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Voyageurs

The voyageurs were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years. The emblematic meaning of the term applies to places and times where transportation of materials was over long distances; the voyageurs were regarded as legendary in French Canada. They were heroes celebrated in music. For reasons of promised celebrity status and wealth, this position was coveted. James H. Baker was once told by an unnamed retired voyageur: I could carry, paddle and sing with any man I saw. I have been twenty-four years a canoe man, forty-one years in service. I have saved the lives of ten voyageurs, have had six running dogs. I spent all of my money in pleasure. Were I young again, I would spend my life the same way over. There is no life so happy as a voyageur's life! Despite the fame surrounding the voyageur, their life was one of toil and not nearly as glorious as folk tales make it out to be. For example, they had to be able to carry two 90-pound bundles of fur over portages.

Some carried up to four or five, there is a report of a voyageur carrying seven for half of a mile. Hernias were common and caused death. Most voyageurs would start working when they were twenty-two and they would continue working until they were in their sixties, they never made enough money to consider an early retirement from what was a physically grueling lifestyle. The major and challenging task of the fur trading business was done by canoe and by French Canadians; the term in its fur trade context applied, at a lesser extent, to other fur trading activities. Being a voyageur included being a part of a licensed, organized effort, one of the distinctions that set them apart from the coureurs des bois. Additionally, they were set apart from engagés, who were much smaller merchants and general laborers. Immigrants, engagés were men who were obliged to go anywhere and do anything their masters told them as long as their indentureship was still in place; until their contract expired, engagés were at the full servitude of their master, most a voyageur.

Less than fifty percent of engagés whose contracts ended chose to remain in New France. Europeans traded alongside the coast of North America with Native Americans; the early fur trade with Native Americans, which developed alongside the coasts of North America, was not limited to the beaver. Beavers were not valued and people preferred "fancy fur" or "fur, used with or on the pelt"; the fur trade was viewed as secondary to fishing during this era. The earliest North American fur trading did not include long distance transportation of the furs after they were obtained by trade with the First Nations. Soon, coureurs des bois achieved business advantages by travelling deeper into the wilderness and trading there. By 1681, the King of France decided to control the traders by publishing an edict that banned fur and pelt trading in New France; as the trading process moved deeper into the wilderness, transportation of the furs became a larger part of the fur trading business process. The authorities began a process of issuing permits.

Those travellers associated with the canoe transportation part of the licensed endeavour became known as voyageurs, a term which means "traveler" in French. The fur trade was thus controlled by a small number of Montreal merchants. New France began a policy of expansion in an attempt to dominate the trade. French influence extended west and south. Forts and trading posts were built with the help of traders. Treaties were negotiated with native groups, fur trading became profitable and organized; the system became complex, the voyageurs, many of whom had been independent traders became hired laborers. By the late 1600s, a trade route through and beyond the Great lakes had been opened; the Hudson's Bay Company opened in 1670. The North West Company opened in 1784, exploring as far north as Lake Athabasca; the American Fur Company and operated by John Jacob Astor was founded in 1808. This company, by 1830, grew to control the American fur industry. In the late 1700s, demand in Europe grew for marten, lynx and beaver furs, expanding the trade, adding thousands to the ranks of voyageurs.

From the beginning of the fur trade in the 1680s until the late 1870s, the voyageurs were the blue-collar workers of the Montreal fur trade. At their height in the 1810s, they numbered as many as three thousand. For the most part, voyageurs were the crews hired to man the canoes that carried trade goods and supplies to trading locations where they were exchanged for furs, "rendezvous posts", they transported the furs back to Lachine near Montreal, also to points on the route to Hudson Bay. Some voyageurs stayed in the back country over the winter and transported the trade goods from the posts to farther-away French outposts; these men were known as the hivernants. They helped negotiate trade in native villages. In the spring they would carry furs from these remote outposts back to the rendezvous posts. Voyageurs served as guides for explorers; the majority of these canoe

Haifa derby

The Haifa derby is the name given to the football matches between Hapoel Haifa and Maccabi Haifa. As with any major football rivalry and banter between the two sets of fans is commonplace; this rivalry between those two club has a long history, just like the clubs themselves. Hapoel Haifa was associated with the Israeli Labor Party and a socialist point of view, while Maccabi Haifa was known for middle class fans. In recent years these political differences have completely disappeared due to Maccabi becoming big club by winning twelve titles since 1984 compared with Hapoel's sole title, which it won in 1999; this can be further evidenced by Hapoel's opening fixture at Sammy Ofer Stadium attracting 3,500 fans while Maccabi's inaugural fixture was a full capacity 30,000. On June 18, 1949 the first game was held between the two clubs: Hapoel beat Maccabi 2–0. Since 1955 all the derbies took place in the municipal stadium – Kiryat Eliezer Stadium; the first game in that stadium ended with Maccabi winning 4–1.

