The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecrafts launched in 1977. The records contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form who may find them; the records are a sort of time capsule. Although neither Voyager spacecraft is heading toward any particular star, Voyager 1 will pass within 1.6 light-years' distance of the star Gliese 445 in the constellation Camelopardalis, in about 40,000 years. Carl Sagan noted that "The spacecraft will be encountered and the record played only if there are advanced space-faring civilizations in interstellar space, but the launching of this'bottle' into the cosmic'ocean' says something hopeful about life on this planet." The Voyager 1 probe is the farthest human-made object from Earth. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have reached interstellar space, the region between stars where the galactic plasma is present.
Like their predecessors Pioneer 10 and 11, which featured a simple plaque, both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were launched by NASA with a message aboard—a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate to extraterrestrials a story of the world of humans on Earth. This is a present from a small, distant world, a token of our sounds, our science, our images, our music, our thoughts and our feelings. We are attempting to survive our time; the contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University. The selection of content for the record took a year. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind and animals. To this they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, spoken greetings in 55 ancient and modern languages including a spoken greeting in English by U. N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim, other human sounds, like footsteps and laughter, a printed message from U. S. president Jimmy Carter.
The record includes the inspirational message Per aspera ad astra in Morse code. The collection of images includes many photographs and diagrams both in black and white, color; the first images are of scientific interest, showing mathematical and physical quantities, the Solar System and its planets, DNA, human anatomy and reproduction. Care was taken to include not only pictures of humanity, but some of animals, insects and landscapes. Images of humanity depict a broad range of cultures; these images show food and humans in portraits as well as going about their day-to-day lives. Many pictures are annotated with one or more indications of scales of size, or mass; some images contain indications of chemical composition. All measures used on the pictures are defined in the first few images using physical references that are to be consistent anywhere in the universe; the musical selection is varied, featuring works by composers such as J. S. Bach, Mozart and Stravinsky; the disc includes music by Guan Pinghu, Blind Willie Johnson, Chuck Berry, Kesarbai Kerkar, Valya Balkanska, electronic composer Laurie Spiegel, as well as Azerbaijani folk music by oboe player Kamil Jalilov.
The inclusion of Berry's "Johnny B. Goode" was controversial, with some claiming that rock music was "adolescent", to which Sagan replied, "There are a lot of adolescents on the planet." The selection of music for the record was completed by a team composed of Carl Sagan as project director, Linda Salzman Sagan, Frank Drake, Alan Lomax, Ann Druyan as creative director, artist Jon Lomberg, Timothy Ferris as producer, Jimmy Iovine as sound engineer. The Golden Record carries an hour-long recording of the brainwaves of Ann Druyan. During the recording of the brainwaves, Druyan thought of many topics, including Earth's history and the problems they face, what it was like to fall in love. After NASA had received criticism over the nudity on the Pioneer plaque, the agency chose not to allow Sagan and his colleagues to include a photograph of a nude man and woman on the record. Instead, only a silhouette of the couple was included. However, the record does contain "Diagram of vertebrate evolution", by Jon Lomberg, with drawings of an anatomically correct naked male and naked female, showing external organs.
The pulsar map and hydrogen molecule diagram are shared in common with the Pioneer plaque. The 115 images are composed of 512 vertical lines; the remainder of the record is audio, designed to be played at 16⅔ revolutions per minute. Jimmy Iovine, still early in his career as a music producer, served as sound engineer for the project at the recommendation of John Lennon, contacted to contribute but was unable to take part. Sagan's team wanted to include the Beatles song "Here Comes the Sun" on the record, but the record company EMI, which held the copyrights, declined. In the 1978 book Murmurs of Earth, the failure to secure permission for the song is cited as one of the legal challenges faced by the team compiling the Voyager Golden Record. In the book, Sagan said that the Beatles favoured the idea, but " did not own the copyright, the legal status of the piece seemed too murky to risk." When asked about the obstacle presented by EMI with regard to "Here Comes the Sun", despite the artists' wishes, Ann Druyan said in 2015: "Yeah, one of those cases of having to see the tragedy of our planet.
Here's a chance to send a piece of music into the distant future and distant time, to give it this kind of immortality, and
Peter Raymond Sleep is a former Australian cricketer who played 14 Test matches for Australia between 1979 and 1990. Nicknamed "Sounda", Sleep made his national debut during the World Series Cricket period, although his performances were not high, Sleep publicly reported that he had turned down a $15,000/year offer to play for World Series Cricket, he was a leg spinner, in and out of the team playing two games in succession, though after taking ten wickets in the 1986–87 Ashes he was retained for the next four Tests after the series before falling out of favour again. The 1986–87 series which included his best bowling figures in a Test innings, five for 72 in the second innings as England failed to chase 320 for the win. However, Sleep was part of an Australian generation of spinners with bowling averages above 40 including Tom Hogan, Murray Bennett and Tony Mann, the cricket website Cricinfo summed up his career as a "relatively anodyne slow bowler". Sleep himself describes his test career as "mediocre".
