NBC Weather Plus
It operated from November 15,2004 to December 31,2008. The service, which broadcast in standard definition, was carried on the subchannels of many NBC affiliates. NBC Weather Plus debuted on November 15,2004, with NBCs New York City owned-and-operated station WNBC serving as the test station for the network. It was originally headquartered in the facility that served as the headquarters of sister cable news channel MSNBC in Secaucus. NBC Weather Plus primarily competed with cable network The Weather Channel, as well as a digital multicast network. The network provided forecast content for both NBC News and MSNBCs news programs, Weather Plus staff appeared on most of the programs. In addition to the network, Weather Plus staff provided weather updates for CNBC and MSNBC, MSNBC aired sample hours of the network during the hours on certain major holidays. During significant national events, Weather Plus meteorologists conducted live reports for NBC Nightly News to provide analysis. In September 2008, Landmark Media Enterprises sold The Weather Channel to a consortium of NBC Universal, and private equity firms Blackstone Group and Bain Capital.
Shortly afterward, on October 7,2008, NBC Universal announced that it would phase out Weather Plus by December 31, after the NBC affiliates expressed a desire to shut the service down. Though NBC cited its purchase of The Weather Channel as a factor in the shutdown, segments featuring on-camera personalities were discontinued on October 24,2008. In early December 2008, the website of Weather Plus was redirected to The Weather Channels website, the service formally shut down operations on December 31,2008. This option allowed the equipment that had used to insert local content onto the former national feed of NBC Weather Plus to remain in use. Until 2011, several NBC owned-and-operated stations ran a variant of Weather Plus. Airing at 4,00 a. m. and the same seasonal outlook segment that aired in the morning repeating long into the late afternoon. In the latter instance, this was an issue as updated information may not have been available during any type of weather that was ongoing. Some of the featured on the network used different titles at times if it was a sponsored forecast segment such as State Farm Road Coverage.
The network produced Weather Plus University, a program focusing on educating viewers about weather
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network that is the flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is part of the Big Three television networks, founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007. In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, and acquired General Electrics remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBC Universal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke, during a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had an outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ.
This station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&Ts manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas. The Bell System, AT&Ts telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, the 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs. In an early example of chain or networking broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island, AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines. The early effort fared poorly, since the telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its network were incompatible with the companys primary goal of providing a telephone service. AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&Ts phone lines for network transmission, the divisions ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse.
NBC officially started broadcasting on November 15,1926, WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On April 5,1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network and this was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network, known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18,1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, and the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network, the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. The Orange Network name was removed from use in 1936, at the same time, the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, in 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building designed by architect Floyd Brown
Hearst Communications, often referred to as simply Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate. The Hearst company is based in the Hearst Tower in Midtown Manhattan and it was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, and the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. Under William Randolph Hearsts will, a board of thirteen trustees administers the Hearst Foundation, the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. The foundations shared ownership until tax law changed to prevent this, Frank A. Bennack Jr. former chief executive officer and executive vice chairman of the corporation John G. Conomikes, former executive of the corporation Gilbert C. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur, American publisher, on March 4,1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, 23-year-old William Randolph Hearst. He pushed his staff to write exciting stories, and wrote editorials worded with force. Within a few years, the new Examiner was a success, in 1895, Hearst purchased the New York Journal, laying the foundation for one of the major newspaper dynasties in American history.
He established Hearsts Chicago American in 1900, renamed the morning edition of the New York Journal as the New York American in 1901, the Los Angeles Examiner was launched in 1903 followed by the Boston American one year later. Hearst experimented with every aspect of publishing, from page layouts to editorial crusades. His newspapers introduced innovations such as presses, halftone photographs on newsprint, comic sections printed in color. Stories by Hearst correspondents from around the world were sold to newspapers, giving rise to the Hearst International News Service. In 1903, Hearst Magazines was begun with the publication of Motor magazine, within the next 10 years Hearst acquired several popular titles, starting in 1905 with Cosmopolitan and Good Housekeeping in 1911. Also in 1911, Hearst bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914, its title was shortened to Hearsts, and it was ultimately retitled Hearsts International in May 1922. In 1953 Hearst Magazines bought Sports Afield magazine which it kept until 1999 when it was sold to Robert E.
Petersen, Hearst began producing film feature in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios, the International Film Service. Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer, in 1929, Hearst and MGM created the Hearst Metrotone newsreels. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged Hearsts International magazine with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, Hearst died in 1951, and the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, in 1924 he merged his Milwaukee operations with the Pfister family, owners of The Milwaukee Sentinel. Hearst owned the evening Wisconsin News while the Pfisters kept the Sentinel adding Hearsts features from the now-folded Telegram, in 1925, Hearst sold the Syracuse Telegram to the owners of the Syracuse Journal, while selling the New York Mirror in 1928
Lancaster, is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvanias Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvanias cities, the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the US and 2nd largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than such as Boston or San Francisco. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nations 15th president, originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster, Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penns Woods Charter of William Penn, and was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734. It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818, the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania.
Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg, in 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England. The prison remains in use, and was used for public hangings until 1912 and it replaced a 1737 structure on a different site. The first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, and was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word macadam in lieu of pavement or asphalt and this name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancasters most popular attractions, Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney.
Stevens gained notoriety as a Radical Republican and for his abolitionism, the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center, two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster, the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle. The Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River, which runs through the city, the innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U. S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott, during his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful five and dime store in the city of Lancaster, Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000
A television station is a business, organisation or other enterprise, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits content over terrestrial television. A television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, broadcast television systems standards are set by the government, and these vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over a system were typically limited to one television channel. The term television station is normally applied to television stations. Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements, most commercial television stations are owned independently, but many are either affiliated with a television network or are owned-and-operated by a television network. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting, some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs.
To get a signal from the control room to the transmitter. The link can be either by radio or T1/E1, a transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may simply pick-up that station over-the-air, the license usually specifies which other station is it allowed to carry. In North America, full-power stations on band I are generally limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, stations on band III can go up by 5dB to 316 kW video,31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1, UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, and thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 kW ERP for video and 500 kW audio, or 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, which has been taking VHF instead.
This means that some stations left on VHF are harder to receive after the analog shutdown, since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials and they may be an independent station or part of a broadcasting network, or some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies, many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is often used for newscasts or other local programming. There is usually a department, where journalists gather information
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,673, it is the tenth-largest city in the Commonwealth and it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River,107 miles west of Philadelphia. The Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area is made up of six counties in south central Pennsylvania, Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, and the Industrial Revolution. The U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28,1979 near Middletown, in 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family.
Despite the citys recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies. The finances of the city however, were poorly managed. Harrisburgs site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC, in 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his fathers land, in the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, who was a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, and in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, the assembling here of the highly sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, which was held in Harrisburg.
Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day, compact, in 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000. It was Harrisburg’s strategic location which gave it an advantage over other towns. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at an important to Westward expansion. The importance of the location was that it was at a pass in a mountain ridge, the Susquehanna River flowed generally west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east. The head of navigation was a distance northwest of the town. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg, Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, the entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station. The altitude of the site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, was the HAAT. This can create some unusual cases, particularly in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies, FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference. The FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Maximum HAAT,150 meters Maximum ERP,50 kW Minimum co-channel separation,241 km Maximum HAAT,600 meters Maximum ERP,100 kW Minimum co-channel separation,290 km.
In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico, zones I and I-A have the most grandfathered overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established. One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within approximately 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 MHz and 3 GHz, known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimetre. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF or microwave frequency range, lower frequency signals fall into the VHF or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight, they are blocked by hills, the IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 300 MHz and 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band, the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by propagation and ground reflection, there is very little reflection from the ionosphere. They are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used, the UHF antenna is stubby and short, at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common omnidirectional antenna is between 2.5 and 25 cm long for example. UHF is widely used in telephones, cell phones, walkie-talkies and other two-way radio systems from short range up to the visual horizon. Their transmissions do not travel far, allowing frequency reuse, public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, and UHF CB are often found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE802.11 wireless LANs. The widely adapted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies, radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short whips, higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas.
The short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small, high gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical, for television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the slot antenna or helical antenna are used, the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range
DuMont Television Network
The DuMont Television Network was one of the worlds pioneer commercial television networks, rivalling NBC and CBS for the distinction of being first overall in the United States. It was owned by DuMont Laboratories, an equipment and set manufacturer. DuMont Laboratories was founded in 1931 by Dr. Allen B, DuMont with only $1,000, and a laboratory in his basement. He and his staff were responsible for many technical innovations. The companys television sets became the gold standard of the industry. In 1942, DuMont worked with the Army in developing radar technology during World War II and this brought in $5 million for the company. Early sales of television sets were hampered by the lack of regularly scheduled programming being broadcast, a few months after selling his first set in 1938, DuMont opened his own New York area experimental television station in Passaic, New Jersey. In 1940, the moved to Manhattan as W2XWV on channel 4. Unlike CBS and NBC, which reduced their hours of television broadcasting during World War II, in 1944, W2XWV became WABD moving to channel 5 in 1945, the third commercial television station in New York.
