Wagner College is a private liberal arts college in New York City. Founded in 1883 and with a current enrollment of 2,200 students, Wagner is known for its academic program, the Wagner Plan for the Practical Liberal Arts; the college is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Wagner College was founded in 1883 in New York, as the Lutheran Proseminary of Rochester, its purpose was to prepare young men for admission to Lutheran seminaries, to ensure that they were sufficiently fluent in both English and German to minister to the large German immigrant community of that day. The school's six-year curriculum was modeled on the German gymnasium curriculum. In 1886, the school was renamed Wagner Memorial Lutheran College, after a building in Rochester was purchased for its use by John G. Wagner in memory of his son; the college moved to the 38-acre former Cunard estate on Grymes Hill, Staten Island, in 1918. An Italianate villa called Westwood, the Cunard mansion, is extant, as is the neighboring former hotel annex, built in 1905.
The college soon expanded to 57 acres after it acquired the neighboring Jacob Vanderbilt estate in 1922. In the 1920s, the curriculum began to move toward an American-style liberal arts curriculum, solidified when the state of New York granted the college degree-granting status in 1928; the college admitted women in 1933 and introduced graduate programs in 1951. The college expanded further when it purchased the W. G. Ward estate in 1949, again in 1993, when the college acquired the adjacent property of the former Augustinian Academy, which has remained wooded green space and athletic fields; the college now occupies 105 acres on the hill and has commanding views of the New York Harbor, the Verrazano Bridge, Downtown Brooklyn, Lower Manhattan. From 1956 through the late 1960s, Wagner College was the home of the New York City Writers Conference, which brought some of the leading lights of the literary world to campus each summer. Instructors included Robert Lowell, Edward Albee, Kay Boyle and Kenneth Koch.
From 1961 to 1963, while English professor Willard Maas directed the conference, it served as a training ground for the poets of the New York School. Maas himself was a significant figure in the New York avant garde world of the 1960s. Prominent early buildings include Cunard Hall. Main Hall provides a theater auditorium. Parker Hall, first built as a dormitory, is used for faculty offices. Two cottages built in the early 1920s provide administrative space for the college's Public Safety and Lifelong Learning offices. Three dormitory facilities were constructed during the college's major building drive: Guild Hall, Parker Towers and Harbor View Hall complemented by Foundation Hall, a residence hall for upperclassmen. About two-thirds of undergraduates live on campus. Another dormitory building, Campus Hall, now provides office space; the Horrmann Library contains over 200,000 volumes and holds the collection and personal papers of poet Edwin Markham. The Megerle Science Building and Spiro Hall were opened in 1968, followed by the Wagner Union in 1970.
Two building projects have expanded earlier structures. In 1999, a dramatic expansion of the 1951 Sutter Gymnasium created the modern Spiro Sports Center, and in 2002, a pair of Prairie Style cottages constructed around 1905 were refurbished and joined by a bridge building into Pape Admissions House. Three substantial resources on the physical history of the Wagner College campus have been published: “Founding Faces & Places: An Illustrated History Of Wagner Memorial Lutheran College, 1869–1930,” first published for Wagner College's 125th anniversary commemoration in 2008, “Wagner College Memories: A Photographic Remembrance of Grymes Hill”, “Wagner College History Tour,” a three-part series published in the Winter 2015–2016, Fall 2016 and Summer 2017 issues of Wagner Magazine. About 88% of incoming students graduated in the top half of their high school classes, about 50% in the top quarter, about 25% in the top tenth; the average incoming SAT score for critical reading is 540–620, math 530–630.
The average incoming ACT score is between 23 and 30. The average high school grade point average of incoming students is 3.45. Important admissions factors are class rank, rigor of secondary school record, academic GPA, application essay, extracurricular activities and standardized test scores. Tuition and room and board for full-time undergraduate students during the 2018–2019 academic year was $61,214. About 87% of students receive financial aid. Wagner College offers various athletic scholarships. Wagner College's ranking in the 202
A Massachusetts general election was held on November 7, 1978 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The election included: statewide elections for United States Senator, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of the Commonwealth and Auditor. S. Representatives, State Representatives, State Senators, Governor's Councillors. Democratic and Republican candidates were selected in party primaries held September 14, 1978. Democratic Democratic Congressman Paul E. Tsongas was elected over incumbent Republican Edward Brooke. Democrats Edward J. King and Thomas P. O'Neill III were elected Governor and Lieutenant Governor over Republican candidates Francis W. Hatch, Jr. and William I. Cowin. Democrat Francis X. Belotti was elected Attorney General, he defeated Republican William Weld in the general election. State Representative Michael J. Connolly defeated Lois Pines, Anthony J. Vigliotti, James Hennigan, David E. Crosby, William J. Galvin, Jr. and John Fulham in the Democratic primary and Republican John W. Sears in the general election.
Incumbent Treasurer and Receiver-General Robert Q. Crane defeated Lawrence DiCara, Paul Cacchiotti, Dayce Moore, Thomas Lopes, Lawrence Blacke in the Democratic Primary and Republican Lewis Crampton in the general election. Incumbent Auditor Thaddeus M. Buczko defeated Peter Meade in the Democratic primary and Republican Timothy F. O'Brien in the general election. O'Brien replaced William A. Casey as the Republican nominee after Casey dropped out of the race. After conservative Edward J. King defeated Michael Dukakis for the Democratic nomination for governor, Casey chose to drop-out and support the pro-life King over the pro-choice Republican nominee Francis Hatch. O'Brien was selected by the State Committee over attorney Ralph Barbagallo, Jr. and William Sargent, the son of former Governor Francis W. Sargent
ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, a advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; the history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place, land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABC's first outside broadcast van; the van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, opened on 29 January 1958, replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956.
In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programs across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year with ABD-6 Darwin completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions. International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998; the ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000.
In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel. ABC2, now ABC Comedy, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005, running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October 2006. In the lead-up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children; the new channel, titled ABC3, was to aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.
At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC Television was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. ABC has four digital services; as of 2009, ABC announced an Australia-wide upgrade to its Digital service, that it would provide a seven-day Electronic Program Guide and give new logical channel numbers for all of ABC's television services. The ABC logical channel numbers as of 2 September 2019 are below; these services are available nationally through digital terrestrial television, all the digital TV services are available through the VAST free-to-air satellite service. Only the primary ABC channel is available on the Optus Aurora satellite platform. In June 2010, playout was moved to a new facility shared with WIN Television at Ingleburn. On 6 December 2016, ABC upgraded its HD picture resolution from 720p to 1080i. On 3 September 2019, several additional ABC Digital Radio channels were added to complement the ABC Jazz and Double J services being simulcast on digital TV.
Within Australia, the ABC operates four television channels, all of them non-commercial. ABC, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama and news and current affairs. In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7 pm nightly. ABC Comedy, l