SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Waitematā Harbour

Waitematā Harbour is the main access by sea to Auckland, New Zealand. For this reason it is referred to as Auckland Harbour, despite the fact that it is one of two harbours adjoining the city; the harbour forms the northern and eastern coasts of the Auckland isthmus and is crossed by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. It is matched on the southern side of the city by the shallower waters of the Manukau Harbour. With an area of 70 square miles, it connects the city's main port and the Auckland waterfront to the Hauraki Gulf and the Pacific Ocean, it is sheltered from Pacific storms by Auckland's North Shore, Rangitoto Island, Waiheke Island. The oldest Māori name of the harbour was Te Whanga-nui o Toi, named after Toi, an early Māori explorer; the name Waitematā means "Te Mata Waters", refers to Te Mata, which lies in mid-harbour off Kauri Point. A popular translation of Waitematā is "The Obsidian Waters", referring to obsidian rock. Another popular translation, derived from this, is "The Sparkling Waters", as the harbour waters were said to glint like the volcanic glass obsidian.

However, this is incorrect. The spelling Waitemata is common in English; the harbour is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf, extending west for eighteen kilometres from the end of the Rangitoto Channel. Its entrance is between Bastion Point in the south; the westernmost ends of the harbour extend past Whenuapai in the northwest, to Te Atatu in the west, as well as forming the estuarial arm known as the Whau River in the southwest. The northern shore of the harbour consists of North Shore. North Shore suburbs located closest to the shoreline include Birkenhead and Devonport. On the southern side of the harbour is Auckland CBD and the Auckland waterfront, coastal suburbs such as Mission Bay, Herne Bay and Point Chevalier, the latter of which lies on a short triangular peninsula jutting into the harbour; the harbour is crossed at its narrowest point by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. To the east of the bridge's southern end lie the marinas of Westhaven and the suburbs of Freemans Bay and the Viaduct Basin. Further east from these, close to the harbour's entrance, lies the Port of Auckland.

There are other wharves and ports within the harbour, notable among them the Devonport Naval Base, the accompanying Kauri Point Armament Depot at Birkenhead, the Chelsea Sugar Refinery wharf, all capable of taking ships over 500 gross register tons. Smaller wharves at Birkenhead, Beach Haven, Northcote and West Harbour offer commuter ferry services to the Auckland CBD; the harbour is a drowned valley system, carved through Miocene marine sediments of the Waitemata Group. Recent volcanism in the Auckland volcanic field has shaped the coast, most at Devonport and the Meola Reef, but in the explosion craters of Orakei Basin and in western Shoal Bay. In periods of low sea level, a tributary ran from Milford into the Shoal Bay stream; this valley provided the harbour with a second entrance when sea levels rose, until the Lake Pupuke volcano plugged this gap. The current shore is influenced by tidal rivers in the west and north of the harbour. Mudflats covered by mangroves flourish in these conditions, salt marshes are typical.

The harbour has long been the main anchorage and port area for the Auckland region before European colonial times. Well-sheltered not only by the Hauraki Gulf itself but by Rangitoto Island, the harbour offered good protection in all winds, lacked dangerous shoals or major sand bars that would have made entry difficult; the harbour proved a fertile area for encroaching development, with major land reclamation undertaken along the Auckland waterfront, within a few decades of the city's European founding. Taking the idea of the several Māori portage paths over the isthmus one step further, the creation of a canal that would link the Waitematā and Manukau harbours was considered in the early 1900s. Legislation was passed that would allow authorities to take owned land where it was deemed required for a canal. However, no serious work was undertaken; the act was repealed on 1 November 2010. While the harbour has numerous beaches popular for swimming, the older-style "combined sewers" in several surrounding western suburbs dump contaminated wastewater overflows into the harbour on 52 heavy-rain days a year, leading to regular health warnings at popular swimming beaches, until the outfalls have dispersed again.

A major new project, the Central Interceptor, starting 2019, is to reduce these outfalls by about 80% once completed around 2024. Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held at Auckland Museum

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees known as the 1951 Refugee Convention or the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who a refugee is, sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals; the Convention provides for some visa-free travel for holders of refugee travel documents issued under the convention. The Refugee Convention builds on Article 14 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the right of persons to seek asylum from persecution in other countries. A refugee may enjoy rights and benefits in a state in addition to those provided for in the Convention; the rights created by the Convention still stand today. Some have argued that the complex nature of 21st century refugee relationships calls for a new treaty that recognizes the evolving nature of the nation-state, population displacement, environmental migrants, modern warfare.

