SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Walter Camp

Walter Chauncey Camp was an American football player and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football". Among a long list of inventions, he created the system of downs. With John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, Fielding H. Yost, George Halas, Camp was one of the most accomplished persons in the early history of American football, he attended Yale College, where he coached college football. Camp's Yale teams of 1888, 1891, 1892 have been recognized as national champions. Camp was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1951. Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general, annually publishing an "All-American" team. By the time of his death, he had written more than 250 magazine articles. Camp was born in the city of New Britain, the son of Leverett Camp and Ellen Sophia Camp. Walter Camp was of English descent, his first immigrant ancestor was the English colonist Nicholas Camp, who came from Essex and arrived in colonial New England in 1630, arriving first in Massachusetts and moving to Connecticut that same year.

He attended Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven, entered Yale College in 1875, graduated in 1880. At Yale he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, the Linonian Society, Skull and Bones, he attended Yale Medical School from 1880 to 1883, where his studies were interrupted first by an outbreak of typhoid fever and by work for the Manhattan Watch Company. In 1873 Camp attended a meeting where representatives from Columbia, Rutgers and Yale universities created the Intercollegiate Football Association; the representatives created the rule. Camp played as a halfback at Yale from 1876 to 1882. Harvard player Nathaniel Curtis took one look at Camp only 156 pounds, told Yale captain Gene Baker "You don't mean to let that child play, do you?... He will get hurt." Camp worked for the New Haven Clock Company beginning in 1883, working his way up to chairman of the board of directors. On June 30, 1888, Camp married sister of sociologist William Graham Sumner, they had two children: Walter Camp, Jr. who attended Yale as well and was elected as a member of Scroll and Key in 1912, Janet Camp Troxell.

Camp served as the head football coach at Yale from 1888 to 1892 before moving to Stanford University, where he coached in December 1892 and in 1894 and 1895. On Christmas Day, 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg and his University of Chicago Maroons defeated Camp's Stanford team 24–4 at San Francisco in an early intersectional contest. Camp was on the various collegiate football rules committees that developed the American game from his time as a player at Yale until his death. English rugby football rules at the time required a tackled player, when the ball was "fairly held," to put the ball down for scrummage. Camp proposed at the U. S. College Football 1880 rules convention that the contested scrimmage be replaced with a "line of scrimmage" where the team with the ball started with uncontested possession; this change created the evolution of the modern game of American football from its rugby football origins. He is credited with innovations such as the snap-back from center, the system of downs, the points system as well as the introduction of what became a standard offensive arrangement of players—a seven-man line and a four-man backfield consisting of a quarterback, two halfbacks, a fullback.

Camp was responsible for introducing the "safety," the awarding of two points to the defensive side for tackling a ball carrier in his own end zone followed by a free kick by the offense from its own 20-yard line to restart play. This is significant as rugby union has no point value award for this action, but instead awards a scrum to the attacking side five meters from the goal line. In 2011, reviewing Camp's role in the founding of the sport and of the NCAA, Taylor Branch credited Camp with cutting the number of players on a football team from 15 to 11 and adding measuring lines to the field. However, Branch noted that the revelation in a contemporaneous McClure's magazine story of "Camp's $100,000 slush fund," along with concern about the violence of the growing sport, helped lead to President Theodore Roosevelt's intervention in the sport; the NCAA emerged from the national talks, but worked to Yale's disadvantage relative to rival Harvard, according to Branch. Despite having a full-time job at the New Haven Clock Company, a Camp family business, being an unpaid yet involved adviser to the Yale football team, Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general.

