A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Double-decker buses are used for mass transport in the United Kingdom, Europe and many former European possessions, the most iconic example being the red London bus. Early double-deckers put the driver in a separate cab. Passenger access was via an open platform at the rear, a bus conductor would collect fares. Modern double-deckers have a main entrance door at the front, the driver takes fares, thus halving the number of bus workers aboard, but slowing the boarding process; the rear open platform, popular with passengers, was abandoned for safety reasons, as there was a risk of passengers falling when running and jumping onto the bus. Double-deckers are for commuter transport but open-top models are used as sight-seeing buses for tourists. William Gladstone, speaking of London's double-deck horse drawn omnibuses, once observed that "...the best way to see London is from the top of a bus". Cities listed here have double-decker buses as part of their regular mass transit fleet.
Cities with only tourist and sightseeing double-decker buses are excluded. The first commercial horse-drawn double-decker omnibuses were introduced in England in 1847 by Adams & Co. of Fairfield, Bow improved upon by John Greenwood, who introduced a new double-decker in 1852. Double-decker buses are in common use throughout the United Kingdom, have been favoured over articulated buses by many operators because of the shorter length of double-deckers and larger amount of seating capacity; the majority of double-decker buses in the UK are between 9.5 metres and 11.1 metres long, the latter being more common since the mid-1990s, though there are three-axle 12-metre models in service with some operators. Double-decker coaches in the UK have traditionally been 12.0 metres in length, though many newer models are about 13.75 metres. The maximum permissible length of a rigid double-decker bus and coach in the UK is 15.0 metres, however the total maximum dimensions, including trailer or articulated section, in normal circumstances are.
Articulated double-deckers are allowed at a maximum length of 18.65 metres. In 1941, Miss Phyllis Thompson became the first woman licensed to drive a double-decker vehicle in the United Kingdom, she drove for the bus company Felix Bus Services at Hatfield near Doncaster. The red double-decker buses in London have become a national symbol of England; the majority of buses in London are double-deckers. A iconic example was the AEC Routemaster bus, a staple of the public transport network in London for nearly half a century following its introduction in 1956; because of cited difficulties accommodating disabled passengers, the last remaining Routemasters in use retired from general service in 2005. Transport for London has continued to keep these vintage buses in operation on heritage route 15H, there was a second heritage route but this ceased operation in 2014 due to low patronage and increased operation costs. In 2007, a hybrid-powered double-decker entered service on London Buses route 141. By late 2008, more hybrid double-deckers from three manufacturers entered service in London.
A New Routemaster was developed that year, entered service on 20 February 2012. In October 2015, London added five all-electric double-decker buses - the world's first - made by Chinese firm BYD. Bus Vannin operate several double-deckers on routes all across the island. In the Republic of Ireland, nearly all of buses operated in and around Greater Dublin by Dublin Bus are double-deckers. There are 936 double-decker buses in the company's fleet of 942. Bus Éireann utilises double-decker buses on some of its commuter routes, such as the Dublin to Dundalk service. Double-deckers are common on some of the company's suburban routes in Cork city. More luxurious Double-Deckers are used on Intercity Routes like the XI Dublin-Belfast Route or X3/X4 Dublin-Derry route. Double decker buses were in use on city services in Vienna between 1960 and 1991, they are used on services between Vienna and its airport, operated by Ötztaler Verkehrsgesellschaft under contract to ÖBB-Postbus on service 4420 between Innsbruck and Lienz.
Since 1970, various operators of Copenhagen city transport were using double-deckers—originally Leyland, in the 1980s-90s MAN and in the 2000s Volvo, derivates of model B7. The first French double-decker bus was brought into service in Paris in 1853; the upper floor was cheaper and uncovered. The first double-decker motor bus in Paris, the Schneider Brillié P2, appeared in 1906, it was designed to replace the horse-drawn double-decker omnibus. Like trams and omnibuses, double-decker motor buses included two classes of travel: first class inside the car and second class outdoors on top, but this type of vehicle was withdrawn in 1911. It was not until 1966. A prototype built by Berliet, was put into service in 1966, with an order being placed for 25 vehicles; the first production car was commissioned on 19 June 1968 on Gare Montparnasse - Levallois. On 17 February 1969, Opera - Porte d'Asnieres was in turn equipped with this model, but traffic problems caused RATP to definitively abandon this ve
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive format can be considered the original layout of automobiles. A 1901 Autocar was the first gasoline-powered automobile to use a drive shaft and placed the engine under the seat; this pioneering vehicle is now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. Mounting the engine in the middle instead of the front of the vehicle puts more weight over the rear tires, so they have more traction and provide more assistance to the front tires in braking the vehicle, with less chance of rear-wheel lockup and less chance of a skid or spin out. If the mid-engine vehicle is rear-drive the added weight on the rear tires can improve acceleration on slippery surfaces, providing much of the benefit of all wheel drive without the added weight and expense of all wheel drive components; the mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, by providing them more traction to control.
The mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop enough. Mid-engine design is a way to provide additional empty crush space in the front of the automobile between the bumper and the windshield, which can be used in a frontal collision to absorb more of the impact force to minimize penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle. In most automobiles, in sports cars ideal car handling requires balanced traction between the front and rear wheels when cornering, in order to maximize the possible speed around curves without sliding out; this balance is harder to achieve when the heavy weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by other means, such as putting the engine in the front and the transmission and battery in the rear of the vehicle. Another benefit comes, it makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride.
But in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the smoother ride is more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. This layout allows the transmission and motor to be directly bolted to each other—with independent suspension on the driven wheels; the largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space. The engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle. Exceptions involve larger vehicles of unusual length or height in which the passengers can share space between the axles with the engine, which can be between them or below them, as in some Toyota vans, large trucks and buses; the mid-engine layout was common in single-decker buses in the 1950s and 1960s, e.g. the AEC Reliance. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only successful example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4 and sports car / supercar performance. A version of the Lotus Evora with a removable roof panel is anticipated but no definite date is known.
Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind, the traditional "engine-behind-the-passengers" layout makes engine cooling more difficult. This has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides and rear of the bodywork to help dissipate heat from its high-output engine. Mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin; the moment of inertia about the center of gravity is low due to the concentration of mass between the axles and the spin will occur the car will rotate faster and it will be harder to recover from. Conversely, a front-engined car is more to break away in a progressive and controllable manner as the tires lose traction. Super and race cars have a mid-engined layout, as these vehicles' handling characteristics are more important than other requirements, such as usable space.
In dedicated sports cars, a weight distribution of about 50% front and rear is pursued, to optimise the vehicle's driving dynamics – a target, only achievable by placing the engine somewhere between the front and rear axles. The term "mid-engine" has been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the rear drive axles; this layout is referred to as layout. The mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is different from that of a front-engine or rear-engine car; when the engine is in front of the driver, but behind the front axle line, the layout is sometimes called a front mid-engine, rear drive, or FMR layout instead of the less-specific term front-engine. In vehicle layout FMR is the same as FR, but handling differs as a result of the difference in weight distribution; some vehicles could be classified as FMR depending on the factory installed engine. Most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car. Additionally, the distinction between FR and FMR is a flu
Arriva Southern Counties
Arriva Southern Counties is a bus operator in Surrey, West Sussex, East Sussex, Essex, Hemel Hempstead and Watford in England. It is a subsidiary of Arriva UK Bus. In November 1986 the National Bus Company sold Maidstone & District in a management buyout to Einkorn Limited. In June 1988 New Enterprise Coaches of Tonbridge was purchased, followed in December 1991 by four buses and their associated Kent County Council services from Shearings, in June 1992 Boro'line Maidstone. In 1990 British Bus purchased the Cranleigh and Woking based operations of Alder Valley followed in 1993 by Colchester Borough Transport and Southend Transport. In April 1995 Einkorn was sold to British Bus, which had purchased Kentish Bus in July 1994 and Londonlinks in 1988. In August 1995 Einkorn was renamed Invictaway. Invictaway was the name of the Maidstone & District commuter services to London, which were renamed Green Line at the same time. In July 1996 British Bus was taken over by the Cowie Group. Invictaway was renamed Arriva Southern Counties in April 1998, Arriva transferred London & Country to it.
The subsidiary operating companies therefore became: Maidstone & District: Mainly became Arriva Kent & Sussex Medway area became Arriva Medway Towns Kentish Bus: Mainly became Arriva Kent Thameside Partly became Arriva Kent & Sussex London & Country: Became Arriva Guildford & West Surrey LondonLinks: Became Arriva Croydon & North SurreyCurrent operations in the South East area are: Arriva Guildford & West Surrey Arriva Kent & Sussex Arriva Kent Thameside Arriva Medway Towns Arriva SouthendMany reorganisations of Arriva operations in South East England have followed since and today the company controls Arriva Guildford & West Surrey, Arriva West Sussex, Arriva Southend. The Croydon & North Surrey subsidiary was transferred to Arriva London. In August 2004 Arriva Colchester was sold to Tellings-Golden Miller, although with the December 2007 sale of Tellings-Golden Miller, Colchester is once again owned by Arriva, albeit not under the control of Arriva Southern Counties. In October 2009 the Horsham depot and routes were sold to Metrobus with 19 buses.