On May 19,1945, DuMont opened experimental W3XWT in Washington, a minority shareholder in DuMont Laboratories was Paramount Pictures, which had advanced $400,000 in 1939 for a 40% share in the company. Soon after his experimental Washington station signed on, DuMont began experimental coaxial cable hookups between his laboratories in Passaic, New Jersey, and his two stations. It is said one of those broadcasts on the hookup announced that the U. S. had dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. This was considered to be the beginning of the DuMont Network by both Thomas T. Goldsmith, the networks chief engineer and DuMonts best friend, and DuMont himself. Regular network service began on August 15,1946, on WABD, in 1947, W3XWT became WTTG, named after Goldsmith. The pair were joined in 1949 by WDTV in Pittsburgh, ABC had just come into existence as a radio network in 1943 and did not enter network television until 1948, when it signed on a flagship station in New York City, WJZ-TV. CBS waited until 1948 to begin network operations because it was waiting for the Federal Communications Commission to approve its color television system, despite no history of radio programming or stable of radio stars to draw on and perennial cash shortages, DuMont was an innovative and creative network.
Without the radio revenues that supported mighty NBC and CBS, DuMont programmers relied on their wits, the network provided original programs that are remembered more than 60 years later. The network largely ignored the standard model of 1950s TV, in which one advertiser sponsored an entire show
Program and System Information Protocol
PSIP defines virtual channels and content ratings, as well as electronic program guides with titles and descriptions to be decoded and displayed by the ATSC tuner. PSIP can send, the exact time referenced to UTC and GPS time, the short name, a maximum of seven characters can be used in a short name. PSIP is defined in ATSC standard A/65, the most recent revision of which is A/65,2013, a/69 is a recommended practice for implementing PSIP in a television station. PSIP supersedes the A/55 and A/56 protocol methods of delivering program guide information, PSIP information may be passed through the airchain using proprietary protocols or through use of the XML-based Programming Metadata Communication Protocol facility metadata scheme. S
This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may be provided through these cables, analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A cable channel is a television network available via cable television, alternative terms include non-broadcast channel or programming service, the latter being mainly used in legal contexts. Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, MTV, Cartoon Network, E. Eurosport, the abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, in areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large community antennas were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes.
The origins of cable broadcasting for radio are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924, Cable television has gone through a series of steps of evolution in the United States and Canada. Particularly in Canada, communities with their own signals were fertile cable markets, as viewers wanted to receive American signals. Early systems carried only a maximum of seven channels, using 2,4,5 or 6,7,9,11 and 13, as the equipment was unable to confine the signal discreetly within the assigned channel bandwidth. The reason 4 and 5 along with 6 and 7 could be used together was because of the 4 MHz gap between 4 and 5 and the nearly 90 MHz gap between 6 and 7. Even though eight channels are listed, in systems that maximized 7 channels. As equipment improved, all channels could be utilized, except where a local VHF television station broadcast. Local broadcast channels were not usable for signals deemed to be priority, the cable operators began to carry FM radio stations, and encouraged subscribers to connect their FM stereo sets to cable.
Before stereo and bilingual TV sound became common, Pay-TV channel sound was added to the FM stereo cable line-ups, about this time, operators expanded beyond the 12-channel dial to use the midband and superband VHF channels adjacent to the high band 7-13 of North American television frequencies. Some operators as in Cornwall, used a dual distribution network with Channels 2-13 on each of the two cables, during the 1980s, United States regulations not unlike public and government access created the beginning of cable-originated live television programming. These stations evolved partially into todays over-the-air digital subchannels, where a main broadcast TV station e. g, many live local programs with local interests were subsequently created all over the United States in most major television markets in the early 1980s. This evolved into todays many cable-only broadcasts of diverse programming, including cable-only produced television movies and miniseries, Cable specialty channels, starting with channels oriented to show movies and large sporting or performance events, diversified further, and narrowcasting became common.
By the late 1980s, cable-only signals outnumbered broadcast signals on cable systems, by the mid-1980s in Canada, cable operators were allowed by the regulator to enter into distribution contracts with cable networks on their own. By the 1990s, tiers became common, with customers able to subscribe to different tiers to obtain different selections of additional channels above the basic selection, by subscribing to additional tiers, customers could get specialty channels, movie channels, and foreign channels
Federal Communications Commission
The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself. The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCCs mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees and it has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US$388 million. Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act and these are, Broadband All Americans should have affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services. Competition Competition in the provision of services, both domestically and overseas, supports the Nations economy.
The competitive framework for communications services should foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, Media The Nations media regulations must promote competition and diversity and facilitate the transition to digital modes of delivery. Public Safety and Homeland Security Communications during emergencies and crisis must be available for public safety, defense, the Nations critical communications infrastructure must be reliable, interoperable and rapidly restorable. The FCC is directed by five appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman, only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCCs consumer policies, CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness. The Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security. S. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations, the Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service.
The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, the Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureaus main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in technology infrastructure, markets