Ideas like the principle of non-refoulement are still applied today, with the 1951 Convention being the source of such rights. The Convention was approved at a special United Nations conference on 28 July 1951, entered into force on 22 April 1954, it was limited to protecting European refugees from before 1 January 1951, though states could make a declaration that the provisions would apply to refugees from other places. The 1967 Protocol removed the time limits and applied to refugees "without any geographic limitation", but declarations made by parties to the Convention on geographic scope were grandfathered; as of 20 January 2020, there were 146 parties to the Convention, 147 to the Protocol. Madagascar and Saint Kitts and Nevis are parties only to the Convention, while Cape Verde, the United States of America and Venezuela are parties only to the Protocol. Since the US ratified the Protocol in 1968, it undertook a majority of the obligations spelled out in the original 1951 document, Article 1 as amended in the Protocol, as "supreme Law of the Land".

Article 1 of the Convention defines a refugee as: As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. With the passage of time and the emergence of new refugee situations, the need was felt to make the provisions of the 1951 Convention applicable to such new refugees; as a result, a Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees was prepared, entered into force on 4 October 1967. The UNHCR is called upon to provide international protection to refugees falling within its competence; the Protocol defined refugee to mean any person within the 1951 Convention definition as if the words "As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and..." were omitted. Several groups have built upon the 1951 Convention to create a more objective definition.

While their terms differ from those of the 1951 Convention, the Convention has shaped the new, more objective definitions. They include the 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa by the Organisation of African Unity and the 1984 Cartagena Declaration, while nonbinding sets out regional standards for refugees in Central America and Panama. In the general principle of international law, treaties in force are binding upon the parties to it and must be performed in good faith. Countries that have ratified the Refugee Convention are obliged to protect refugees that are on their territory, in accordance with its terms. There are a number of provisions. Refugees shall abide by the national laws of the contracting states The contracting states shall exempt refugees from reciprocity: That means that the granting of a right to a refugee should not be subject to the granting of similar treatment by the refugee's country of nationality, because refugees do not enjoy the protection of their home state.

Be able to take provisional measures against a refugee if needed in the interest of essential national security respect a refugee's personal status and the rights that come with it rights related to marriage provide free access to courts for refugees provide administrative assistance for refugees provide identity papers for refugees provide travel documents for refugees allow refugees to transfer their assets provide the possibility of assimilation and naturalization to refugees cooperate with the UNHCR in the exercise of its functions and to help UNHCR supervise the implementation of the provisions in the Convention. Provide information on any national legislation they may adopt to ensure the application of the Convention. Settle disputes they may have with other contracting states at the International Court of Justice if not otherwise possible The contracting states shall not discriminate against refugees take exceptional measures against a refugee on account of his or her nationality expect refugees to pay taxes and fiscal charges that are different to those o

Zhang Siying

Zhang Siying was a Chinese automatic control specialist, a professor and doctoral supervisor of Qingdao University, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Zhang was born in Zhangqiu County, Shandong, on 5 April 1925, he elementary studied at Provincial No.1 Middle School in Ji'nan and secondary studied at Beijing Chongshi High School. In 1944, he was accepted to Wuhan University, where he graduated in August 1948. After the establishment of the Communist State in October 1949, he taught at Northeastern University of Technology, where he successively served as professor, director of Engineering Mechanics Department, head of Institute of Automation. Zhang joined the Communist Party of China in 1950. In September 1957, he pursued advanced studies in the Soviet Union, where he studied automatic control at Moscow State University. Zhang was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1997. In 1999 he served as its head. In 2005 he established Complex Systems and Complexity Science with academician Dai Ruwei.

In 2013, he won the Highest Prize of Science and Technology in Qingdao and donated all the prizes to set up a "Zhang Siying Outstanding Youth Paper Award" for postgraduates. Zhang died of illness in Qingdao, aged 94. 1 May Labor Medal