The coach subsidiary, New Enterprise Coaches of Tonbridge, inherited from Maidstone & District continues to trade under its own brand. In March 2015, Network Colchester and Network Harlow operations were taken over from Tellings-Golden Miller, who at the time was an Arriva subsidiary. Both operation companies were rebranded Arriva Harlow respectively; the Medway Towns network was upgraded in a £10 million investment marketed as Operation Overdrive. Arriva operates Maidstone park & ride under contract to Maidstone Borough Council; the buses are painted yellow with a green stripe swooping down from the top of the back of the bus to the bottom of the front. The fleet comprises two Wright Cadet bodied nine Wright Commander bodied DAF SB200s. In September 2007 the Coombe Quarry Park & Ride site was closed due to apparent budget difficulties; as a result, some of the buses were absorbed into the main fleet. Arriva operates two Sapphire routes in Kent, The buses serve route 101 from Gillingham to Maidstone via Chatham and routes 480 and 490 from Valley Drive to Dartford.
The fleet comprises Wright StreetLites. The buses are painted in a two tone blue livery. Arriva Southern Counties operate the Fastrack busway scheme in the Thames Gateway area of Kent on behalf of the Kent County Council and Prologis; this network consists of two routes: Route A runs between Dartford and the Bluewater Shopping Centre, while Route B runs from Temple Hill to Gravesend via Dartford. Since November 2007, Route B has connected with the Eurostar at Ebbsfleet International railway station, Eurostar passengers are allowed to use the route for free. On 11 February 2008, Arriva started a new "m-tickets" scheme, where passengers are able to pay for bus tickets using their mobile phones; the main corporate Arriva livery is aquamarine for the body, with a cream "swoop" at the front and a white separator line in between, blue Arriva "circles" logos, a thin yellow line at skirt level. There are many variations of the livery, such as: Interurban livery – Aquamarine, with dark blue band to skirt level and cream "cow-horns".
London livery - The original London livery was red, with champagne "cow-horns" as in the interurban livery, orange Arriva "circles" logo and a thin yellow line at skirt level. The new London livery is red, with the thin yellow line at skirt level and the Arriva "circles" in plain white. Bluewater livery - No longer used, the Bluewater livery was all over blue, with a water shimmer effect; the services using this livery were replaced by Fastrack in 2006. As well as this, many vehicles operating under different schemes run in different liveries, for example Fastrack and Maidstone Park & Ride; the locations of Arriva Southern Counties' depots and the divisions which operate them are: Gillingham - Arriva Medway Towns Guildford - Arriva Guildford & West Surrey Maidstone - Arriva Kent & Sussex / Arriva Maidstone / New Enterprise Coaches Northfleet - Arriva Kent Thameside Royal Tunbridge Wells - Arriva Kent & Sussex Sheerness - Arriva Medway Towns Southend - Arriva Southend Tonbridge - New Enterprise Coaches Hemel Hempstead - Arriva Kent Thameside Harlow - Arriva Kent Thameside Ware - Arriva Kent ThamesideFormer depots of Arriva Southern Counties were: Cranleigh - Arriva Guildford & West Surrey Dartford - Arriva Kent Thameside transferred to Arriva London January 2016 Gatwick - easyBus Grays - Arriva Southend transferred to Arriva London January 2
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Manchester Airport is an international airport at Ringway, Greater Manchester, England, 7.5 nautical miles south-west of Manchester city centre. In 2016, it was the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers and the busiest outside London; the airport comprises three passenger terminals and a goods terminal, is the only airport in the UK other than Heathrow Airport to operate two runways over 3,280 yd in length. Manchester Airport covers an area of 560 hectares and has flights to 199 destinations, placing the airport thirteenth globally for total destinations served. Opened on 25 June 1938, it was known as Ringway Airport, why it is still referred to as "Ringway" to this day. In the Second World War, as RAF Ringway, it was a base for the Royal Air Force; the airport is owned and managed by the Manchester Airports Group, a holding company owned by the Australian finance house IFM Investors and the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council owning the largest stake.
