WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2, is a Public Broadcasting Service member television station licensed to Boston, United States. It is the flagship property of the WGBH Educational Foundation, which owns fellow PBS members WGBX-TV in Boston and WGBY-TV in Springfield, Class A Biz TV affiliate WFXZ-CD and public radio stations WGBH and WCRB in the Boston area, WCAI radio on Cape Cod. WGBH-TV effectively serves as one of two flagship stations of PBS, along with WNET in New York City. WGBH-TV, WGBX-TV, the WGBH and WCRB radio stations share studios on Guest Street in northwest Boston's Brighton neighborhood. Under an agreement with Shaw Broadcast Services, WGBH-TV operates a satellite uplink facility at the station's Needham transmitter site; the facility relays the signals of WGBH-TV and four other Boston-area television stations to cable and satellite television providers across Atlantic Canada, relays the signal of MyNetworkTV affiliate WSBK to pay television providers throughout Canada. As a Canadian company, Shaw is not entitled to operate an uplink facility in the United States.
The WGBH Educational Foundation received its first broadcast license for radio in April 1951 under the auspices of the Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcasting Council, a consortium of local universities and cultural institutions, whose collaboration stems from an 1836 bequest by textile manufacturer John Lowell, Jr. that called for free public lectures for the citizens of Boston. WGBH first signed on the air on October 6, 1951, with a live broadcast of a performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra; the Federal Communications Commission awarded a construction permit to Waltham-based electronics company Raytheon to build a television station that would transmit on VHF channel 2 in Boston. Raytheon planned to launch a commercial television station using the call letters WRTB-TV. However, after some setbacks and the cancellation of the construction permit license, WRTB never made it on the air, paving the way for the FCC to allocate channel 2 for non-commercial educational use. WGBH subsequently received a license to operate on that channel.
The WGBH Educational Foundation obtained initial start-up funds for WGBH-TV from the Lincoln and Therese Filene Foundation. It is thought by legend that Raytheon pushed for the FCC to assign WGBH the channel 2 license after it was unable to utilize it. WGBH-TV first signed on the air at 5:20 p.m. on May 2, 1955, becoming the first public television station in Boston and the first non-commercial television station to sign on in New England. The first program to air on the station was Come and See, a children's program hosted by Tony Saletan and Mary Lou Adams, filmed at Tufts Nursery Training School. Channel 2 served as a member station of the National Educational Television and Radio Center, which evolved into National Educational Television in 1963, it was based out of studio facilities located at 84 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a roller skating rink. The station's callsign refers to Great Blue Hill, a location in Milton that served as the original location of WGBH-TV's transmitter facility and where the transmitter for WGBH radio continues to operate to this day.
In 1957, Hartford N. Gunn Jr. was appointed general manager of WGBH. Under Gunn, who resigned in February 1970 to become president of PBS, WGBH made significant investments in technology and programming to improve the station's profile and set out to make it a producer of public television programming; that February, WGBH expanded its programming to weekends for the first time, adding a four-hour schedule on Sunday afternoons from 2:30 to 6:30 p.m.. In March 1958, channel 2 began offering academic instructional television programs, with the debut of eight weekly science programs aimed at students in the sixth grade, which were televised “in some 48 separate school systems in and around the Boston area.” In November of that year, the station installed a new full-power transmitter donated by Westinghouse, which increased channel 2's transmitting power to 100,000 watts. During the early morning hours of October 14, 1961, a large fire caused significant damage to the Cambridge studios of WGBH-TV and WGB
Danièle Bourcier is a French lawyer and essayist, who has contributed to the emergence of a new discipline in France: Law and linguistics. She is director of research emeritus at CNRS, leads the "Law and Governance technologies" Department at the Centre for Administrative Science Research at the University Paris II, is associate researcher at the March Bloch Centre in Berlin and at the IDT laboratory of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, her doctoral thesis in public law, after she obtains a scholarship for Stanford University describes the first application of artificial intelligence in the legal decision. She uses other models to explore the cognitive aspects of legal phenomena, modeling of legal knowledge, socio-legal impacts of digitization of law, her work in legal language took place at the Conseil d’Etat in the Legal Informatics Centre, founded by Lucien Mehl, one of the first juricybernetician. From 1982 to 1994, she headed the laboratory of the CNRS No. 430 Computers Legal Linguistics at the State Council.
She was a visiting professor at Netherlands, in Sweden in Austria, Wissenschaftzentrum Zu Berlin, WZB. In these different Advanced Studies Institutes, she develops Theory on e-government and computational ethics, her research is focusing on the Open Science, Open Data, protection of personal data and the evolution of copyright in the digital age. She gave a lot of lectures on “Legal Robots and Artificial intelligence”, she launched in 2004 the French Creative Commons licences: she is the scientific lead of the French Chapter Creativecommons.fr in charge of the scientific aspects of the CC licences. She gives lectures on e-government, she taught at the University Paris X at ENSTA, Sciences Po, the National School of Administration. Interested in mechanisms and unexpected effects of discoveries in science and in Law and political Science, she published at Hermann, Paris: From Serendipity in Science, the Art and law, she was co-organizing, in July 2009, an interdisciplinary symposium in the Center of Congres “Chateau de Cerisy la Salle” in Normandy, leading to the publishing of the collective work La Sérendipité, un hasard heureux, at Hermann publisher.
