Satellite imagery are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps and Google Maps; the first images from space were taken on sub-orbital flights. The U. S-launched V-2 flight on October 24, 1946 took one image every 1.5 seconds. With an apogee of 65 miles, these photos were from five times higher than the previous record, the 13.7 miles by the Explorer II balloon mission in 1935. The first satellite photographs of Earth were made on August 14, 1959 by the U. S. Explorer 6; the first satellite photographs of the Moon might have been made on October 6, 1959 by the Soviet satellite Luna 3, on a mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. The Blue Marble photograph was taken from space in 1972, has become popular in the media and among the public. In 1972 the United States started the Landsat program, the largest program for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission, the most recent Landsat satellite, was launched on 11 February 2013. In 1977, the first real time satellite imagery was acquired by the United States's KH-11 satellite system. All satellite images produced by NASA are published by NASA Earth Observatory and are available to the public. Several other countries have satellite imaging programs, a collaborative European effort launched the ERS and Envisat satellites carrying various sensors. There are private companies that provide commercial satellite imagery. In the early 21st century satellite imagery became available when affordable, easy to use software with access to satellite imagery databases was offered by several companies and organizations. Satellite images have many applications in meteorology, fishing, biodiversity conservation, landscape, cartography, regional planning, education and warfare. Images can be in other spectra. There are elevation maps made by radar images. Interpretation and analysis of satellite imagery is conducted using specialized remote sensing software.
There are four types of resolution when discussing satellite imagery in remote sensing: spatial, spectral and radiometric. Campbell defines these as follows: spatial resolution is defined as the pixel size of an image representing the size of the surface area being measured on the ground, determined by the sensors' instantaneous field of view. Geometric resolution refers to the satellite sensor's ability to image a portion of the Earth's surface in a single pixel and is expressed in terms of Ground sample distance, or GSD. GSD is a term containing the overall optical and systemic noise sources and is useful for comparing how well one sensor can "see" an object on the ground within a single pixel. For example, the GSD of Landsat is ≈30m, which means the smallest unit that maps to a single pixel within an image is ≈30m x 30m; the latest commercial satellite has a GSD of 0.41 m. This compares to a 0.3 m resolution obtained by some early military film based Reconnaissance satellite such as Corona.
The resolution of satellite images varies depending on the instrument used and the altitude of the satellite's orbit. For example, the Landsat archive offers repeated imagery at 30 meter resolution for the planet, but most of it has not been processed from the raw data. Landsat 7 has an average return period of 16 days. For many smaller areas, images with resolution as high as 41 cm can be available. Satellite imagery is sometimes supplemented with aerial photography, which has higher resolution, but is more expensive per square meter. Satellite imagery can be combined with vector or raster data in a GIS provided that the imagery has been spatially rectified so that it will properly align with other data sets. Satellite imaging of the Earth surface is of sufficient public utility that many countries maintain satellite imaging programs; the United States has led the way in making these data available for scientific use. Some of the more popular programs are listed below followed by the European Union's Sentinel constellation.
Landsat is the oldest continuous Earth observing satellite imaging program. Optical Landsat imagery has been collected at 30 m resolution since the early 1980s. Beginning with Landsat 5, thermal infrared imagery was collected; the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellites are in orbit. Landsat 9 is planned. MODIS has collected near-daily satellite imagery of the earth in 36 spectral bands since 2000. MODIS is onboard the NASA Aqua satellites; the ESA is developing the Sentinel constellation of satellites. 7 missions are planned, each for a different application. Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 have been launched; the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissio
WRC FIA World Rally Championship
WRC - FIA World Rally Championship is a car racing video game based on the 2010 season of the World Rally Championship. It is the first game to be licensed by the WRC since 2005's WRC: Rally Evolved, is the seventh game to bear the WRC licence; the game was published by Black Bean Games. The developer had created Superstars V8 Racing and Alfa Romeo Racing Italiano, it features the official cars, drivers and co-drivers from the 2010 season and from the three support classes: Production World Rally Championship, Super 2000 World Rally Championship and Junior World Rally Championship. The game therefore includes 13 rallies, including Rally de Portugal. 550 km of stages are split up into 78 special stages. There is a downloadable car pack featuring many Group B rally cars from the 1980s available via Xbox Live Marketplace and the PlayStation Store. Car models contain around 50,000 polygons; the PC version of the game does not support Multiplayer LAN mode, it supports single player, a party mode on the same PC and Online Multiplayer using a GameSpy account.
