SAIC Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. known as Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. or Shanghai Volkswagen, is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Anting, China and a joint venture between Volkswagen Group and SAIC Motor. It produces cars under the Volkswagen and Škoda marques; the joint venture is made up of equity from - Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Invest, SAIC, with a fixed-term venture for 45 years. It will run until 2030. SAIC Volkswagen sold a total of 1.16 million vehicles in 2011. SAIC Volkswagen was formed in October 1984, as a joint venture between Volkswagen and SAIC; this was a 25-year contract to make passenger cars in Shanghai with a limit of 50 per cent foreign ownership. SAIC Volkswagen's Shanghai plant was by the far the winner among all new JVs, as it produced cars that could function as taxis, vehicles for government officials and transport for the newly emerging business elite. SAIC Volkswagen began automobile production in 1985; as car imports fell to some 34,000 in 1990, SAIC Volkswagen's production of its Santana models reached nearly 19,000 vehicles that year.
By 1993 SAIC Volkswagen’s output had reached 100,000 vehicles. Volkswagen was aided by some Shanghai municipal efforts. Various restrictions on engine size, as well as incentives to city taxi companies, helped ensure a safe market in the company’s wealthy home arena. Volkswagen encouraged its foreign parts suppliers to create joint ventures in China, their resulting product helped SAIC Volkswagen achieve an 85 per cent local content rate by 1993. In May 2018, SAIC Volkswagen started to export the Santana, Lavida and Tiguan to the Philippines as part of the new ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement; the joint venture was in the process of building an electric-car plant in Anting, near Shanghai by late 2018. Notes: aSales to dealersbDeliveries to customers Official website
Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller, it lies 230 km west of Berlin. In 2013, Wolfsburg ranked as the richest city in Germany with a GDP per capita of $128,000 due to its thriving auto industry. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AG's headquarters and the world's biggest car plant; the Autostadt is a visitor attraction next to the Volkswagen factory that features the company's model range: Audi, Bugatti, Lamborghini, MAN, Porsche, Scania, SEAT, Škoda Auto, TRATON AG, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. Wolfsburg is one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. From its foundation on 1 July 1938 as a home for workers producing the "KdF-Wagen" until 25 May 1945, the city was called "Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben". In 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000. Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal, it is bordered by the districts of Helmstedt.
The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm, quite low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all observation stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst record lower data; the driest month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October. Precipitation hardly diversifies and is distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation; the castle "Wolfsburg" was first mentioned in 1302 in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. A keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later. In 1372, the first documentary reference to the Burg Neuhaus near Wolfsburg appeared. After the extinction of the Bartensleben line in 1742, the property and its Schloss Wolfsburg passed on to the Earls of the Schulenburg; the communal manor was an important employer for the nearby settlements Heßlingen. Some of today's urban districts, including Heßlingen, belonged to the Duke of Magdeburg during the 18th century.
In 1932, these districts were detached from the Prussian province Saxony and integrated in the administrative district of Lüneburg belonging to Hannover. Other urban districts, like Vorsfelde and the villages transferred to Wolfsburg from the county of Helmstedt, belonged to the Duke of Braunschweig for centuries. Fallersleben and other villages belonged to the Electorate of Braunschweig - Lüneburg or the Kingdom of Hanover. Wolfsburg was founded on 1 July 1938 as the Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben, a planned town centred around the village of Fallersleben, built to house workers of the Volkswagen factories erected to assemble the Volkswagen Beetle. During World War II military cars and other military equipment were built there by forced workers and POWs.. In 1942, German authorities established the Arbeitsdorf concentration camp in the city for a few months. At the urging of the British occupying power, the city was renamed as Wolfsburg on 25 May 1945, after the eponymous castle located there.
In 1951, Wolfsburg was separated from the District of Gifhorn, became an urban district. In 1955 the one-millionth VW Beetle was manufactured in Wolfsburg. Postwar Beetle production ended in Wolfsburg in 1974, though German Beetle production continued in Emden until 1978; the factories in Wolfsburg remain a key part of Volkswagen's production capacity. During the German economic miracle Wolfsburg experienced a large influx of immigrant workers from Italy. In 1958 the city hall was built. In 1960 the Volkswagenwerk GmbH was changed into an AG. In the course of a land reform in Lower Saxony in 1972, 20 localities were added to the city through the "Wolfsburg-Act". Wolfsburg gained the status of major city with nearly 131,000 inhabitants; the city's area grew from 35 to nearly 204 square kilometers. In 1973, the city's population peaked at 131,971. In 1982 the A39, a side road of the A2, was built as a direct freeway to Wolfsburg. In 1988, the city became a university town with the establishment of the University of Applied Science Braunschweig/Wolfenbüttel.
