the printers. One of the censored posters advertised the performance of the dancer Ilka de Mynn at the Folies Bergère, depicted in a maillot, which according to the court that charged Choubrac was a cause for concern because the model appeared to be nude. Another poster was an advertisement for the French magazine Fin de Siècle, which showed a scarcely dressed female dancer.

In an interview with La Presse, Choubrac said he was astonished by the upheaval, claiming that "nudity is exposed everywhere and in much more provocative ways. In life he became known for his designs of stage costumes for the theatre. Choubrac illustrated several works by Emile Zola, he carried out a number of bookstore posters to promote popular works. He produced commercial posters for brands such as the Muscovite Digestive, Humber Cycles, Beeston Tire, Naigeon Gold Water, Unbreakable Baleinine Corsets, Decauville Cycles, Burgeatine Liqueur, the Hippodrome of Saint-Ponchon, among others; as an illustrator, he sometimes collaborated with his brother Léon in Gil Blas or the satirical weekly Le Courrier français, among others. The first poster exhibition in France occurred in 1884 in the Passage Vivienne in Paris and included American as well as French posters with specific representation of the work of Cheret and the two Choubrac brothers; the New York Grolier Club in November 1890 organised an exhibition of prints of the "masters in the newest art", that of bill posting, including Choubrac, Chéret and Eugène Grasset.

The poster collector Ernest Maindron, who wrote the first essay about the illustrated poster in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1884, published the first book on the subject in 1886, mentioned the Choubrac brothers and Chéret among the pioneers of the illustrated poster. Maindron praised Choubrac's bold line, sense of composition and decorative skills. Alfred Choubrac died on 25 July 1902 from a cold gone bad. Beraldi, Henri. Les graveurs du 19e siècle. Picture Posters, London/New York: George Bell & Sons, MacMillan & Co. Maindron, Ernest. Les affiches Illustrées, Paris: G. Boudet Martin, Jules. Nos peintres et sculpteurs, dessinateurs, Paris: E. Flammarion Rapazzini, Francesco. Le Moulin Rouge en folies, Paris: Cherche Midi, ISBN 9782749154244 Verhagen, The poster in Fin-de-Siècle Paris: "That Mobile and Degenerate Art", in: Charney, Leo & Vanessa R. Schwartz. Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life, Berkely: University of California Press, ISBN 9780520201125