The game received "mixed or average reviews" on all platforms according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. It got to number 9 in the UK sales charts. In Japan, where the game was ported and published by Cyberfront on April 14, 2011, Famitsu gave the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 versions a score of all four sevens for a total of 28 out of 40. Official website WRC FIA World Rally Championship at MobyGames
The Ford RS200 is a mid-engined, four-wheel drive sports car, produced by Ford Motorsport in Boreham, UK, from 1984 to 1986. The road-going RS200 was the basis for Ford's Group B rally car and was designed to comply with FIA homologation regulations, which required 200 parts kits to be produced and at least one road-legal car to be assembled, it was first displayed to the public at the Belfast Motor Show. Following the introduction of the MKIII Escort in 1980, Ford Motorsport set about developing a rear-wheel-drive, turbocharged variant of the vehicle that could be entered into competition in Group B rally racing, dubbed the new vehicle the Escort RS 1700T. A problem-filled development led Ford to abandon the project in frustration in 1983, leaving them without a new vehicle to enter into Group B. Not wanting to abandon Group B or "write off" the cost of developing the failed 1700T, executives decided to make use of the lessons learned developing that vehicle in preparing a new, purpose-built rally car.
In addition, Ford executives became adamant that the new vehicle would feature four-wheel-drive, an addition they felt would be necessary to allow it to compete properly with four-wheel-drive models from Peugeot and Audi. The new vehicle was a unique design, featuring a plastic-fiberglass composite body designed by Ghia, a mid-mounted engine and four-wheel drive; the cars were built on behalf of Ford by another company well known for its expertise in producing fibreglass bodies - Reliant. To aid weight distribution, designers mounted the transmission at the front of the car, which required that power from the mid-mounted engine go first up to the front wheels and be run back again to the rear, creating a complex drive train setup; the chassis was designed by former Formula One designer Tony Southgate, Ford's John Wheeler, a former F1 engineer, aided in early development. A double wishbone suspension setup with twin dampers on all four wheels aided handling and helped give the car what was regarded as being the best balanced platform of any of the RS200's contemporary competitors.
The Ford parts-bin was raided to help give the RS200 a Ford corporate look, for example the front windscreen and rear lights were identical to those of the early Sierra and the doors were cut-down Sierra items. Power came from a 1,803 cc, single turbocharged Ford-Cosworth "BDT" engine producing 250 hp in road-going trim, between 350 and 450 hp in racing trim. Although the RS had the balance and poise necessary to be competitive, its power-to-weight ratio was poor by comparison, its engine produced notorious low-RPM lag, making it difficult to drive and less competitive. Factory driver Kalle Grundel's third-place finish at the 1986 WRC Rally of Sweden represented the vehicle's best-ever finish in Group B rallying competition, although the model did see limited success outside of the ultra-competitive Group B class. However, only one event at the Rally de Portugal, a Ford RS200 was involved in one of the most dramatic accidents in WRC history, claiming the lives of three spectators and injuring many others.
Another Ford RS200 was crashed by Swiss Formula One driver Marc Surer against a tree during the 1986 Hessen-Rallye in Germany, killing his co-driver and friend Michel Wyder instantly. The accident at Rally Portugal set off a chain reaction and the RS200 became obsolete after only one full year of competition as the FIA, the governing board, which at the time controlled WRC rally racing, abolished Group B after the 1986 season. For 1987, Ford had planned to introduce an "Evolution" variant of the RS200, featuring a development of the BDT engine, called as BDT-E, displacing 2,137 cc, developed by Briton Brian Hart. Power figures for the engine vary quite a bit from source to source, depending on the mechanical setup e.g. boost levels, power output ranges from as little as 550 hp to as high as 815 hp. It has been said that the most powerful Evolution models can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in just over two seconds, depending on gearing. Upgraded brakes and suspension components were part of the package as well.