Today its name is Ostfalia University of Applied Science. As a launch promotion for the 5th generation of the Volkswagen Golf the city of Wolfsburg welcomed visitors on the internet, on the official stationery, on every city limit sign with the name "Golfsburg" from 25 August to 10 October 2003; this campaign gained the nationwide attention of press, TV broadcasting. In the summer of 2009, Wolfsburg gained nationwide attention when their football team, VfL Wolfsburg, won the German football league. A party was held in the city centre with about 100,000 people, was a first in the history of the city; the centre of Wolfsburg is unique in Germany. Instead of a medieval town center, Wolfsburg features a new and modern attraction called the Autostadt; the old part of the town Alt Wolfsburg shows some manor buildings in traditional framework style. Atop a hill by the River Aller is the Wolfsburg Castle; the Autostadt is an open-air museum-theme park dedicated to automobiles owned and operated by Volkswagen.
In the center of the park are the pavilions featuring Volkswagen's major brands: Volkswagen and Audi to the north, further south are SEAT, Škoda Auto, Bentley and the Premium Clubhouse. Right next t
The SEAT Toledo is a small family car produced by the Spanish manufacturer SEAT, part of Volkswagen Group. The Toledo name was first introduced to the SEAT line up in May 1991, with the fourth and more recent generation being introduced in the end of 2012 for the model year of 2013. SEAT Toledo has 5 stars rating in the Euro NCAP, it is technically similar to the Volkswagen Jetta. The initial version of the SEAT Toledo was launched as a four-door fastback saloon, its sales career lasted from May 1991 to March 1999; this generation of the Toledo was the first SEAT automobile developed under Volkswagen Group ownership, it was built on the Golf Mk2 Volkswagen Group A2 platform with a 550-litre boot expandable to 1360 litres when folding rear seats, larger in shape and size than the Volkswagen Jetta/Vento's combined with the advantage of a tailgate. As saloon versions of small family cars were rare in Europe, it was sometimes considered a large family car due to its overall length and boot size, despite having comparably less rear leg room, pricing closer to small family cars.
It went on sale in most of Europe in May 1991, though it did not arrive on the British market until October 1991, with the official launch at the London Motorfair. The Toledo featured underpowered engines compared to the Ibiza and Málaga's'System Porsche' units, such as a base 1.6 L 75 PS petrol engine, a GT version using the 2.0 L 115 PS engine. The Toledo would see the addition of more powerful versions, including a 150 PS 2.0 GTI 16v, 110 PS 1.9 TDI which, like many diesel engines built since 1996 by the Volkswagen Group, is advertised as capable of running on either mineral diesel or biodiesel. This model received a mild facelift in 1996. Sales were not strong however; the following engines were available: SEAT Toledo Marathon SEAT Toledo Class 2 1993 to 1994 1993 to 1994 1994 Meycom 1995 to 1996 1997 This generation of the Toledo has been produced by the Chinese manufacturer Chery, sold under the names of Chery A11, Chery Windcloud and Chery A15, Chery A168, Chery Amulet, Chery Cowin, Chery Qiyun, Chery Flagcloud.
Chery acquired the chassis of the 1993 Toledo from a Mexican dealership, after authorisation from SEAT. Chery Cowin, based on the SEAT Toledo has an authorisation to market it in Europe, along with Russia and South America. Apart from the Chery rebadged models, the first generation Toledo is currently built by the Russian car maker TagAZ, rebranded as the Vortex Corda.'Carro do Ano' award in 1992, in Portugal The second generation Toledo was introduced in 1998, made its début at the 1998 Paris Motor Show as a four-door notchback saloon. Sales commenced in October 1998. In Britain, the Toledo may not be considered a notchback saloon, it went on sale there in March 1999. It was more rounded than the previous first generation shape and had a much more fluid design, although both were products of Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign studio, with the latest generation being influenced by SEAT's chief of exterior design Steve Lewis, it shared components with both its Volkswagen and Škoda PQ34 platform mates, the Volkswagen Bora and the Škoda Octavia, yet is the sportiest of the three.
In the interior, the dashboard was derived from that of the first generation Audi A3. It was built on the Volkswagen Golf Mk4 platform, which meant stiff springs to support the load of the large 500 litre boot increased to 830 litres when folding rear seats; the early models were built at the Volkswagen/Audi plant in Belgium, with improved build quality, although the Toledo was still presented as an economic alternative to the lower level of the D-segment, included in the basic price a high level of equipment. One of the features most associated with the Spanish model, the tailgate was removed in favour of a more traditional four door saloon boot opening; the following year, the Toledo would be used as the base for a proper hatchback, the SEAT León Mark 1. Base model was now a crossflow 1.6 litre 100 PS petrol engine, followed by a 1.8 litre twenty valve 125 PS unit, while the top of the line was represented by the 2.3 litre 150 PS VR5 engine. Diesel engined versions used the 1.9 Turbocharged Direct Injection engine, with a variable geometry turbocharger, offered with power outputs of 90 PS or 110 PS.
In 2001, the V5 engine was uprated with a 20v head, boosting power to 170 PS. In the series, the 1.8 litre twenty valve Toledo received a turbocharger, capable of delivering 180 PS, a evolution of the VW TDI engine, produced engines of 130 PS and 150 PS. These three versions all featured a six speed manual transmission; the 130 PS TDI featured white dials instead of the standard black dials on the 110 and 150 PS TDI models. Production of the Typ 1M Toledo ended in July 2004. In 2003 SEAT Sport introduced the SEAT Toledo Cupra Mk2 in the European Touring Car Championship with drivers Jordi Gené, Frank Diefenbacher and former British Touring Car Championship winner Rickard Rydell, while the'SEAT Sport Italia"s Toledo Cupra Mk2 with Gianni Morbidelli participated as an additional team; as in 2005, the ETCC became the World Touring Car Championship, the SEAT Toledo Cupra Mk2 competed in the WTCC from 2005 to 2006. Peter Terting
Gasoline direct injection
Gasoline direct injection, is a form of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines. The gasoline is pressurized, injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder, as opposed to conventional multipoint fuel injection that injects fuel into the intake tract or cylinder port. Directly injecting fuel into the combustion chamber requires high-pressure injection, whereas low pressure is used injecting into the intake tract or cylinder port. In some applications, gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge combustion for improved fuel efficiency, reduced emission levels at low load. GDI has seen rapid adoption by the automotive industry over the past years, from 2.3% of production for model year 2008 vehicles to just over 45% expected production for model year 2015. The major advantages of a GDI engine are increased high power output. Emissions levels can be more controlled with the GDI system. GDI engine operates into two modes 1) overall lean equivalence ratio composition during low load and low speed operation.
2) Homogeneous stoichiometric mode at higher loads and at all loads and higher speed. At medium load region charge is stoichiometric; the combustion systems are classified into wall guided and spray guided system. The engine management system continually chooses among three combustion modes: ultra lean burn and full power output; each mode is characterized by the air-fuel ratio. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio for gasoline is 14.7:1 by weight, but ultra lean mode can involve ratios as high as 65:1. These mixtures are much leaner than in a conventional engine and reduce fuel consumption considerably. Ultra lean burn or stratified charge mode is used for light-load running conditions, at constant or reducing road speeds, where no acceleration is required; the fuel is not injected at the intake stroke but rather at the latter stages of the compression stroke. The combustion takes place in a cavity on the piston's surface which has a toroidal or an ovoidal shape, is placed either in the center, or displaced to one side of the piston, closer to the injector.
The cavity creates the swirl effect so that the small amount of air-fuel mixture is optimally placed near the spark plug. This stratified charge is surrounded by air and residual gases, which keeps the fuel and the flame away from the cylinder walls. Decreased combustion temperature allows for lowest emissions and heat losses and increases air quantity by reducing dilation, which delivers additional power; this technique enables the use of ultra-lean mixtures that would be impossible with carburetors or conventional fuel injection. Stoichiometric mode is used for moderate load conditions. Fuel is injected during the intake stroke. From the stoichiometric ratio, an optimum burn results in a clean exhaust emission, further cleaned by the catalytic converter. Full power mode is used for heavy loads; the air-fuel mixture is homogeneous and the ratio is richer than stoichiometric, which helps prevent pinging. The fuel is injected during the intake stroke, it is possible to inject fuel more than once during a single cycle.
