Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, poet, politician, courtier and explorer. He was cousin to younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he is well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London.

After his release, they retired to his estate at Dorset. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618. Little is known about Sir Walter Raleigh's birth but he is believed to have been born on 22 January 1552, he grew up in South Devon. He was the youngest of the five sons of Walter Raleigh of Fardel Manor, in South Devon. Raleigh's family is assumed to have been a junior branch of the de Raleigh family, 11th century lords of the manor of Raleigh, Pilton in North Devon, although the two branches are known to have borne dissimilar coats of arms, adopted at the start of the age of heraldry.

His mother was Katherine Champernowne, the third wife of Walter Raleigh senior, the fourth daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne, lord of the manor of Modbury, Devon, by his wife Catherine Carew, a daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohuns Ottery and widow of Otes Gilbert of Greenway and of Compton Castle, both in Devon. Katherine Champernowne's paternal aunt was Kat Ashley, governess of Queen Elizabeth I, who introduced Raleigh and his brothers to the court. In addition, Raleigh's maternal uncle was Sir Arthur Champernowne, a Member of Parliament, Sheriff of Devon and Admiral Of the West. Walter Raleigh junior's immediate family included his full brother Carew Raleigh, half-brothers John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert and Adrian Gilbert; as a consequence of their kinship with the Champernowne family, all of the Raleigh and Gilbert brothers became prominent during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Raleigh's family was Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England.

In the most notable of these, his father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution. As a result, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism during his childhood, proved himself quick to express it after Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. In matters of religion, Elizabeth was more moderate than her half sister Mary. In 1569, Raleigh left for France to serve with the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars. In 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, but he left a year without a degree. Raleigh proceeded to finish his education in the Inns of Court. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated, his life is uncertain between 1569 and 1575, but in his History of the World he claimed to have been an eyewitness at the Battle of Moncontour in France. In 1575 or 1576, Raleigh returned to England. Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions, he was present at the Siege of Smerwick, where he led the party that beheaded some 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers.

Raleigh received 40,000 acres upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, including the coastal walled town of Youghal and, further up the Blackwater River, the village of Lismore. This made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he had limited success inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home during his 17 years as an Irish landlord being domiciled at Killua Castle, County Westmeath, he was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. His town mansion of Myrtle Grove is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water


Izačić is a village in the municipality of Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its population are Bosnians, with some Croatians and others. Spreads from border with Croatia to east 3km airline. Eastern, lower part lays in a valley between hill with sub-village called Mušići, below mountain Plješevica, a hill Prtošanj, with stream between them and springs; the area is rich with drinking water. Southern, upper part, lays on a flat area, rich with agricultural goods. Village is divided into many sub-villages named by surnames of people which live there; some are: Sulići, Balići, Lalići, Halilagići, Mušići, others. Other sub-villages are: Kula, Jasika... As a last stop in Bosnia for travelers to Croatia, it has great economy for a small village; this village is most famous because in the summer of 1994 it was the site of the military Operation Tiger

Dumitru Matcovschi

Dumitru Matcovschi was a writer from Moldova, a member of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. He was a founder of the Popular Front of Moldova. Dumitru Matcovschi was born to Leonte and Eudochia Matcovschi on 20 October 1939 in Vadul-Raşcov in Romania, he graduated from the Moldova State University in 1961. Dumitru Matcovschi was a founder of Popular Front of Moldova. Matcovschi died on 26 June 2013 following surgery on 14 June to remove a brain tumor. Honorary citizen Chişinău Ana Ghilaş, Dumitru Matcovschi: Parintii. In Limba romana, 1994. Literatura şi Arta Moldovei. Enciclopedie. Chişinău. Redacţia Enciclopediei Valerian Ciobanu. Nume şi Lume. Chişinău. Editura Pontos. 2008 Lista membrilor Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei Raportul Comisiei Cojocaru Dumitru Matcovschi, biografie Omagiu septuagenarului Dumitru Matcovschi