Ringway, after which the airport was named, is a village with a few buildings and church at the southern edge of the airport. Future developments include the £800 million Manchester Airport City logistics, manufacturing and hotel space next to the airport. Ongoing and future transport improvements include the £290 million Eastern Link relief road, due to open in summer 2019. A High Speed 2 station known as Manchester Interchange, is earmarked for opening in 2033, will directly connect the airport to Central London in under an hour and create a regular sub-10 minute shuttle service for connecting rail passengers from central Manchester to the Airport - relieving stress on the Styal Line to the Airport from Manchester which has become one of the most congested routes on the National Rail network. After the airport handled a record 27.8 million passengers in 2017, the Airport is undergoing a major expansion programme to double the size of Terminal 2, with the first phase due to open in spring 2019.
The £1 billion expansion will be completed in 2024 and enable the Terminal 2 to handle 35 million passengers. Capacity exists for up to 50 million passengers annually with two runways, however this potential figure is limited by the airport's restriction to 61 aircraft movements per hour as well as existing terminal sizes to process arrivals and departures. Construction started on Ringway on 28 November 1935 and opened in June 1937 and on 25 June 1938, in Ringway parish, north of Wilmslow, its northern border was Yewtree Lane between Firtree Farm and The Grange, east of the crossroads marked "Ringway", its southeast border a little west of Altrincham Road, along the lane from Oversleyford running northeast east into Styal. During the Second World War, it was the Royal Air Force's base RAF Ringway and was important in military aircraft production and training parachutists. After the Second World War, the base reverted to a civilian airport and expanded to its present size. Manchester Airport was the busiest airport after Heathrow for a number of decades following the war.
In 1972, the M56 motorway opened to the airport. By 1993, the airport railway station opened. From 1997 to 2001 its second runway was built, causing large-scale protests in the Cheshire in the village of Styal where natural habitats were disturbed and listed buildings were dismantled to make way for the second runway. More British Airways have scaled down operations from the Manchester Airport with the sale of their BA Connect subsidiary to Flybe. In October 2008 the daily New York–JFK service was terminated and in March 2013, the frequent service to London–Gatwick was terminated as well; this leaves a BA Shuttle serving London Heathrow. American Airlines operations remain in Terminal 3 with daily flights to Philadelphia, but has terminated services to New York and Charlotte, North Carolina. Since taking over BA Connect's select routes, Flybe has gone on to add several more destinations. In 2012, Flybe introduced the "mini hub" concept co-ordinating the arrival and departure times of various domestic services throughout the day and thereby creating combinations such as Norwich-Manchester-Belfast, Glasgow-Manchester-Southampton or Edinburgh-Manchester-Exeter and others to be accomplished in each direction with conveniently short transfer times.
In 2013 Virgin Atlantic introduced its'Little Red' short-haul brand to take-up some of the available Heathrow and Gatwick slots. Manchester was the inaugural destination, with services were operated by aircraft'wet-leased' from Aer Lingus. However, these services ceased in March 2015 due to low popularity; as of October 2017 there is a second London route by Flybe to London-Southend operating up to thrice daily. As part of the Government's'The Future of Air Transport' White Paper, Manchester Airport published its Master Plan on its proposed expansions until 2030. Demolition of older buildings, such as old storage buildings, the old Alpha Catering Building and Males Garage, to the east of Terminal 2 has begun, to make way for a new apron and taxiway towards runway 05L/23R and an eastwards extension of Terminal 2, planned to provide 15 more covered stands. A full-length parallel taxiway may be added to the second runway and more crossing points added across the first runway to improve ground movements of aircraft.
The World Logistics Hub is part of the Airport City Enterprise Developments in South Manchester. This development is designed to meet the growing demand for cargo handling space and
Duple Metsec was a bus bodywork builder based in West Midlands of England in the United Kingdom. It supplied body kits for bus assembly overseas, it was originated from the bus body manufacturing business of Metal Sections, known as TI Metsec in the late 1970s, the present day Metsec plc. Metal Sections, as the name suggests, produced prefabricated sections of metal for customers for a variety of products. In the early days, Metal Sections was not involved in the bus body business, after supplying framing sections for other bus body builders, they decided to get into the business themselves; the business was acquired by Duple Coachbuilders in 1980/1981. Duple Metsec became a subsidiary of Hestair Group in 1983 and subsidiary of Trinity Holdings in 1989; when Duple Coachbuilders was closed by Trinity Holdings in 1989, Duple Metsec was not closed and its business was retained. In October 1998, it was acquired by Mayflower Corporation; the factory of Duple Metsec was closed after the formation of TransBus International in 2001, And after that TransBus International still manufacture DM5000 body until 2002, than the previous Duple Metsec body department is merged with previous Walter Alexander Coachbuilders and Plaxton, which are acquired by Transbus International, Transbus International remerged into Alexander Dennis since 2004 The Duple Metsec "R" bodywork was built for various types of single-deckers including Volvo B10M for Singapore Bus Services from 1988 to 1995, Mercedes-Benz O405.
The Duple Metsec "W" bodywork was built for "full-front" double-deckers. Production of this bodywork was started by Metal Sections as early as the 1970s and it had been built on some exported Daimler/Leyland Fleetline and Leyland Atlantean for Hong Kong and Singapore, etc. In the late 1970s, the bodywork was modified with rubber mounted windows. After the formation of Duple Metsec, this bodywork redesigned and had been built on Leyland Atlantean, Dennis Jubilant, Leyland Victory Mark 2, Dennis Dominator and all the Dennis Dragons/Condors built. Duple Metsec "W" bodywork was built until circa 1998; the first Duple Metsec "W" bodywork built for Dennis Dragons/Condors was built in 1982, built on one Dennis Condor prototype with China Motor Bus, Hong Kong. But CMB chosen the complete MCW Metrobus to meet its demand of 3-axle buses; the "W" bodywork was modified and supplied to a number of Dennis Dragons for Kowloon Motor Bus, Hong Kong. After the MCW Metrobus ceased production in 1989, CMB began to receive Dennis Condors with Duple Metsec "W" bodywork.
In 1989, the first Duple Metsec "W" bodywork for air-conditioned Dennis Dragons/Condors was built on a prototype air-conditioned Dennis Dragon for KMB. The body pillars had been re-located and the air ducts for the air-conditioning system were fitted on the ceilings of both saloons, near the side windows. Subsequent non-air-conditioned "W" bodywork built had similar body design and were supplied to CMB, KMB and two batches for Africa. CMB was the first to buy air-conditioned Dennis Condors with Duple Metsec "W" bodywork due to competition from Citybus and they specified gasket glazing with openings on side windows; the specification of these remained the same for subsequent batches until the chief engineer in 1996 managed to specify gasket glazing without opening vents in them. The order for the following year specified bonded glazing and 2 +2 seating. KMB started to acquire air-conditioned Dennis Dragons with Duple Metsec "W" bodywork, after the first batch for CMB on Dennis Condor chassis.
All had fixed bonded glazing. Starting from 1993, KMB acquired the unique 9.98-metre Dragons with Duple Metsec "W" bodywork. After Citybus took over 28 routes from China Motor Bus in 1993, they were looking to dual source their vehicles rather than rely on one supplier. Dennis Specialist Vehicles in partnership with Duple Metsec were the obvious if not only choice at that time as they were supplying air-conditioned double deckers to the other two franchised operators; however Citybus had different needs compared to the other two operators, they had no space or inclination to assemble their own vehicles. Duple Metsec therefore had to find a third party who would be willing to assemble their body kits on the Dennis Dragon chassis and Salvador Caetano in Porto, Portugal were chosen; the bodies had new fronts designed for them which would accommodate the same size of windscreens that were fitted to the Alexander R-type bodies in the Citybus fleet. The front dash and cab area were quite different as Caetano applied their coach styling skills to design a better cab area.
The Citybus Dragons were unique in being the only 10.3-metre single-door Dragons built, the 12m Dragons were the first air-conditioned examples for Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited received four Dennis Dragons with Duple Metsec "W" bodywork in 1996; the body design was similar with Citybus examples. Duple Metsec DM3500 is a bus body, built for Volvo B10M for SBS Transit from 1997 to 2000. Duple Metsec DM5000 was a bus body, built for Dennis Trident 3; these buses operate with New World First Bus, Kowloon Motor Bus of Hong Kong and SBS Transit of Singapore, etc. They are equipped with Cummins Euro II or Euro III engines and all of them are air conditioned. Duple Metsec bodied two of the pre-production batch of Dennis Trident chassis for Citybus. One was finished as a normal service bus. Both had non-standard interior colour schemes for Citybus to consider for their future orders. Duple Metsec were quite