The ban on Group B racing forced the E2 model into stillbirth. One RS200 found its way in circuit racing originated as a road car. Competing against the numerous factory backed teams such as Mazda and Nissan, with their newly built spaceframe specials, despite being a privateer, the car never achieved any real success to be a serious contender and was kept by the original owner. A parts car was built in England and used to compete in the Unlimited category at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb, where it was driven by Swede Stig Blomqvist in 2001, 2002 and 2004 and in 2009 by former British Rallycross champion Mark Rennison; the RS200 was designed from the ground-up as a purpose-built, mid-engined rally supercar- the 200 homologation road-legal models were a by-product of Ford wanting to race the RS200 and show off their technology capabilities in the popular W
Renault 5 Turbo
The Renault 5 Turbo or R5 Turbo is a high-performance hatchback automobile launched by the French manufacturer Renault at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1980. The car was designed for rallying, but was sold in a street version. A total of 4987 R5 Turbos were manufactured during a six-year production run. In response to Lancia's rallying success with the mid-engined Stratos, Renault's Jean Terramorsi, vice-president of production, asked Bertone's Marc Deschamps to design a new sports version of the Renault 5 Alpine supermini; the distinctive new rear bodywork was styled by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. Although the standard Renault 5 has a front-mounted engine, the 5 Turbo featured a mid-mounted 1,397 cc Cléon-Fonte with fuel fed by Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and a Garrett AiResearch T3 turbocharger OHV 2 valves per cylinder Inline-four engine placed behind the driver in mid-body in a modified Renault 5 chassis. In standard form, the engine developed 160 PS @ 6000 maximum torque of 221 N ⋅ m @ 3250 rpm.
Though it used a modified body from a standard Renault 5, was badged a Renault 5, the mechanicals were radically different, the most obvious difference being rear-wheel drive and rear-mid-engined instead of the normal version's front-wheel drive and front-mounted engine. At the time of its launch it was the most powerful production French car; the first 400 production 5 Turbos were made to comply with Group 4 homologation to allow the car to compete in international rallies, were manufactured at the Alpine factory in Dieppe. Many parts transferred to the Alpine A310, such as the suspension or alloy wheel set. Once the homologation models were produced, a second version named Turbo 2 was introduced using more stock Renault 5 parts replacing many of the light alloy components in the original 5 Turbo version, dropping the stunning and specific Bertone seats and Dashboard for the interior of the R5 Alpine. Many parts became dark grey rather than the iconic red or blue; the Turbo 2 was less expensive, but had nearly the same levels of performance, top speed of 200 km/h and 0–100 km/h in 6.9 seconds.
To differentiate it from the Turbo 2, the original 5 Turbo is referred as "Turbo 1". The concept of a mid-engined small Renault returned with the 1998 announcement of the Renault Clio V6. In 2004, Sports Car International named the R5 Turbo number nine on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s; the R5 Turbo was conceived with dual intent, promoting the sales of the common R5 and being homologated in the FIA group 3 and 4 categories of the rally championship. All the motorsport derivatives were based on the Turbo 1. At first the competition cars existed in 3 versions: the version “usine” run by the Renault Sport division, the lesser spec “competition client” that were sold to private teams, as a kit, that could be used to convert a street legal version towards the competition client version. Over the years, the performance and cost increased, lesser cars were run. So the kit was dropped, the client version caught up with the factory specs, the 20 client couldn’t be sold anymore, they were built for homologation as group B, scavenged for spare parts.
The factory pushed the engine output up to 180 PS for the Critérium des Cévennes, 210 PS for the Tour de Corse, by 1984 as much as 350 PS in the R5 Maxi Turbo. Driven by Jean Ragnotti in 1981, the 5 Turbo won the Monte Carlo Rally on its first outing in the World Rally Championship; the 2WD R5 Turbo soon faced the competition of new Group B four-wheel drive cars that proved faster on dirt. We can cite several victories throughout the early 80's in the national championships in France, Switzerland and Spain, many victories in international rallies throughout Europe, with wins in iconic rallies such as Monte-Carlo. After the factory ceased support, it lived a second life being developed by many teams and enthusiasts to compete in regional championships and local races in which it was ubiquitous and reached many success for 20 years. At the time of retirement, the newly created historical coategories allowed these cars to return to international events and competitions, living a third life. For these reasons it has a huge fan base.