In 1967 was the first derby in Kiryat Haim Stadium. The aggregate score between the two teams is 148–98 to Maccabi Haifa; the two clubs have met 15 times in the State Cup. Maccabi have won 10 games, Hapoel have won 3. Two games ended with a penalty kick: once in 2000 when Maccabi won and managed to get the quarter final ticket, in the second time in 2005 and Hapoel made it to get the quarter final ticket; the teams have met twice in the final. In 1963, Hapoel Haifa won with a third minute goal from Simha Oren, in 1995 Maccabi won 2–0 with goals from Moshe Glam and Ofer Shitrit. Fixtures from 1949 to the present day featuring League games, State cup games and Toto Cup Games: Fixtures from 1949 to the present day: Fixtures from 1949 to the present day: Players with 5 or more goals in the Those in bold still with either side; as of 21 December 2014 "The Haifa derby matches". Hapoel Haifa official website. Retrieved 12 May 2011. "The Haifa derby matches". Maccabi Haifa official website. Retrieved 12 May 2011

Aundrea Fimbres

Aundrea Aurora Fimbres is an American singer and dancer. Fimbres was a member of the pop music group Danity Kane, she is a soprano and was known for her melismatic vocal runs, falsetto registered harmonies and for having the highest vocal range of her fellow band members. Fimbres was born in California, to Mexican American parents; the youngest child in her family, Fimbres attended Claremont High School. Fimbres was singing from an early age. During her high school years she was a member of Intrigue. Before Fimbres auditioned for Making the Band 3 she was three semesters short of completing a degree in education, with the intention of becoming a kindergarten teacher — a back-up plan to singing that she had promised her parents she would have. In 2004, Fimbres auditioned in Los Angeles for the first season of Making the Band 3 - the same audition as fellow band member Aubrey O'Day, they met at the audition. At the final audition, not only was Fimbres successful but she was the first contestant to make it into the house.

Fimbres was one of the "standouts" during the competition. She excelled in dancing and her vocals set her apart from the other contestants, she experienced significant personal struggles while competing, which helped to further endear her to the audience. Their "den mother" Jason was viewed as rude to the women in the house. In one episode, Jason criticized Fimbres for not having a well-toned abdomen. Despite this, Fimbres continued to display good vocal and dance performances. During the first-season finale of Making the Band 3, Sean Combs decided against forming a group, but chose Fimbres as one of the contestants from the first season, along with O'Day, to participate in the second season. During the second season, Fimbres' dance performance declined, her vocals remained favorable to judges and fellow contestants, but her dancing ability was in question. Fimbres improved the quality of her dancing. On the season finale of the series, she was picked to be in the group, which soon became known as Danity Kane.

Danity Kane's first studio album, Danity Kane was released in 2006 and achieved success in the United States, shipping a million copies domestically. Two singles from the album were top 10 hits, "Show Stopper", the ballad, "Ride for You", their second studio album, Welcome to the Dollhouse, was released on March 18, 2008, following the release of their second top 10 hit single "Damaged". The band became the first female group in Billboard history to have their first two albums open at the top of the charts; the season finale of Making the Band October 14, 2008, confirmed the departure of O'Day and D. Woods. With bandmate Shannon Bex deciding not to continue within the group and declining to return to film the show's 2009 season and Dawn Richard were the only two returning members for the group and the series; the group's break up was confirmed in January 2009. However, they were shown on air as being over in April 2009, where Fimbres was "officially" released from her Bad Boy Records contract by Combs in the April 16, 2009, episode of the series.

Fimbres had formed a strong connection with O'Day while competing to be in the band. The two made it through two seasons together, gained a large and loyal fanbase before Combs chose them to be in the group. Viewers named the two "the AUs" and "Aubrea", O'Day declared Fimbres her best friend in the season 2 finale of the series. Fimbres' friendship with O'Day, however became distant, suggested as one of the reasons for Danity Kane's demise. In June 2010, an original Fimbres song was leaked on the Internet titled "Brush You Off"; this song was revealed to be a demo that Fimbres had made in 2006. In August 2010, with former Danity Kane bandmate, Aubrey O'Day, she revealed via Ustream that both had recorded a track titled "Ego Trip" to be included on Aubrey O'Day's solo album, but was taken off the album before it was released, they answered some fan questions about the band's split. In 2010, Fimbres began performing and touring with Soto, a Latin/funk/R&B band from Norwalk, California. In 2012, Fimbres was named executive producer of J-Live Entertainment's Next Big Thing Talent Show.

In mid-2013, there were rumors. On August 25, 2013, Danity Kane appeared at the 2013 MTV Video Music Awards, announcing they were back together. On May 15, 2014, the band's first official reunion single "Lemonade" was released on the internet via Official Danity Kane Soundcloud; the single was produced by The Stereotypes, features rapper Tyga over a production sampled from Grindin', the 2002 hit song by Clipse On May 16, 2014, on the first night of their #NOFilterTour at The Fillmore in San Francisco after performing several songs with Danity Kane, Fimbres announced that she would be leaving the group at the end of their tour, Aubrey O'Day, Shannon Bex, Dawn Richard would be continuing on as a trio. Fimbres' sings in a song called "Dip With You" on Cyclone, she appeared as Dorothy in Oz: The Musical, alongside Nathaniel Flatt of V-Factory, from December 4–13, 2009. On December 30, 2010, a snippet of the O'Day and Fimbres' collaboration, "Ego Trip", was leaked on the Internet, but the track was never finished.

On March 11, 2011, Fimbres made an appearance on O'Day's reality show, All About Aubrey, where they recorded a song titled "Ego Trip" for O'Day's solo album to be released in 2011, although their single was never released. In the episode, according to O'Day, Fimbres drops out of a show she would do with O'Day, telling O'Day that she did not want to be in the business anym