Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co.
The Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company, referred to as Pitt-Des Moines Steel or PDM was an American steel fabrication company. It operated from 1892 until 2002 when its assets were sold to other companies, including Chicago Bridge & Iron Company; the company began as a builder of steel water bridges. It later fabricated the "forked" columns for the World Trade Center in the 1960s, was the steel fabricator and erector for the Gateway Arch in St. Louis. A number of its works are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the company was founded in 1892 by two graduates of Iowa State College, William H. Jackson and Berkeley M. Moss; the partners contracted to have their steel tanks fabricated by Keystone Bridge Company of Pittsburgh, but soon took on a third partner, Edward W. Crellin, operating a small fabricating shop in Des Moines, Iowa, it was at this point that the Des Moines Iron Company was formed. The company would ship steel stock from Pittsburgh for the manufacture of a range of engineered products including water towers, water works and electric plants.
Moss left the company around 1905, after a new fabricating plant had been opened in Warren, Pennsylvania in 1900. In 1916, the name of the company was changed to Pittsburg-Des Moines Steel Company, a new headquarters was opened in Pittsburgh; the partnership remained until 1956. It became Pittsburgh-Des Moines Corporation in 1980, shortened to Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. in 1985. It had had registered "PDM" as a trademark as early as 1930. In 2001 the company was acquired by the Chicago Iron Company; the Warren plant was closed in early 2009 by CB&I. In 2001, the company's steel distribution unit was acquired by Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. Works include: Beaver Creek Bridge, 180th St. between B and C Aves. over Beaver Cr. Schleswig, Iowa, NRHP-listed Black River Bridge, Indian Rt. 9 over Black River, Arizona, NRHP-listed Black River Bridge, US 67, over the Black River, Arizona, NRHP-listed Buck Grove Bridge, Buck Creek Ave. over Buck Cr. Buck Grove, Iowa, NRHP-listed Cotter Water Tower, NE of jct. of NE US 62B and State St. Cotter, Arkansas, NRHP-listed Cotton Plant Water Tower, jct. of N.
Main & N. Vine Sts. Cotton Plant, Arkansas, NRHP-listed De Valls Bluff Waterworks, jct. of Hazel and Rumbaugh Sts. De Valls Bluff, Arkansas, NRHP-listed East Soldier River Bridge, 120th St. over East Soldier R. Charter Oak, Iowa, NRHP-listed Elevated Metal Water Tank, West side First Ave. E. bet. First and Second Sts. N. Crosby, Minnesota, NRHP-listed Elevated Metal Water Tank, Deerwood, 211 Maple St. Deerwood, Minnesota, NRHP-listed Forsyth Water Pumping Station, 3rd Ave. at the Yellowstone River, Montana, NRHP-listed Gateway Arch, St. Louis, designated as a National Historic Landmark Hampton Waterworks, Hunt St. W of Lee St. Hampton, Arkansas, NRHP-listed Jefferson Street Viaduct, Jefferson St. over the Des Moines River, Iowa, NRHP-listed Mineral Springs Waterworks, S. of W. Runnels and S. Hall intersection, Mineral Springs, Arkansas, NRHP-listed Missisquoi River Bridge, VT 105-A over the Missisquoi R. Richford, Vermont, NRHP-listed Monroe Water Tower, 16th Ave. and 20th St. Monroe, Wisconsin, NRHP-listed Neillsville Standpipe, 325 E. 4th St. Neillsville, Wisconsin, NRHP-listed Nishnabotna River Bridge, T Ave. over Nishnabotna R. Manilla, Iowa, NRHP-listed State Highway 29 Bridge at the Colorado River, TX 29 at the Llano Cnty. line, Buchanan Dam, Texas, NRHP-listed State Highway 9 Bridge at the Llano River, US 87, 10 mi.