The work she has done with Pek van Andel on serendipity led to the spread of the notion and the phenomenon of serendipity in the Francophonie world: the word sérendipité was elected the word of the 2011 Year by a scientific newspaper and entered the French usual word book in 2012. She was appointed in various international and national expertise: UNESCO, European Commission and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, she was invited as expert in artificial decision & Robot at UN Geneva. She works on the theory of complex systems applied to law, the neuroconnexionnist networks, she conducts linguistic research on the legal language and argumentation, the writing the law. This research led her to develop methods in legislative drafting in which she studied the development of new forms of coordination to agree on norms, her study on digital communities in Europe have allowed her to explore the governance of commons. The research on Commons rooted in his implication in Creative Commons project.
State Doctorate in Public Law MA in Political Science MA in Linguistics Degree in Modern Literature Member of the Commission of Reflection on the Ethics of Research in Science and Technology since 2012 Member of the French Ethics Committee of sciences, CNRS Co-founder and lead of Creative Commons France since 2004 Head of Multidisciplinary Thematic Network "Law & Information Systems" at the CNRS since October 2002 deputy Director Director of the Research Institute “Informatics Law Linguistic”s UA 962 CNRS-Council of State Vice-president of the French Association of System Science since 2008 Founder and director of the new University Studies Diploma: Law and Information Systems, University Paris I, Panthéon Sorbonne Member of the scientific advisory board of the Law and Governance Technologies Series, Springer Member of the editorial board of the journal Law, Risk & Probability, Oxford University Press. Member of the editorial board of the European Journal of Law and Information Technology Editorial Board of Res Systemica and of the journal Really Sustainable Founding member of the international think tank: Substantive Technology in the Law school Le Tour du monde de la sérendipité en 80 récits, avec P. van Andel, Tredaniel, 2016 Open data & Big data, Mare & Martin, 2016.
De la sérendipité dans la science, la technique, l'art et le droit, avec Pek Van Andel, Hermann, 2e édition, 2013, 323 p. La société en action. Une méthode pour la démocratie, avec Gilles Hériard Dubreuil, Sylva
Friedrich Wilhelm Schulz was a German officer and social democratic publisher in Hesse. His most famous works are Der Tod des Pfarrers Friedrich Ludwig Weidig as well as Die Bewegung der Produktion, which Karl Marx quoted extensively in his 1844 Manuscripts. Schulz was the first to describe the movement of society "as flowing from the contradiction between the forces of production and the mode of production," which would form the basis of historical materialism. Marx continued to praise Schulz's work decades when writing Das Kapital, he was an early follower of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Convicted as a demagogue, he escaped from prison in 1834 and emigrated from Germany to Switzerland, where he worked as freelance political writer. In the year 1848 he was elected to the Frankfurt National Assembly, in which he belonged to the left. Irrtümer und Wahrheiten aus den ersten Jahren nach dem letzten Kriege gegen Napoleon und die Franzosen. Darmstadt 1825.. Das Eine, was Deutschland Not tut. In: Allgemeine Politische Annalen.
Hrsg. von Carl von Rotteck. 7. Bd. 1. Heft, Juli 1831, S. 1–44. An die versammelten Vertreter des deutschen Volks. In: Deutsche Tribüne. Ein Konstitutionelles Tagblatt. Hrsg. von August Wirth. Nr. 2, 2. Juli 1831. Über das zeitgemäße Verhältnis der Statistik zur Politik. In: Beilage zum Morgenblatt für gebildete Stände. Nr. 310, 25. November 1831.. Die Bewegung der Production. Eine geschichtlich-statistische Abhandlung zur Grundlegung einer neuen Wissenschaft des Staates und der Gesellschaft. Zürich und Winterthur 1843. MDZ Reader. Der Tod des Pfarrers Dr. Friedrich Ludwig Weidig. Ein aktenmäßiger und urkundlich belegter Beitrag zur Beurteilung des geheimen Strafprozesses und der politischen Zustände Deutschlands. Zürich und Winterthur 1843. Digitalisat. Geheime Inquisition, Zensur und Kabinettsjustiz in verderblichem Bunde. Schlussverhandlung mit vielen neuen Aktenstücken über den Prozeß Weidig. Karlsruhe 1845.. Die wahrhaftige Geschichte vom deutschen Michel und seinen Schwestern. Nach bisher. Zürich und Winterthur 1845.
MDZ Reader Briefwechsel eines Staatsgefangenen mit seiner Befreierin. 2 Bdd. Mannheim 1846. BSB-Digitalisat: Bd. 1 und Bd. 2. Eine literarische Fehde über den neuphilosophischen Nihilismus. In: Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung. Nr. 104, Leipzig 14. April 1846. Denkschrift über die internationale Politik Deutschlands. Darmstadt 1848. MDZ Reader Deutschlands gegenwärtige politische Lage und die nächste Aufgabe der demokratischen Partei. Frankfurt 1849. Die Rettung der Gesellschaft aus den Gefahren der Militärherrschaft. Eine Untersuchung auf geschichtlicher und statistischer Grundlage über die finanziellen und volkswirtschaftlichen, die politischen und sozialen Einflüsse des Heerwesens. Leipzig 1859. Grab, Walter. Ein Mann der Marx Ideen gab. Wilhelm Schulz. Weggefährte Georg Büchners. Demokrat der Paulskirche. Eine politische Biographie. Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag. ISBN 3-7700-0552-X. Grab, Walter. Dr. Wilhelm Schulz aus Darmstadt. Weggefährte von Georg Büchner und Inspirator von Karl Marx. Frankfurt am Main: Büchergilde Gutenberg