The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
The Audi A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. The A4 is based on the Volkswagen Group B platform; the first generation A4 succeeded the Audi 80. The automaker's internal numbering treats the A4 as a continuation of the Audi 80 lineage, with the initial A4 designated as the B5-series, followed by the B6, B7, B8 and the B9; the B8 and B9 versions of the A4 are built on the Volkswagen Group MLB platform shared with many other Audi models and one Porsche model within Volkswagen Group. The Audi A4 automobile layout consists of a front-engine design, with transaxle-type transmissions mounted at the rear of the engine; the cars on some models, "quattro" all-wheel drive. The A4 is available as a station wagon; the second and third generations of the A4 had a convertible version, but the B8 version of the convertible became a variant of the Audi A5 instead as Audi got back into the compact executive coupé segment.
The first generation Audi A4 debuted in October 1994, with production starting November 1994 and European sales commencing in January 1995 for the 1995 model year. North American sales began in September 1995 for the 1996 model year, it was built on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, which it shared with the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat. It had front-wheel drive. Many variations of the A4 were available with Audi's quattro four-wheel drive system; the A4 was introduced as a four-door saloon/sedan. Development began in 1988, with the first design sketches being created that year. By 1991, an exterior design by Imre Hasanic was chosen and frozen for November 1994 production by 1992; the interior design was finalized in 1992, with pilot production commencing in the first half of 1994. Development concluded in the third quarter of 1994. A wide range of engines were available in European markets, between 1.6 and 2.8 litres for petrol engines. The 2.6 and 2.8-litre V6 engines, carried over from the old 80/90 proved popular, although in North America, the 2.8-litre engine was the only V6, available there until 1997.
The Audi A4 was the first model in the Volkswagen Group to feature the new 1.8-litre 20v engine with five valves per cylinder, based on the unit Audi Sport had developed for their Supertouring race car. A turbocharged 1.8 T version produced 210 N ⋅ m torque. Moreover, a quattro GmbH special edition of the B5 1.8T was available in Germany and Europe, for which the engine's power output was raised to 178 PS and 235 N⋅m. Five-valve technology was added to a reengineered V6 family of engines in 1997, starting with the 2.8-litre V6 30v, which now produced 193 PS, followed by a 2.4-litre V6, a downsize from the previous 2.6 litre, 150 hp engine, but with a power increase to 165 PS. Audi debuted their new tiptronic automatic transmission on the B5 platform, based on the unit Porsche developed for their 964-generation 911; the transmission is a conventional automatic gearbox with a torque converter offering the driver automatic operation or manual selection of the gear ratios. The B5 marked Audi's continued move into the midsize luxury car segment, having started this trajectory notably with model years of the preceding Audi 80/90 B4.
Despite initial mechanical problems, overall build and assembly quality were lauded both by the automotive press and within Audi and Volkswagen, at the time, parent company Volkswagen declared the B5 the company-wide build quality benchmark for all its other models. The Audi A4 B5 alterations throughout its seven-year run. Moreover, a significant facelift was introduced for the 1998 B5 model year at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show, with sales beginning in Europe in early 1998; the 2.8-litre 30-valve V6 engine replaced the 2.8-litre 12-valve. A 2.5-litre V6 Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engine with 150 PS was standard on the quattro. A six-speed manual gearbox was available, as well as the new high-performance Audi S4, now part of the A4 lineup. Cosmetic updates included new rear lights, door handles, other minor exterior/interior changes. In mid-1998, the 1.8 20vT engine available outside Europe had its power output raised to 170 PS. The previous KKK K03 turbocharger, although fundamentally unchanged, received revisions on the turbine side to prevent cracking due to heat.
The 12-valve V6 was replaced by the 30-valve unit, available in Europe for two years. A further facelift took place across the S4 platform in February 1999 as a 1999.5 model. This facelift was known at Audi as a Grosse Produktaufwertung, as was signified by facelift cars now carrying the denomination "8D2". In 1999 Audi debuted an higher performance RennSport model, the RS4 Avant, like its predecessor RS2, available only in the Avant bodystyle; the following engines were available: In the Euro NCAP safety and crash te
The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by the Czech manufacturer Škoda Auto since 1996. It shares its name with an earlier model produced between 1959 and 1971. There have been three generations of the modern-era Octavia model to date, delivered with 5-door liftback saloon or 5-door estate styles only; the car is front engined, both front or four wheel drive are offered. Around five million units have been sold in its two decades of presence on the market; the Octavia is Škoda's most popular model 40% of all newly manufactured Škoda cars are Octavias. The current generation is available in wide range of derivatives, i.e. sports Octavia RS, four-wheel drive Octavia Combi 4x4, frugal Octavia GreenLine, CNG-powered Octavia G-TEC and outdoor Octavia Scout. The first generation Octavia was released in November 1996 and was built at the modernised Škoda factory in Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic; this generation was made available in estate styles only. In the United Kingdom, sales began in 1998 and the mid-size car was an instant success with buyers who appreciated its solidity and value for money, though it could not quite match the success of established large family car favourites such as the Ford Mondeo and Vauxhall Vectra.