The R5 Turbo has been featured in film and media: In the 1983 James Bond film Never Say Never Again, a Renault 5 Turbo 2 driven by a female villain chases James Bond on a motorbike. It can be seen in the 1997 film Dobermann. In the first episode of the Dragon Ball anime series by Akira Toriyama, an adolescent Bulma meets the young Goku, who mistakes the car for an evil monster. In the trailer for the film Trail of the Pink Panther, the car is driven by the character played by Joanna Lumley; the R5 Turbo is a playable car in the following videogames of the Forza series: Forza Motorsport 2 Forza Motorsport 3 Forza Motorsport 4 Forza Motorsport 5 Forza Horizon 2 Forza Motorsport 6 Forza Horizon 3 Forza Motorsport 7 Forza Horizon 4 Pascal, Dominique. Renault 5 Turbo L'école du Groupe B. ISBN 978-2-7268-8462-1. Renault 5 Turbo 2 //, retrieved on 1 August 2008
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
World Rally Championship (2001 video game)
World Rally Championship is a rally driving game for the PlayStation 2. It is the first rallying game to be licensed by the FIA World Rally Championship and is based on the 2001 WRC season. WRC features 21 drivers representing all 14 venues from the season. Game modes feature quick rally, single rally and time trial; each car is made from around 8000 polygons. There are cheats that will make the game funnier. World Rally Championship received "favorable" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. In Japan, where the game was ported and published by Spike on 14 March 2002, Famitsu gave it a score of 35 out of 40. List of World Rally Championship video games World Rally Championship at MobyGames
Racing video game
The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air or space vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may fall under the category of sports games. In 1973, Atari released Space Race, an arcade video game where players control spaceships that race against opposing ships, while avoiding comets and meteors, it is a competitive two-player game controlled using a two-way joystick, features black and white graphics. The following year, Atari released the first car driving video game in the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the track in low resolution white-on-black graphics; that same year, Taito released Speed Race designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, in which the player drives down a straight track dodging other cars.
The game was re-branded as Wheels by Midway Games for release in the United States and was influential on racing games. In 1976, Sega released Moto-Cross, re-branded as Fonz in the US, as a tie-in for the popular sitcom Happy Days; the game featured a three-dimensional perspective view, as well as haptic feedback, which caused the motorcycle handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle. In October 1976, Atari's Night Driver presented a first-person view. Considered the first "scandalous" arcade game, Exidy's Death Race was criticized in the media for its violent content, which only served to increase its popularity. In 1977, Atari released Super Bug, a racing game significant as "the first game to feature a scrolling playfield" in multiple directions. Sega released Twin Course T. T. a two-player motorbike racing game. Another notable video game from the 1970s was The Driver, a racing-action game released by Kasco that used 16 mm film to project full motion video on screen, though its gameplay had limited interaction, requiring the player to match their steering wheel, gas pedal and brakes with movements shown on screen, much like the sequences in laserdisc video games.1979 saw the release of Vectorbeam's Speed Freak, a 3D vector racing game, which Killer List of Videogames calls "very impressive and ahead of their time".
In 1980, Namco's overhead-view driving game Rally-X was the first game to feature background music, allowed scrolling in multiple directions, both vertical and horizontal, it was possible to pull the screen in either direction. It featured a radar, to show the rally car's location on the map. Alpine Ski, released by Taito in 1981, was a winter sports game, a vertical-scrolling racing game that involved maneuvering a skier through a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, a ski jumping competition. Turbo, released by Sega in 1981, was the first racing game to use sprite scaling with full-color graphics. One of the most influential racing games was released in 1982: Pole Position, developed by Namco and published by Atari in North America, it was the first game to be based on a real racing circuit, the first to feature a qualifying lap, where the player needs to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races. While not the first third-person racing game, Pole Position established the conventions of the genre and its success inspired numerous imitators.
According to Electronic Games, for the first time in the amusement parlors, a first-person racing game gives a higher reward for passing cars and finishing among the leaders rather than just for keeping all four wheels on the road". According to IGN, it was "the first racing game based on a real-world racing circuit" and "introduced checkpoints," and that its success, as "the highest-grossing arcade game in North America in 1983, cemented the genre in place for decades to come and inspired a horde of other racing games". In 1983, Kaneko produced a roller skating racer. In 1984, several racing laserdisc video games were released, including Sega's GP World and Taito's Laser Grand Prix which featured live-action footage, Universal's Top Gear featuring 3D animated race car driving, Taito's Cosmos Circuit, featuring animated futuristic racing. Taito released Kick Start, Buggy Challenge, a dirt track racing game featuring a buggy. Irem's The Battle-Road, a vehicle combat racing game that featured branching paths and up to 32 possible routes.
Racing games in general tend to drift toward the arcade side of reality due to hardware limitations in the 1980s and 1990s. It is, untrue to say that there were no games considered simulations in their time. In 1984, Geoff Crammond, who developed the Grandprix series, produced what is considered the first attempt at a racing simulator on a home system, REVS, released for the BBC Microcomputer; the game offered an unofficial recreation of British Formula 3. The hardware capabilities limited the depth of the simulation and restricted it to one track, but it offered a semi-realistic driving experience with more detail than most other racing games at the time. In 1985, Sega released a Grand Prix style motorbike racer, it used force feedback technology and was one of the first arcade games to use 16-bit graphics and Sega's "Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates. In 1986, Durell released Turbo Esprit, which had an official