Peter Sleep made his first class debut in 1976 -- 77. In only his second game he took part in a 159 run partnership with David Hookes against Queensland. In 1977–78 he scored 363 runs at an average of 40. In 1978–79 a spell of 6–94 and innings of 91 against NSW saw him in the frame for test selection, he followed this up with 5–24 in 13 overs against Queensland. By this stage Sleep had received an offer to play World Series Cricket; that summer he had scored 600 runs at an average of more than 35 and taken 42 wickets at 23 runs each in the Shield. He was duly selected in the Australian side the first test against Pakistan. Australia had just lost 5–1 to England; the selectors decided to drop Peter Toohey, Bruce Yardley and Phil Carlson and replace them with Dav Whatmore, Trevor Laughlin and Sleep. For the test match, strong bowling from Rodney Hogg and Alan Hurst put Australia in a strong position; however their batsmen collapsed form 3 -- 305 to all out for 310. Sleep took 1–16 and 1–62 and scored 10 and 0.
The Australian selectors responded to the match by mass changes – something they did throughout the summer: Graeme Wood, Wayne Clark, Jim Higgs and Peter Sleep were dropped for Rick Darling, Trevor Laughlin, Bruce Yardley and Geoff Dymock. Sleep was voted the Sheffield Shield player of the year, he ended the summer having scored 657 runs at 32 and taken 47 wickets at 27. Sleep was picked on the 1979 tour to India, he was one of three spinners in the squad. This meant he had to break a contract with the Lancashire League, Sleep was fined. Sleep began the Indian tour but took five wickets against South Zone. According to the Canberra Times "three of them were from loose deliveries which a batsman of Gavaskar's class would put away, he does have the happy knack of taking wickets with bad balls, but there are doubts about his ability to bowl enough against batsmen who were brought up playing spin bowling."He took 5–71 and made a fifty against Central Zone, which put him in the frame for the Australian team for the third test.
He did not achieve this but was selected in the team for the 4th test, where he took no wickets but scored 64 in Australia's second innings, helping Australia draw. Sleep took part in two crucial partnerships: 76 with 51 with Geoff Dymock. "He will never hit a better 64 in his life" said contemporary reports. Bruce Yardley's return from illness saw Sleep relegated to 12th man for the fifth test, he was next used in the sixth test, taking no wickets and making four runs, though he did suffer stomach cramps throughout the game. On his return to Australia, Sleep was unable to force himself back into the test side, the selectors preferring Ray Bright, Jim Higgs and Bruce Yardley as spinner, he was overlooked for the 1981 tour of England, for instance, despite a summer where he scored 663 runs at 41 and took 22 wickets at 34. However Sleep was an important part of South Australia's Sheffield Shield winning team in 1981–82. Sleep's consistent performances at first class level saw him selected on Australia's 1982 tour of Pakistan.
An illness to Bruce Yardley saw him picked to play in the second test, where he took 1–158 and scored 30 runs over two innings. He was replaced in the third test by Terry Alderman. Sleep had a strong 1985–86 season, making 793 runs at 44. Sleep next played for Australia in the 1986–87 Ashes, he was recalled for the second test side. He made the third test team. In the 4th test he made 16 runs; however he was kept on for the fifth test, where Sleep's 5–72 in the second innings helped bowl Australia to victory. During the 1987–88 summer Sleep played the first test against New Zealand, he took no wickets but his first innings knock of 39 was Australia's second highest score and help with a rare Australian victory. In the second test he took a score of 62 with the bat. For the third test Sleep top scored in Australia's first innings with 90 but only took 0–31 and 3–107 with the ball. For the Bicentennial test he took 2–114 and made 41 in Australia's first innings, the second highest score. Sleep did not play for Australia again until the 1988 tour of Pakistan.
He took five wickets in a tour match against the BCCP XI but was overlooked in favour of Tim May for the first test. He was picked in the second test and took two wicket
Hiretsukan was a New York-based band that formed in 1998 just outside Washington, D. C. In the following years, they recorded their "Brown Bag" demo, went out on a few small tours. After a few volatile years which saw several collective moves and incarnations, the group solidified its line-up and relocated to New York City; the current line-up includes Michelle Proffit, Dave Sanders, Derek Wimble, Justin Williams. The band performs a form of hardcore punk, incorporating melodic indie rock style riffs in 68 time. Michelle Proffit's vocal style consists of screaming and screeching the lyrics; the lyrics lean towards the left-wing side of the political scale. The band recorded its first EP in early 2002 with producer Don Fury; the result, Invasive/Exotic, was released on G7 Welcoming Committee Records in May, 2002. After touring a bit for the record, the band split up that same year; the members were convinced to re-form in late 2003 by the people at G7 Records. Newly reformed with the same lineup, the band began working on songs that would be recorded and released their first full-length album, End States, again on G7 Welcoming Committee Records.