The car was used in the United Kingdom taxi trade, owing to the large number of private hire drivers who used the vehicle, due to its low price and reliability. The first generation Octavia had a facelift in 2000, was still manufactured and marketed in some markets after the second generation was introduced in 2004. In Germany, other parts of West Europe, as well as Asia, the first generation model was marketed as the Octavia Tour, while the newer model is marketed as the Octavia. In some markets, the first generation Octavia was still known as Octavia, the newer model was referred to as the new Octavia, Octavia5 or Laura. In India, Octavia was launched in 2002 and was an instant hit with Indians for its frugal engines and solid build, it became a huge success in India. The major improvements of the facelifted model are the independent rear suspension and improved interior, in terms of space and quality of materials; the facelifted Octavia featured a 4x4 wheel drive version both for the estate and more popular sedan models, used the Haldex Traction clutch, like other Volkswagen Group A platform based cars.
It had higher ground clearance and a bigger fuel tank carrying 63-litre compared to the 55-litre standard front wheel drive versions. The 4x4 option was only available with the 1.8 T 150 bhp petrol engine, the 1.9 TDI 90 bhp diesel engine, or the 2.0 L petrol engine, all coupled with a 5-speed manual gearbox, with the 1.9 TDI-PD 100 bhp diesel engine which came with a 6-speed manual gearbox. The other 6-speed manual model was the 1.9 TDI-PD 131 bhp, only available with front-wheel-drive. The vRS was the top-level and quickest specification and used a 1.8-litre straight-4 turbocharged engine which produced 180 bhp. Škoda made a limited number of 100 WRC Replica Cars worldwide in 2002. These differ from normal vRS Octavias, as they are produced in white, have rally decals and have additional accessories as standard; the vRS model was popular with the United Kingdom Police, both as a traffic car and as an unmarked Q-car, due to its low cost, reliability and understated styling. The engines used are the same as for many other cars in the Volkswagen Group: The Škoda Octavia has been used in the European Touring Car Championship, the World Rally Championship and the FIA 2-Litre World Rally Cup.
The second generation Octavia was introduced in March 2004, based on the Volkswagen Group A5 platform used by other Volkswagen Group cars, such as the Audi A3 Mk2, Volkswagen Golf Mk5, Volkswagen Jetta Mk5, SEAT León Mk2, etc. Responsible for the design were Peter Wouda. Along with a new internal combustion engine range shared with other models of the Volkswagen Group, body changes included more legroom for rear seat passengers and increased ground clearance at front and rear to reduce the risk of grounding on steep ramps or facing kerbs. In addition to the Czech factories in Mladá Boleslav and Vrchlabi, from 2008 the Octavia has been produced at a factory in Bratislava, in Shanghai, under the joint venture of Shanghai Volkswagen. In Russia, the Octavia is assembled at the Volkswagen plant in Kaluga. In India, the second-generation Octavia was marketed as the Laura to distinguish it from the first generation; the car was marketed in a higher segment, was sold alongside the previous generation Octavia.