By the time of his death, he had written more than 250 magazine articles. His articles appeared in national periodicals such as Harper's Weekly, Collier's, Outing and The Independent, in juvenile magazines such as St. Nicholas, Youth's Companion, Boys' Magazine, his stories appeared in major daily newspapers throughout the United States. He selected an annual "All-American" team. By the age of 33, twelve years after graduating from Yale, Walter Camp had become known as the "Father of Football." In a column in the popular magazine Harper's Weekly, sports columnist Caspar Whitney had applied the nickname. The dominance of Ivy League players on Camp's All-America teams led to criticism over the years that his selections were biased against players from the leading Western universities, including Chicago, Michi

Tale of Tales (company)

Tale of Tales BVBA is a Belgian developer of art games founded in 2003 by Auriea Harvey and Michaël Samyn, working together in the creation of Web sites and electronic art as Entropy8Zuper! since 1999. In an interview by Nightmare Mode, Michael Samyn explained their motivations to create interactive art and disappointment at the lack of evolution in interaction of games, they live close to the Saint Bavo Cathedral. The studio is named after Giambattista Basile's book The Tale of Tales, with their main series being retellings of fairy tales in the form of adventure games, each subtitled "a Tale of Tales" and linked together by a common character referred to as the Deaf-Mute Girl in a Pretty White Dress in the 8 Web site and as the Girl in White in The Path's user manual, it was hinted in an interview with ZillionMonkey that their next project, following The Path, will involve the character of Salome and be developed using the Unity authoring tool, which they had first trailed with The Graveyard as a side-project during development of The Path.

February 2010 saw the release of Vanitas, described as "a memento mori for your digital hands," their first work for the iPhone OS platform and their first with music by Zoë Keating. On 1 March 2010 it was announced that they were commencing the development of two large projects, alternating between the two of them for the next 18 months. Despite a successful Kickstarter campaign, the commercial failure of their game Sunset caused Tale of Tales to announce that they would no longer pursue commercial video game projects. 8, based on "Sun and Talia" and other variants of the "Sleeping Beauty" myth The Path, based on "Little Red Riding Hood," titled 144 Sunset "A Day in San Bavón" Het Min en Meer Spel, for an album by Gerry De Mol and Eva De Roovere The Endless Forest The Kiss: Incorporator, commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art, Antwerp The Graveyard Fatale Vanitas, commissioned for the Art History of Games symposium and exhibition by the Savannah College of Art and Design and the Georgia Institute of Technology Program in Digital Media Bientôt l'été, based on the work of Marguerite Duras and other French literature Luxuria Superbia Game for the Android tablets, iPad, Linux, OS X, Ouya and Windows.

It won the Nuovo Award at the 2014 Independent Games Festival. Poussière sidérale, screensaver based on particle systems designed for 8 Vernanimalcula, screensaver for the National Bank of Belgium Eden. Garden, commissioned by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Wirefire Al-Jahiz, commissioned by Lifetime Television B-O-X Sixteenpages.net skinonskinonskin, first exhibited at Hell.com The Godlove Museum Tale of Tales website Entropy8Zuper! website "The Making of Fatale", by Bruno de Figueiredo

Biju Patnaik

Bijayananda Patnaik, popularly known as Biju Patnaik, was an Indian politician and businessman. As politician, he served twice as the Chief Minister of the State of Odisha. Biju Patnaik was born on 5 March 1916 to Ashalata Patnaik, his parents belong to G. Nuagan, Ganjam district, around 80 km from Bramhapur, he was educated at Ravenshaw College in Odisha but due to his interest in aviation he dropped out and trained as a pilot. Patnaik flew with private airlines but at the start of the Second World War he joined the Royal Indian Air Force becoming head of air transport command. While in service he began an interest in nationalist politics and used air force transports to deliver what was seen as subversive literature to Indian troops, but Patnaik remained committed to fighting the Axis Powers. He was jailed by the British for dropping political leaflets to Indian soldiers fighting under British command in Burma and flying clandestine missions that carried Congress Party leaders from hideouts across India to secret meetings that charted the independence struggle.

