The Volvo B10L was a rear-engined, low-floor single-decker public bus chassis built by Volvo between c. 1993 and c. 2005. An articulated version of the B10L, known as the B10LA, was produced; the B10L was available in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1994 and 1999, with a choice of two types of bodywork, the Alexander Ultra and the Wright Liberator. The Alexander Ultra body was marketed by Volvo, based on the Swedish design produced by Säffle, who built the body on the first B10L imported to Britain; the Wright bodywork proved more popular. In the UK, the articulated B10LA was bodied by Wrights for FirstGroup subsidiaries in Manchester and Glasgow; the Wright body for the B10LA is named Fusion. The B10L enjoyed limited success in Britain. In 1997 the Volvo B10BLE was introduced to the British market, this chassis became more popular; the B10BLE was cheaper than the B10L, shared more in common with the step-entrance B10B, examples of which were owned by many of its customers. The largest fleet of Volvo B10L buses in the UK was purchased by Travel West Midlands, consisting of 80 conventional diesel-powered chassis with Wright Liberator bodywork, 14 CNG-powered buses with Alexander Ultra bodies.
The Alexander Ultra models are now converted to run on conventional diesel, with seven having been transferred to the training fleet before being returned to normal passenger use to replace the ageing Volvo B10Bs withdrawn from the fleet. The second largest fleet was purchased by Translink, whose Citybus and Ulsterbus divisions acquired sixty new, plus a further two ex-demonstrators. All have Alexander Ultra bodies. There have been a small number of withdrawals but most remain intact as of January 2007, operating services in the Belfast and Derry areas; the B10Ls with Alexander Ultra bodies have proved unpopular with the drivers and the engineering due to poor electrics. Travel Dundee received 30 Wright-bodied examples which began to enter service in February 1997. Other UK operators who purchased B10Ls include: CMT Buses of Aintree, Liverpool - 10 Wrights First Greater Manchester North - 5 Wrights First Glasgow - 10 Wrights First Northampton - 9 Ultras Timeline, Wigan - 6 Ultras Spot On, Blackburn/Accrington - 15 WrightsThe pioneer Säffle-bodied B10L was new to Mainline but they did not order any further examples and disposed of it.
As of November 2006 it was being used around Lincoln by Stagecoach subsidiary RoadCar, is now preserved. Eleven Wright Liberator-bodied B10Ls are operated by Bus Éireann in Cork, sister CIÉ company Dublin Bus purchased five Alexander Ultra-bodied B10Ls for use in Dublin. A sixth, experimental LPG-powered, vehicle was leased and returned. Helsingin Bussiliikenne has 41 Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies purchased between 1995 and 1999. 21 of these are gas-powered. Pohjolan Liikenne has bought four Volvo B10L buses with Lahti 402 bodies in 1999. Tampereen kaupunkiliikenne has eight articulated Volvo B10LA buses with Carrus City U bodies bought between 1996–1998 and in 2008. Jyväskylän Liikenne has 29 Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies built between 1997 and 1998. Part of these buses have been bought from Kuopion Liikenne. Koiviston Auto has five Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies bought in 1997 and 1998. List of buses
The Volvo B10BLE was a low-entry single-decker bus chassis manufactured by Volvo in Sweden between 1993 and 2004. The first prototypes were built in 1992, but mass production started in 1993, only a year after the high-floor B10B, it was popular in Australia and the United Kingdom. It had the engine mounted on the rear overhang of the bus, it became the successor of the city bus version of the B10B and was used as a base for single-decker buses worldwide. The B10BLE was available in diesel powered format, in a compressed natural gas powered format with the fuel tanks on the roof of the bus, its low-floor design was promoted by Volvo when it was first launched, on the basis of added convenience to the passengers, the increase in transport efficiency due to the low-floor design. The production of the diesel powered variants ended in 2001 to give way for B7RLE and B12BLE, while the CNG variants were produced until 2004. In the United Kingdom market, Volvo unsuccessfully tried to replace the B10BLE with the B7L in 2001, but realized that it was not as popular among the customers and offered the B7RLE from 2003.