However the first generation ended production in India in 2010, as of 2012 the Laura's price was reduced and was competing in its predecessor's segment. There are two four-wheel-drive versions of the Octavia: the 4x4 and the Scout, both featuring a Haldex Traction four-wheel-drive system, based on a computer-controlled clutch centre coupling; the two models both have higher ground clearance than the standard Octavia, increased by 24 mm for the 4x4 and by 40 mm for the Scout. The Scout, announced in 2006, is only available with the estate body style, has several crossover style exterior modifications, such as larger bumpers. In August 2011, a special Škoda Octavia vRS hit the world record on the American Bonneville Speedway and became the fastest car in the world with an up to 2-litre engine, when it hit
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
The Audi A6 is an executive car made by the German automaker Audi, now in its fifth generation. As the successor to the Audi 100, the A6 is manufactured in Neckarsulm, is available in sedan and wagon configurations, the latter marketed by Audi as the Avant. Audi's internal numbering treats the A6 as a continuation of the Audi 100 lineage, with the initial A6 designated as a member of the C4-series, followed by the C5, C6, C7 and the C8; the related Audi A7 is a sportback version of the C7-series and C8-series A6, but is marketed under its own separate identity and model designation. All generations of the A6 have offered either front-wheel drive or Torsen-based four-wheel drive, marketed by Audi as their quattro system. Second- and third-generation A6 models have shared their platform with the company's Allroad models. Both petrol and diesel versions of the A6 are offered; the wide range of engines available have power outputs ranging from 150 to 333 hp. These are inline 4-cylinder 16-valve turbocharged engines and more powerful 3-litre units in a V6 configuration with a mechanical compressor.
Audi's executive car was named the Audi 100, was released in three successive generations. In 1994, the latest generation of the Audi 100 received a facelift and was renamed as the Audi A6, to fit in with Audi's new alphanumeric nomenclature; the exterior was changed only from the "C4" Audi 100 – new front and rear lights, new radiator grille with chassis and engine and transmission choices. The United Kingdom was the first market to receive the A6, as stock of RHD Audi 100s had run out before expected, before the rest of mainland Europe; the new engines for the A6 were 1.8-litre 20v inline four-cylinder, 2.0-litre 8v inline four-cylinder, 2.6-litre 12V V6 and 2.8-litre 30v V6 petrol engines, with the 2.3-litre inline five engine being dropped on most markets. For the diesel engines, an inline four 1.9 Turbocharged Direct Injection, the inline five 2.5 TDI were available. Until 1997, the A6 came with several different engines, two of them turbodiesel, most of them available with Audi's Torsen-based quattro permanent four-wheel drive system.
The A6 was available with Avant bodies. The C4 design was available with the following engines: Upon introducing the C4 series A6, Audi made small revisions to what was known as the Audi S4, renaming it the Audi S6; as this was the first S6 model from Audi, it is referred to as the Ur-S6, derived from the German augmentive, "Ursprünglich". It was available as both a saloon/sedan, an "Avant" to European and United States customers, but only as a saloon in Canada and Australia. From its launch in late 1994, the Audi S6 was powered by a 2,226 cubic centimetres turbocharged inline five-cylinder petrol engine with a Bosch Motronic electronic engine control unit, producing a motive power output of 169 kW at 5,900 rpm and 326 N⋅m at around 1,950 rpm, on high octane "Super Plus" 98RON unleaded petrol; this engine gave the S6 a top speed of 235 km/h, allowed it to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 6.7 seconds. The vehicle was available with a standard six-speed manual transmission, Audi's dynamic Torsen T-1 quattro permanent four-wheel drive system.
Audi made a high-performance, 4.2-litre V8 engine with a Bosch KE-Motronic ECU available as an option in the original European S4s, made the decision to continue to do so with the S6, making a 213 kW version of the 4.2 available as an optional upgrade over the 2.2-litre inline five-cylinder turbo. Unlike the five-cylinder turbocharged version, the V8-powered S6 was supplied with a four-speed automatic transmission as standard, but kept the quattro four wheel drive. A six-speed manual gearbox was available as an option; as a swan song to the C4 platform, an more powerful, limited-production Audi S6 PLUS was available to European customers. The S6 PLUS, developed by Audi's wholly owned high performance subsidiary, quattro GmbH, was available for sale during the 1997 model year only. A total of 952 cars were produced–855 Avants, 97 saloons, it was powered by another version of the 32-valve 4.2-litre V8 engine. Audi's performance division reworked key parts of the engine, increasing the maximum power to 240 kW.
It was only available with a revised six-speed manual transmission, with a final drive ratio of 4.111. Further revisions were made to the suspension and wheels; the front brake discs were enlarged to 323 mm in diameter by 30 mm thick. Standard wheels were 8Jx17 "Avus" cast aluminium alloy wheels, with an optional 7Jx16 alloy wheel for use with winter tyres was available. With so much power on tap, the S6 Plus saloon could reach 100 km/h from a standstill in 5.6 seconds, with the Avant a tenth of a second slower at 5.7 seconds. In February 1997, the introducti