S of TX 29, Texas, NRHP-listed US 83 Bridge at the Salt Fork of the Red River, US 83, near Wellington, Texas, NRHP-listed Waldo Water Tower, E. Main St. W of the N. Skimmer and E. Main intersection, Arkansas, NRHP-listed Yellow Smoke Park Bridge, pedestrian path over unnamed stream, Iowa, NRHP-listed
Magnolia is a city in Columbia County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 11,577; the city is the county seat of Columbia County. Magnolia is home to the World's Largest Charcoal Grill and the World Championship Steak Cookoff, part of the Magnolia Blossom Festival; the city was founded in 1853. At the time of its incorporation in 1858, the city had a population of about 1,950; the city grew as an agricultural and regional cotton market until the discovery of oil just east of the city in March 1938, with the Barnett #1 drilled by the Kerr-Lynn Company. The Magnolia Oil Field was an important discovery for the city as well as for the nation, as it was the largest producing field during the early years of World War II, helping to sustain the American war effort. In March 2013, more than 5,000 barrels of oil leaked from a Lion Oil Trading & Transportation storage tank in Magnolia, with some flowing into a bayou. Magnolia is located in southwest Arkansas, north of the center of Columbia County at 33°16′27″N 93°14′1″W.
The average altitude is 336 ft above sea level according to NOAA. The surrounding region is a mix of dense forest, farm prairies, low rolling hills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.3 square miles, of which 0.027 square miles, or 0.21%, is water. Magnolia is located about 50 miles east of Texarkana, about 135 miles south of Little Rock, about 75 miles northeast of Shreveport, Louisiana; the average temperature is 64 °F, the average annual rainfall is 50.3 inches. The winters are mild but can dip into the teens at night and have highs in the 30s and some 20s but average out around 50; the springs are warm and can be stormy with strong to severe storms and average highs in the mid 70s. Summers are hot and dry but with occasional isolated afternoon storms, highs in the mid to upper 90s and 100s. In the fall the temps cool from the 100s to 80s and 70s. Early fall temps are in the 80s but can reach 90s and at times has reached 100. Late fall temps fall to 60s.
It is not uncommon to see ice during the winter. It has been known to snow a few times as early as November in Magnolia; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,858 people, 4,204 households, 2,577 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,165.3 people per square mile. There were 4,821 housing units at an average density of 517.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58.24% White, 39.38% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 4,204 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.7% were non-families. Of 4,204 households, 101 are unmarried partner households: 91 heterosexual, 4 same-sex male, 6 same-sex female households. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,897, as of 2005, the median income for a family was $35,269. Males had a median income of $31,577 versus $20,840 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,403. About 15.2% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over. Magnolia when it was founded was a cotton, farm production, marketing town; the town grew, in 1909 the Third District Agricultural School, subsequently known as Magnolia A&M and Southern State College, now known as Southern Arkansas University, was founded.
During World War II Magnolia became a heavy manufacturing city. In 1938 oil and natural gas were discovered near the city in what was called the Magnolia Oil Field, the largest producing field by volume in the nation during the war; the city soon became a producer in steel, aluminum, rubber-coated products and fuel cells for the military. The town's primary economic focus is heavy industrial, including Albemarle Corporation's Bromine Products Division and Sapa Group's extruded aluminum products facility. Located in the area are several oil and brine drilling companies, many of which are locally owned, timber companies, such as Deltic and Weyerhaeuser. Major industrial employers: SAPA, Amfuel, CMC, Deltic Timber, Partee Flooring, Southern Aluminum. Largest non-manufacturing employers: Magnolia Public School System, 346 Southern Arkansas University, 304 Magnolia Hospital, 253 Columbia County government, 110The unemployment rate in Magnolia is 9.40%, with job growth of -0.40%. Future job growth over the next ten years is predicted to be 29.70%, according to Sterling's, The U.
S. unemployment rate average for the month of June is 9.2%, Arkansas' average is 7.2%. Magnolia is home to World Championship Steak Cookoff; the festival has been featured on the Food Network and attracts more than
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months, dry summer climate or, where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months. Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth. A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter.
Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, mango, pistachio and avocado are grown within the subtropics; the tropics have been defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively. According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes 35° north and south, respectively. Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C. German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C and 13 °C in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C and 13 °C in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates.
According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone, subdivided into seven smaller areas. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone; the upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics; this regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa, the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile; the humid subtropical climate is located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, summer is the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter the monsoon retreats, the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and dry weather, frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, the deep south of the United States. In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute to local rainfall within the subtropics.
Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons. The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia around the Perth area, parts of the west coast of South American around Santiago, the coastal areas of western Mexico, coastal California in the United States; these climates do not see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish. As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler; some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters. Tree ferns are grown within subtropical areas within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics.
Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Tre
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Arkansas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Arkansas. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Columbia County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 21 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas