Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster. In a military context a volunteer is someone who joins an armed force of their own volition rather than being conscripted, is paid; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s.

The word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted; such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception.

Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International; the Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades.

The process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion. This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so-called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'"

When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs." Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning.

When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their en

Eledone moschata

Eledone moschata, the musky octopus, is a species of octopus belonging to the family Octopodidae. The skin of the single specimen of Eledone microsicya is similar to the skin of Eledone moschata and some authorities take the view that E. microsicya is not a valid taxon and represents a Red Sea population of the otherwise Mediteraranean E. moschata with which it should synonymised. Eledone moschata is found throughout the Mediterranean Sea, is found in adjacent parts of the Atlantic Ocean, around the Gulf of Cadiz and off the coast of Portugal; the musky octopus occurs on the sandy bottom of the continental platform, at depths up to 400 meters. It lives burrowed into the sediments; the largest recorded musky octopus was a male with a mantle length of 188 millimetres, a total length of 740 mm and a mass of 1,414 grams, caught in the Gulf of İzmir, in the Aegean Sea. This small species has a head smaller with protruding eyes; the eight tentacles are short and have one row of suckers. The third right arm is specialized to transfer spermatophores to the female.

The basic color of the body is gray-brown, with dark, brown to blackish spots. Eledone moschata is related to the horned octopus, Eledone cirrhosa, but can be distinguished by a number of features. E. moschata feeds on a wide variety of crustaceans and fish. Crustaceans are preferred, species known to be eaten by E. moschata include Maja squinado, Maja crispata, Macropodia rostrata, Macropodia longirostris, Pisa tetraodon, Dorippe lanata, Lisa chiragra, Lambrus angulifrons, Lambrus massena, Inachus dorsettensis, Carcinus aestuarii, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Xantho poressa, Pilumnus hirtellus, Goneplax rhomboides, Pagurus prideauxi, Ilia nucleus and Squilla mantis.

James Hamilton (photographer)

James Hamilton is an American photographer, best known for his documentation of the New York City film and music scene of the 1970s and 1980s. James Hamilton’s career began as a painting student at Pratt Institute, in Brooklyn, NY, where he studied from fall, 1964 to summer, 1966, he swiftly changed gears after securing a summer job at the studio of fashion photographer Alberto Rizzo. It was while employed there that Hamilton learned to use a darkroom and purchased his first camera, a Nikon Rangefinder, which he traded with Rizzo for a Nikon F, his passion for photography was ignited by shooting in the street, as opposed to the confines of the studio. By summer’s end James had decided not to finish his last two years at the school, but to instead remain at the studio with Rizzo. In 1969 Hamilton began hitch-hiking around the US, spending five months on the road capturing images wherever he landed. While traveling through Texas, the young photographer found out about a music festival taking place in a nearby town.

He created fake press passes and spent three days shooting musicians as they performed at the Texas International Pop Festival. Upon his return to New York City he built a darkroom in his apartment, processed the film, began printing, he took the images from the festival to the newly launched music magazine, Crawdaddy! and was hired on the spot as their staff photographer. It was that Hamilton began to capture the steady stream of bands that came through the city, spending weekends shooting at the Fillmore East and, according to James,”…covering the music life of NYC.” He continues, “I never set out to photograph celebrities, never thought of myself as a ‘portrait photographer’…. I had always carried my camera wherever I went, using it to create a sort of personal history and a way of finding adventure.” Thus began a decades long career that would find James photographing the NYC music scene during some of its most fervent and fertile years, capturing the likes of Nico, Patti Smith, Tom Verlaine, Beastie Boys, James Brown.

Hamilton served as staff photographer for numerous publications, including Crawdaddy!, The Herald, Harper’s Bazaar, the Village Voice, the New York Observer while contributing to many iconic magazines including Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair and New York. During the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, Hamilton photographed war and civil unrest in areas including El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Grenada, he was situated in the Philippines during the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos, in Beijing during the Tiananmen Square massacre. In 1980, Hamilton began shooting stills for films. After meeting George A. Romero, Hamilton was enlisted to capture stills for his next two movies and Creepshow, following with work for Francis Ford Coppola on the set of The Outsiders, he went on to shoot extensively with Wes Anderson, photographing the sets of The Royal Tenenbaums, The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, The Darjeeling Limited, as well as on the set of Noah Baumbach’s The Squid and the Whale. In 1977 Pinball! was published by E. P. Dutton in New York.

James Hamilton shot Roger C. Sharpe authored the text; the book provides a detailed chronicle of pinball's rise and becoming of a national pastime, starting with its pre-war roots and tracing its history up to its ubiquity in now long-extinct bars, penny arcades, coffee houses across the US and in Europe. Hamilton’s color photographs of the machines themselves, as well as the places in which they lived and the people who played them, provides viewers with a time capsule of the pinball-crazed era of the mid-seventies. In 2010, Hamilton published the monograph You Should Have Heard Just What I Seen with Ecstatic Peace Library, New York; the book revealed his vast archive of unpublished photography spanning four decades of the music scene. Containing over 300 black and white photographs, the book includes portrait sittings, performance shots, reportage; the musicians pictured represent a wide variety of genres such as Duane Allman, Dolly Parton, Eubie Blake, Charles Mingus, Joni Mitchell, Bing Crosby, Jerry Lee Lewis, Glenn Branca, The Ramones, Gil Scott-Heron, Laurie Anderson and Bob Marley.

Included are portraits of music critics like Robert Christgau, Legs McNeil and Nat Hentoff. Hamilton produced You Should Have Heard Just What I Seen in collaboration with Thurston Moore, whom he had photographed with Sonic Youth and served as the book’s editor; the foreword is by Mark Jacobson. You Should Have Heard Just What I Seen received press from Vanity Fair, New Yorker and Another Magazine. Official website T Magazine article in which Hamilton is discussed by Thurston Moore Book of Hamilton's photographs "You Should Have Heard What I Just Seen" Feature on Hamilton at