After the first fuel charge has been ignited, it is possible to add fuel. The benefits are more power and economy, certain octane fuels have caused exhaust valve erosion. Direct injection may be accompanied by other engine technologies such as turbocharging or supercharging, variable valve timing or continuous variable cam phasing, tuned/multi path or variable length intake manifolding. Water injection or exhaust gas recirculation may help reduce the high nitrogen oxides emissions that can result from burning ultra lean mixtures. Tuning up an early generation FSI power plant to generate higher power is difficult, since the only time it is possible to inject fuel is during the induction phase. Conventional injection engines can inject throughout the 4-stroke sequence, as the injector squirts onto the back of a closed valve. A direct injection engine, where the injector injects directly into the cylinder, is limited to the intake stroke of the piston; as the RPM increases, the time available to inject fuel decreases.
Newer FSI systems that have sufficient fuel pressure to inject late in compression phase do not suffer to the same extent. However, they do not inject during the exhaust cycle. Hence, all other factors being equal, an FSI engine needs higher-capacity injectors to achieve the same power as a conventional engine; some engines overcome this limitation by using both direct injection and multiport fuel injection, including Toyota 2GR-FSE V6 and Volkswagen Group TSI Engines. The first Otto cycle engine direct injection system was designed by German engineer Otto Mader, it was used for a Junkers airplane engine in 1916. Junkers planned developing an aviation Diesel engine, because Diesel engines were deemed more efficient and less prone to catching fire than Otto cycle engines. Due to the German ministry of war demanding aircraft engines running on either benzene or petrol, Junkers modified their design to use the Otto cycle rather than the Diesel cycle. Being a two-stroke engine, the design had crankcase scavenging, which would result in engine mi
The SEAT Altea is a compact multi-purpose vehicle produced by the Spanish automaker SEAT from 2004 to 2015. The vehicle was designed by the Italian Walter de Silva, was launched in 2004, as the first example of SEAT's new corporate look; the third generation Toledo was identical, except for the addition of a larger boot. It was launched at the 2004 Geneva Motor Show. Another extended version, the Altea XL, is available. In 2007, the Altea Freetrack, with 4WD and higher suspension, was released. On 21 August 2015, SEAT announced that the Altea XL had been discontinued. Although no direct replacement for the Altea was planned, SEAT is following the global shift from MPVs to SUVs, by launching its own SUV model based on the SEAT León. In 2016, the Ateca was launched, the successor to the Altea according to CEO Luca de Meo: "For us, the Ateca is the replacement of the Altea." SEAT sold a total of 439 Altea models in the United Kingdom during 2014, 445 Altea XLs. The Altea was released a few years after many of its competitors arriving on the scene, but it was expected to sell well.
However, it exceeded expectations, 31,223 Alteas were sold within the first year. It is a family oriented five seater, which attempts to portray a more sporty image than most of its rivals; the car is based on Volkswagen Group's A5 platform. An unusual design feature is the'vertical parked' windscreen wipers, which are designed to improve pedestrian safety, they disappear in to the window. The effect is a cleanly swept windscreen, but does mean the'A pillars' are rather wide and cause a blind spot. There were six trim levels: Essence, Reference Sport, Sport and FR. Internal combustion engines are available, with the range topping 2.0 FR Turbocharged Direct Injection delivering 125 kilowatts, available since April 2006. There are four gearboxes available, it is named after the Spanish city of Altea. In March 2014, Auto Express reported that SEAT were working on a family of SUVs, with an estimated release date of 2016, to be based on the same platform as the SEAT León; this proved to be exact, with the launch of the SEAT Ateca SUV in 2016.