The Volvo B10BLE features a Volvo DH10A engine with a displacement of 9,600 cc. It is an inline six-cylinder four-strokediesel engine with a intercooler; this engine used a dry sump system due to being horizontally mounted. The engine has a power output of either 285 bhp; the engine is able to meet Euro II emissions limits. The name of the chassis stands for: B - Bus 10 - 10 litre engine B - Back/Rear mounted engine LE - Low-entryOptionally available is a Volvo GH10-series natural gas or biogas engine. All generations of this engine are inline four-stroke six-cylinder spark-ignition engines with a turbocharger and intercooler; the GH10A and GH10B engines were lean-burn engines and the GH10C is a "mixed-lean" engine, operating on an optimised balance between stoichiometric and lean-burn combustion strategies. Power ratings vary from 245 bhp in the GH10A to 290 bhp in the uprated version of the GH10C; the GH10C is able to meet Euro IV emissions limits. In Australia, Sydney Buses purchased 125, Westbus 41 and Grenda Corporation 16.
In mainland Europe, B10BLEs were bodied by Säffle/Aabenraa and other local manufacturers. In Singapore, all SBS Transit B10BLEs were bodied by Volgren. One diesel-powered demonstrator was introduced in 1997 and scrapped in 2015 after reaching its 17 year lifespan; the other 12 were CNG powered, bought in 2003 and some of them were scrapped. The CNG buses are the last public buses in Singapore to use plastic destination signages. Retirement began in September 2018. In the United Kingdom, many of the B10BLEs had Wright Renown bodywork, a small number received Alexander ALX300 bodywork; the original Plaxton Prestige featured the Volvo chassis as an option, but few of these were built. Media related to Volvo B10BLE at Wikimedia Commons
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
The Leyland Olympian was a 2-axle and 3-axle double-decker bus chassis manufactured by Leyland between 1980 and 1993. It was the last Leyland bus model in production; the Olympian shared the same chassis and running gear as with the Leyland Titan integral double deck bus, ordered en masse by London Transport. At the time there was a demand for non-integral vehicles, with operators wishing to have the chassis bodied by other manufacturers, thus Leyland created the B45 project, named Olympian, in 1979. This was in many ways an update of the popular Bristol VRT, with many VR customers choosing Olympians; the Olympian replaced the Leyland Atlantean. The Olympian was unveiled at the 1980 Commercial Motor Show, it was available in two lengths, 9.56m and 10.25m. Engines were either the Leyland TL11 unit, or the Gardner 6LXB or 6LXCT; some Olympians had Cummins L10 engines. For the export market a three-axle version was built with lengths of 10.4m, 11.32m and 11.95m. This was popular with operators such as Kowloon Motor Bus.
In 1988, Leyland developed an air-conditioned version of the Olympian, with the air conditioner driven by the main engine instead of a separate engine. Between 1979 and 1981, nine demonstrators were built, before the first production Olympian entered service with Ribble Motor Services in August 1981; the Olympian was manufactured at the former Bristol factory in Brislington with the first thousand completed here. In 1983, production transferred to Leyland's Workington plants; the last was completed for Singapore Bus Service in March 1994. The Leyland Olympian was built with a wide variety of body types: Walter Alexander East Lancs ECW Leyland Marshall Northern Counties Roe / Optare The Leyland Olympian was popular in the United Kingdom, with orders from operators both before and after privatisation, it was purchased by many National Bus Company subsidiaries. Although London Buses purchased the Leyland Titan, in 1984 it took delivery of three Olympians. Between 1987 and 1992, a further 350 Olympians were purchased.
The last were withdrawn in 2005, although some were converted to open top buses and remain in use with The Original Tour. London Country purchased 102. Lothian Buses purchased over 200, but all were removed by 2009. South Wales Transport ordered 7 of these in 1985 registered C901-C907 FCY; these remained in service with First Cymru until 2005. The last remaining Leyland Olympians were removed from service in December 2016 as they did not comply with Disabled Access Regulations. EAS of Athens received 19 Leyland Olympians in 1983, plus the Demo trialed in 1982, they were all withdrawn by 1/10/1994. One of them is preserved. Between 1981 and 1993, Kowloon Motor Bus purchased 906 Olympians, with all but four having Alexander bodywork; some were repatriated to the United Kingdom, including 22 converted to open top configuration by The Big Bus Company. China Motor Bus purchased 37 Olympians between 1981 and 1993. All 35 three-axle Olympians passed to New World First Bus, with the entire batch of ten non-air-conditioned buses being sold to FirstGroup who repatriated them to the United Kingdom for use at their East Counties, Manchester and PMT subsidiaries.
After importing a few second-hand Olympians from the United Kingdom, Citybus purchased 294 new Olympians. In 2003, 54 were repatriated to the United Kingdom to operate express services for Megabus. All Hong Kong franchised Olympians had been withdrawn by October 2011; the non-franchised, open-topped, air-conditioned double deckers and private hire buses were withdrawn by 2015 due to their non-compliance with Hong Kong's emission regulations. Citybus #391 was the last Leyland Olympian to run in Hong Kong. Dublin Bus purchased 63 Olympians; the total was increased to 175. In 1984, an Eastern Coach Works bodied left hand drive Olympian was sent to the United States as a demonstrator, it was used as a shuttle bus at Expo 86 in British Columbia, Canada. It entered service on Gray Line tours in Victoria, it was sold to Brampton Transit. Grosvenor Coach Lines of San Francisco received 10 Eastern Coach Works bodied three-axle Leyland Olympians in 1986 for sightseeing purposes. Seven were transferred to New York City and the other three to Seattle.
After a period in store, the three Seattle units were repoweed with Detroit Diesel engines in Los Angeles and returned to Gray Line duties in San Francisco in 2015. Singapore Bus Services would in 1981 take in a single Leyland Olympian B45, built for demonstration purposes in Singapore; the bus was displayed at the 1980 Commercial Motor Show in the UK and was described as a "Far Eastern" prototype. It had a 3+2 transverse seating arrangement unseen in Singapore but common in Hong Kong with a seating capacity of 97 but was refitted to the standard 2+2 transverse seating arrangement before export to Singapore. Registered in Singapore as SBS5396B, it bore a unique demonstration livery with the company's 1978 corporate logo not unlike a Leyland Leopard demonstrator with SBS and was allocated to Ang Mo Kio bus depot where it ran on bus route 162 until its withdrawal in late 1982, it was subsequently repatriated to the UK where it worked with the City of Oxford Motor Services afterwards. SBS received 200 Leyland Olympian 2-axles between 15 April 1986 and 20 February 1988.
These were deployed to Ang Mo Kio and Jurong depots. Between 1995 and 1999, all of the Jurong Industrial and Tuas services were converted to Leyland Olympian 2-Axles with the exception of 246, which still has only 1-2 single deckers in its fleet until 2003; these buses w
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Volvo B7R is a coach chassis available with a range of bodies. It is promoted as a rear engined lightweight coach chassis, it is intended for tourist and long-distance duties. B7R is manufactured in China, Hungary and Iran for use in regional transport services. B7R is powered by Volvo D7E six-cylinder diesel engine with intercooler; the D7E engine produces 290 hp with 1200 Nm of torque between 1650 r/min. It comes with a retarder incorporated into the gearbox; the retarder slows down the engine. Once the engine slows down, disk brakes take over and bring the vehicle to complete stop in an instant, its frame is a robust steel construction with a flat upper face. A flat upper face simplifies building bus body, it could be built with a maximum length of about 12.5 metres. The B7R is available as complete buses - the Volvo 7350, Volvo 9400 and Volvo 8700; the B7R is the most used deluxe long distance bus in India and is employed by not only the state-owned transport corporations of the state of Karnataka, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh but by private operators.
Volvo developed a low-floor variant of B7R, known as the Volvo B7RLE, for intercity and city operations. In Brazil, B7R is produced in Curitiba since 1998; the first B7R in the country was imported from Sweden and operated in Curitiba's public transportation as a Direct Line Bus. In 2012, B7R was renamed to B290R, is used in BRS and BRT applications. In the Philippines, B7R is the basis for the GDW6127HKC and DMMW DM16 manufactured by Autodelta Coach Builders Inc and Del Monte Motor Works, it is similar to the low-end version the B7RLE. Meanwhile in Indonesia, the Volvo B7R only presented from 2003 to 2004, but there are many bus company that use the Volvo B7R, such as PO. Harapan Jaya, PO. Nusantara, etc. In the operation, this bus sometimes sometimes used as a tourist bus. Using the Volvo D7E, this bus has large horsepower, compared with standard Indonesian bus in the Rear Engined Bus, such as Hino RK8JSKA, Hino RG1JS/JN, Mercedes Benz OH 1521, Mercedes Benz OH 1525, but due to the its large power, the maintenance very high, that's why many company that were use the B7R sell the bus into another company and evenly some company change the D7E engine into a Mitsubishi Fuso 6D16 engine or Nissan Diesel FE6B and Hino J08E to reducing operational and maintenance cost.
List of buses Product description in Volvo website