Biju Patnaik met with Jawaharlal Nehru during his participation in Indonesian freedom struggle and became one of his trusted friends. Nehru viewed the freedom struggle of the Indonesian people as parallel to that of India, viewed Indonesia as a potential ally; when the Dutch attempted to quell Indonesian independence on 21 July 1947, President Sukarno ordered Sjahrir, the former prime minister of Indonesia, to leave the country to attend the first Inter-Asia Conference, organised by Nehru, in July 1947 and to foment international public opinion against the Dutch. Sjahrir was unable to leave as the Dutch controlled the Indonesian air routes. Nehru asked Biju Patnaik, adventurous and an expert pilot, to rescue Sjahrir. Biju Patnaik and his wife flew to Java and brought Sultan Sjahrir out on a Douglas C-47 military aircraft reaching India via Singapore on 24 July 1947. For this act of bravery, Patnaik was given honorary citizenship in Indonesia and awarded the'Bhoomi Putra', the highest Indonesian award granted to a foreigner.

In 1995, when Indonesia was celebrating its 50th Independence Day, Biju Patnaik was awarded the highest national award, the'Bintang Jasa Utama'. Biju Patnaik flew many sorties on his Dakota DC-3 from Delhi Safdarjung Airport on 27 October 1947, after the first Dakota DC-3 flown by Wg. Cdr. KL Bhatia landed in Srinagar Airport early morning, he brought 17 soldiers of 1-Sikh regiment commanded by Lt. Col. Dewan Ranjit Rai, he flew low on the airstrip twice to ensure that no raiders were around... Instructions from Prime Minister Nehru’s office were clear: If the airport was taken over by the enemy, he was not to land. Taking a full circle the DC-3 flew ground level. Anxious eye-balls peered from inside the aircraft – only to find the airstrip empty. Nary a soul was in sight; the raiders were busy distributing the spoils of war amongst them in Baramulla. Patnaik's political ideals were centred in federalism, his strong advocacy for equal resources to all Indian states who needed such, made him a champion of his Odia constituents.

In 1946 Patnaik was elected uncontested to the Odisha Legislative Assembly from North Cuttack constituency. In 1952 and 1957 he won from Surada, respectively. In 1960 he assumed the presidency of the state Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress Party won 82 of 140 seats and Patnaik became the chief minister of Odisha on 23 June 1961 and remained in the position until 2 October 1963 when he resigned from the post under the Kamaraj Plan to revitalise the Congress party, he was the Chief Minister of Odisha at the age of 45. Patnaik was close to Indira Gandhi who took over the Congress Party in 1967. However, they clashed in 1969 over the Presidential election, he formed a regional party -- the Utkal Congress. In the 1971 assembly poll, his party did reasonably well. Patnaik re-established contact with his old friend Jayaprakash Narayan and plunged into the JP movement as it picked up momentum in 1974; when the Emergency was declared in 1975, Biju Patnaik was one of the first to be arrested along with other opposition leaders.

He was released in 1977. In the same year, he was elected to the Lok Sabha for the first time from Kendrapara and became Union minister for steel and mines in both the Morarji Desai and the Charan Singh governments until 1979, he was re-elected to the Lok Sabha again in 1980 and 1984 from Kendrapara as Janata Party candidate despite the Congress wave in 1984 following Indira Gandhi's death. With the Congress defeat in 1989, he bounced back into the political limelight. However, after playing a key behind-the-scenes role in manoeuvring V. P. Singh to the Prime Minister's post, he again chose to go back to Odisha, prepared for the assembly election. In 1990 state assembly election, the Janata Dal received a thumping majority which saw Biju Patnaik being the Chief Minister of Odisha for the second time until 1995. Patnaik was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in 1996 from Cuttack and Aska constituencies as a Janata Dal candidate, he retained the latter until his death on 17 April 1997 of cardio-respiratory failure.

In 1992, Bijayananda Patnaik left this quote for the people of Odisha. They will have confidence in themselves, they will not be except their own selves. By their brains and capacity, they will recapture the history of Kalinga." Biju Patnaik set up Kalinga tubes, Kalinga Airlines, Kalinga Iron work, Kalinga Refrac