William Thomas Cosgrave was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as President of the Executive Council from 1922 to 1932, Leader of the Opposition from 1932 to 1944, Leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, Leader of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1923 to 1933, Chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, President of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, Minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and Minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922. He served as a Teachta Dála from 1921 to 1944, he was a Member of Parliament for the North Kilkenny constituency from 1918-22. Cosgrave never held the office of Taoiseach, his son, served as Taoiseach from 1973-77. William Thomas Cosgrave was born at 174 James's Street, Dublin in 1880, to Thomas Cosgrave and Bridget Cosgrave, he was educated at the Christian Brothers School at Malahide Road, before entering his father's publican business. Cosgrave first became politically active when he attended the first Sinn Féin convention in 1905.
He was a Sinn Féin councillor on Dublin Corporation from 1909 until 1922 and joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913, although he never joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood because he didn't believe in secret societies. He played an active role in the Easter Rising of 1916, serving under Eamonn Ceannt as a Captain at the South Dublin Union. Following the rebellion, Cosgrave was sentenced to death. Whilst imprisoned he won a seat for Sinn Féin in the Kilkenny City by-election of August 1917. In September 1917, he and Michael Collins addressed a crowd in Dunboyne, County Meath, urging people to join the Irish Volunteers. Cosgrave again won an Irish seat at the 1918 general election, this time for Kilkenny North. Although he and many other Sinn Féin MPs were still in prison at the time, 27 free Sinn Féin MPs, in accordance with their party's manifesto, refused to go to Westminster and instead formed the First Dáil, in which Cosgrave took his seat after he was released from prison in 1919. On 24 June 1919, he married Louisa Flanagan in Dublin, daughter of Alderman Michael Flanagan, a nationalist councillor on Dublin Corporation between 1884 and 1919.
During his years, Cosgrave was cared for by his son and daughter-in-law and Vera. Although Cosgrave was one of the most politically experienced of Sinn Féin's TDs, Cosgrave was not within the leadership of the party. However, when Éamon de Valera formed the Second Ministry of Dáil Éireann on 2 April 1919, Cosgrave was named as Secretary of Local Government, his close friendship with de Valera and his long experience on Dublin Corporation, most as Chairman of its Finance Committee, were among the reasons he was selected. His chief task as Minister was the job of organising the non-cooperation of the people with the British authorities and establishing an alternative system of government. Cosgrave was successful in his role at the Department of Local Government. After the 1920 local elections, elected under the new system of single transferable vote, 28 of the 33 local councils pledged loyalty to the Ministry of Local Government established by the Dáil; these councils cut their links to the British government.
Cosgrave supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed on 6 December 1921. At the cabinet meeting in Dublin held to consider the Treaty after it had been signed, Cosgrave surprised de Valera by agreeing with Collins and with Arthur Griffith, de Valera's predecessor as leader of Sinn Féin and the chairman of the delegation which included Collins that had negotiated the Treaty, it was narrowly supported by the cabinet in a vote of 4 to 3, was supported by the Dáil in a vote of 64 to 57. However, de Valera voted against, resigned as president in January 1922. Griffith succeeded de Valera as president. Collins, in accordance with the Treaty, formed a Provisional Government. From July onward, he became Minister for Finance; the months following the acceptance of the Treaty saw a gradual progression to civil war. The split in Sinn Féin deepened, the majority of the IRA hardened against accepting anything less than a full republic. Collins and de Valera tried to find a middle course, formed a pact whereby Sinn Féin fought a general election in June with a common slate of candidates.
Despite this pact, the electorate voted in favour of pro-Treaty candidates. On the day of the election, the draft Constitution of the Irish Free State was published. Collins, forced to a decision, opted to maintain the Treaty position and the support of the British government, moved to suppress the Republican opposition that had seized the Four Courts in Dublin; the Civil War began on 28 June 1922, the IRA was decisively defeated in the field over the following two months, being pinned back to Munster. In August 1922, both Griffith and Collins died in quick succession. With de Valera now on the fringes as the nominal leader of the anti-Treaty forces
Gilli Davies is a Cordon Bleu cook from Wales. Davies has been involved with food, food journalism and broadcasting since about 1975. At the age of 19, Davies ran her own bistro in Oxford. Davies has run a restaurant in Berlin and an organic food restaurant in Cardiff and now lives in York. Davies has written numerous cookery books based on Cypriot cuisine and organic food. In October 2015 Graffeg published the Flavours of Wales, a collection of five pocket books, each with over 20 recipes on Welsh cuisine. In 1990, Davies wrote and presented a 10 part television series called Tastes of Wales Davies has run children's cookery classes, a training scheme to encourage restaurants to use local ingredients and a variety of other food events. Davies has been an advisor to the Food Standards Agency and is a member and former chairwoman of the Guild of Food Writers. Books by Gilli Davies include: A Taste of Cyprus, Interworld Publications, 1998. ISBN 0948853255 A Taste of Wales, Pavilion Books, 1995. ISBN 1-85793-2935 Celtic Cuisine, Graffeg, 2008.
ISBN 9781905582105 Cook Organic, Metro Books, London, 1998. ISBN 190051236X The down to earth cookbook, British Gas Wales, 1993. ISBN 0903545527 Eat Well in Wales, Western Mail & Echo Ltd. 1998. ISBN 1900477033 Lamb and Laverbread, Grafton, 1989. ISBN 0586201394 The Joy of Organic Cookery, Metro Books, London, 2002. ISBN 1843580128 The Very Best Flavours of Wales, Gwasg Gomer, 1997. ISBN 1859025900 The Welsh Calendar Cookbook, Y Lolfa Cyf. 2014. ISBN 0862437490 Flavours of Wales: Vegetarian dishes, Graffeg, 2015. ISBN 9781909823129 Flavours of Wales: Fish and seafood, Graffeg, 2015. ISBN 9781909823112 Flavours of Wales: Puddings and baking, Graffeg, 2015. ISBN 9781909823143 Flavours of Wales: Starters and light dishes, Graffeg, 2015. ISBN 9781909823167 Flavours of Wales: Meat and game, Graffeg, 2015. ISBN 9781909823136 The Flavours of Wales Series by Gilli Davies Top Recipe Tips by Gilli Davies Laverbread
Lis Lauritzen is a Danish cruise ship Captain for Royal Caribbean International. She worked in the cargo ship industry. Lauritzen was born in 1971 to a Japanese mother and a Danish father, her father had been a sailor for Maersk Line, but gave up that career when Lauritzen and his daughters were born. His stories inspired Lauritzen to pursue a maritime based career, she attended a navigation school in Denmark. Lauritzen's first role on board a ship was while working for J. Lauritzen A/S in June 1989 as a junior seaman, she worked on the gas tanker Kosan for seven months. Afterwards, Lauritzen worked on ships on the Danish Great Belt ferries. After ten years in the industry, she had completed her Master Mariner certificate and was looking for a fresh challenge, she joined Royal Caribbean International as first officer on Grandeur of the Seas in November 1998. Laurtizen served in this capacity on several Royal Caribbean cruise ships, including Explorer of the Seas, Radiance of the Seas, Monarch of the Seas, Jewel of the Seas.
Her first command came as a Relief Captain on Jewel of the Seas in 2008, a position she undertook on Radiance of the Seas. Lauritzen was named Captain of Vision of the Seas on 10 August 2011; this made her the second female Captain for Royal Caribbean International, after Karin Stahre-Janson, named Captain of Monarch of the Seas in 2007. At the time of her promotion, Lauritzen was one of four female cruise ship captains employed, she has since been made Captain for Jewel of the Seas. When not at sea, Lauritzen lives in Portugal