In 2004, the SEAT Altea was tested for its safety performance under the Euro NCAP assessment scheme and it achieved a five star overall rating: Adult occupant Child occupant Pedestrian "Red dot: best of the best" design award, from the Nordrhein Westfalen Design Centre'The World's Most Beautiful Automobile 2004', in Milan'Autonis' Design Award, by the Auto-Strassenverkehr and MOT magazines'Best Concept Car in 2003', by the Designers organisation'Towncar of the Year' Award, by Caravan Club in collaboration with the English magazine What Car?'Auto Trophy' 2004 and 2005, by the German car magazine Autozeitung “XII Edición de los Premios del Motor” 2005 award by the Spanish magazine Telva'Coche de Flotas del Año' 2005 award by the Spanish magazine Flotas'Ampe' award in 2005 in the Internet category The following powertrain specifications are available: A flexible-fuel vehicle model was on offer under the label "MultiFuel", featuring the 1.6 MPI E85 102 bhp engine. The SEAT Altea XL is an 18.7 centimetres longer variant of the normal SEAT Altea, a five door five seat compact multi purpose vehicle, with increased luggage capacity compared to the standard Altea.
It was launched was launched at the Paris Motor Show in September 2006. The SEAT Altea Freetrack is dimensionally similar to the Altea XL, but is designed as compact sport-utility vehicle, it features raised suspension for increased ground clearance and larger plastic bumpers, plastic wheel arch and sill extensions, which all increase its exterior dimensions. All versions of the Freetrack, except the 2.0 Turbocharged Direct Injection 2WD, are equipped with a Haldex Traction based on demand four-wheel drive. The 4WD versions are called Seat Altea 4. In Mexico and Russia, the SEAT Altea Freetrack is marketed as the SEAT Freetrack. Although the Freetrack is available with 4WD, it is not marketed by SEAT as an "SUV". However, the Freetrack could be seen as a competitor for small SUVs from other marques; the possible internal combustion engine choices are the same as for the normal Altea. When the car was launched, it was available in a uncommon intense yellow; this colour was seen on models in several promotional brochures.
The colour scheme was no longer available by August 2010. Altea 2006 Award, by the Asociación de Telespectadores de la Comunidad de Andalucía The following powertrain options are available, with certain configurations utilising Volkswagen Groups regarded Direct-Shift Gearbox: A flexible-fuel vehicle model was on offer, under the label "MultiFuel", featuring the 1.6 MPI E85 102 bhp engine. Official website
Bologna Motor Show
The Bologna Motor Show is an auto show scheduled to be held annually in December, in Bologna, Italy. The 2009 and 2012 editions were the shortest events in its history, whereas the 2013 and 2015 editions were not held due to unfavourable economic conditions and a lack of planning by new organizers and diminished interest by exhibitors, respectively; the 2018 edition has been canceled as well. As its name in Italian suggests, the Bologna Motor Show plays the role of an annual Motorbike Exhibition, incorporating bicycle exhibitors for the first time in 1994. Another highlight is its various motorsport competitions, which see the participation of leading drivers and motorbike riders. From 1988 to 1996, the main event was a Formula 1 single elimination competition, with competitors like Rubens Barrichello, Johnny Herbert, Gabriele Tarquini and Giancarlo Fisichella. From 1997 to 2007, it featured the Euro Formula 3000, with drivers like Thomas Biagi, André Lotterer and Marco Bonanomi. In 2018 the Bologna International Motor Show did not take place due to financial and logistical reasons.
The 42nd Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 2 to December 10, 2017. The 41st Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 3 to December 11, 2016. On 6 November 2015, it was announced that the 40th Bologna International Motor Show would not be held. Run by GL Events, the new organizer Bologna Fiere has arranged for the event to be part of the 2016 international calendar of the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles; the 39th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 6 to December 14, 2014. On October 8, 2013, it was announced that the 38th Bologna International Motor Show had been cancelled, due to a lack of exhibitors caused by the general economic crisis in Europe; the 37th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 5 to December 9, 2012. This edition was akin to that held in 2009, affected by prevailing poor economic conditions; the 36th Bologna International Motor Show took place in BolognaFiere, Italy from December 3 to December 11, 2011.
Presentations: Alfa Romeo Giulietta Ferrari 599XX Evolution Package The 35th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 2 to December 4, 2010. Presentations: DR1 Electric Ferrari 458 Challenge Opel Antara Opel Corsa Peugeot EX1 concept The 34th Bologna International Motor Show was shortened to five days due to the overall crisis affecting the automotive industry at the time, took place from December 4 to December 8, 2009. Presentations: Mazda3 Tazzari Zero The 33rd Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 5 to December 14, 2008. Presentations: Citroën C1 Mazda3 Opel Insignia Tata Indica Electric Volkswagen Golf Plus The 32nd Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 7 to December 16, 2007; this edition of the show was the largest featuring the highest number of exhibitors. Presentations: Alfa Romeo 147 Ducati Edition Audi A3 Cabriolet Citroën C5 Citroën C5 Airscape Concept Citroën Nemo Concept Ford Focus Style Wagon Hummer H3 Black Edition Hyundai i10 Mahindra Goa GLX 2.5 CRDe six seater Mahindra Bolero 2.5 CRDe EURO4 single cab pickup Mahindra Goa DX EURO4 Mazda5 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X Opel Zafira Peugeot Bipper Tepee Concept Porsche Boxster RS60 Spyder Renault Modus Renault Grand Modus Martin Motors Bubble Subaru Impreza STI N14 by Prodrive Subaru Impreza 2.5 STI AWD Tata Ace Electric Tata Elegante concept The 31st Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 5 to December 17, 2006.
Presentations: Diesel Chevrolet Lacetti DR 3 DR 5 Fiat Panda Panda Ford C-Max Great Wall Hover Limousine Katay Gonow Troy Katay Gonow Victory Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 Roadster Maserati MC12 Corsa MY2007 Opel Astra Martin Motors CEO Škoda Roomster Scout Smart Fortwo SsangYong Actyon Sport SUT Tata Indica 1.4 DICOR 16v Tata Indigo SW 1.4 DICOR 16v Tata Safari 2.2 DICOR Tata TL Sprint Toyota Auris Volkswagen CrossTouran The 30th Bologna International Motor Show took place from November to December 10, 2005. Presentations: Ferrari F2005 Ferrari FXX Fiat Panda Monster Fiat Sedici The 29th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 6 to December 14, 2004. Presentations: Alfa Romeo 166 Mercedes-Benz B-Class Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class Mitsubishi Grandis Škoda Octavia Wagon 4x4 Volvo XC90 V8 The 28th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 4 to December 14, 2003. Presentations: Alfa Romeo 147 GTA Selespeed Citroën C3 X-Treme Concept Ferrari 360 GTC Kia KCD-I Slice Concept SEAT Altea Prototipo Concept Volvo V50 The 27th Bologna International Motor Show took place from December 8 to December 9, 2002.
Presentations: Alfa Romeo 156 GTAm Dodge Razor Concept Fiat Barchetta Fiat Doblò Sandstorm Concept Fiat Panda Simba Lancia Y Vanity Maserati Trofeo The 26th Bologna International Motor Show took place from November to December 10, 2001. Presentations: Alfa Romeo 156 GTA/Sportwagon GTA Audi A4 Convertible Audi S6 Citroën C3 Fiat Stilo Honda S2000 Mercedes-Benz SL-Class Mini Cooper S Mitsubishi Pajero Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution concept Opel Signum2 Concept Peugeot 607 SEAT Ibiza Subaru Impreza Volkswagen Polo Volkswagen W12 Concept Alfa Romeo Centauri Concept Lamborghini Diablo GTR Town Life Lamborghini Diablo Roadster VT Maserati Ghibli Open Cup Volvo V40 Alfa Romeo
Compact MPV— an abbreviation for Compact Multi-Purpose Vehicle— is a vehicle size class for the middle size of MPVs. The Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets; as of 2016, the only compact MPV sold in the United States is the Ford C-Max. The flexibility of the interior seating is a common theme amongst compact MPVs. Many models have seats which can be individually folded or removed, the upright seating positions maximises use of the interior space; the seating arrangement is either two rows or three rows, with the second row having three seats and the other row having 2 seats. Some compact MPVs three seats in both the front and rear rows, are therefore referred to as six-seaters. Where a third row of seats is present, the seats are smaller and intended for children or short distance travel only. In some cars, these seats can only carry a limited weight.
The third row of seating is optional, is not not available on all models of compact MPVs. Predecessors to the compact MPV segment are the 1977 AMC Concept 80 AM Van, the 1978 Lancia Megagamma and the 1982 Lada X-1 concept cars. Early production models of compact MPVs include, the 1982 Nissan Prairie and the 1991 Mitsubishi RVR; the 1996 Renault Scénic is credited with creating the compact MPV segment. The five highest selling compact MPVs in Europe in 2018 were the Renault Scenic, Volkswagen Touran, Citroën C4 Picasso, BMW 2 Series Active Tourer / Gran Tourer and Mercedes-Benz B-Class