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Walter de Merton

Walter de Merton was Lord Chancellor of England, Archdeacon of Bath, founder of Merton College and Bishop of Rochester. For the first two years of the reign of Edward I he was - in all but name - Regent of England during the King's absence abroad, he died in 1277 after falling from his horse, is buried in Rochester Cathedral. Walter was born in around 1205 at Merton in Surrey, or was educated there, he came of a land-owning family at Basingstoke. His mother was his father William. By 1237 both his parents were dead, Walter was a clerk in holy orders. In 1241 Walter held a number of livings in various parts of the country. Walter was prothonotary of the chancery in 1258. Walter rose to prominence as negotiator; when Henry III went to France to negotiate the Treaty of Paris, Walter was left behind as a trusted royal servant. On 29 March, the Justiciar ordered 100 barons to muster in London for a secret meeting that would take them overseas. Only a few days Walter could be seen at Maldon, Surrey assisting in the registration of the Justiciar's army.

The writs were pre-dated considered a new procedure at some risk to the messengers' delivery of the writs to Sheriffs in the locality. Walter helped in the complex financial dealing with King Louis IX of France, when he reached London on 30 April. In return for a promise of peace, Henry received the equivalent of 500 Knights Fees. By 1264, this would be a total of 134,000 Livres of subsidy from the King of France. Walter played an invaluable part in the administration of Henry's revenues. By 1259, Walter had suitably impressed the king that he was granted a prebendary of St. Paul's, London. On 12 July 1261 Henry III made him chancellor, in place of Nicholas of Ely. A month earlier the Papal Bulls in support of Henry's coup d'état had ensured it was safe for the King to return to the Tower of London. With a mercenary at his back, he had marched from Dover over Whitsun. In London, Walter was reinstalled as Chancellor in a'resumption of royal power', having been challenged by the baronial movement.

Walter provided legal arguments for the collection of Tallage, rejection of the baronial constitution, appointment of royal Sheriffs, a renewed attempt to justify the collection of Customs. Now only a cussed Philip Basset, among the barons, remained aloof from the fray, when the King's new ministrations emerged against the Provisions of Oxford; as one of the arbitrators, Walter met the barons with Basset. He was not the king's first choice among the nobility, but the sticking-point remained the method by which to appoint sheriffs, from'faithful men and people' in the shires; that month of May 1861, De Merton had helped define Jus regalitatis, a law that prohibited criticism of the King. A year Henry would describe the sheriffs as bachelarii regis qui tenent comitatus or his bachelors. For the regents were men of the second rank, not nobles, yet they owed their elevated status to royal service. In 1262 Walter acquired lucrative sinecures such as the new prebendary of Exeter, became a canon of Wells Cathedral.

The following year, when de Montfort was at the height of his powers, Walter was urged by the bishop of Worcester to accept a form of peace satis competens et honesta. It is possible that Walter was a member of Richard of Cornwall's deputation sent from Windsor to greet Montfort's army coming east from London and Kent, but on 16 July, when the King surrendered peace terms, three days de Montfort assumed power, Walter left office. In 1261, two manors in Surrey were set aside for the support of "scholars residing at the schools" at Merton Priory. In 1264 Walter drew up statutes for a "house of the scholars of Merton", at Malden in Surrey. Merton College, thus founded and endowed, was one of the earliest examples of collegiate life at Oxford. De Merton's statutes provided for a common corporate life under the rule of a warden but, as vows were to be taken and scholars entering a monastic order forfeited their scholarship, the college was a place of training for the secular clergy. Freed of the responsibilities of government, Walter turned his attention to his college again.

The statutes were redrafted and scholars moved permanently to Oxford. They were established on the site of the parish church of St John whose advowson he had obtained in the early 1260s and where he had been buying adjoining houses and halls since 1264. In 1270 he bought Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire as part of the confiscated estate of Saer de Harcourt, an erstwhile supporter of Simon de Montfort. While De Merton was labouring for the establishment of Merton College, the barons emerged triumphant. Walter, a partisan friend of Henry III, was removed from the chancellorship in 1263, he was not restored after the king's victory, but he did renew his acquaintance with the royal circle, by now at Windsor. Walter is mentioned as a Justiciar in 1271, he was re-appointed as Lord Chancellor, four days after Henry III's death on 16 November 1272. For the first two years of Edward I he was in all but name regent of England during the King's absence abroad, he was tasked with investigation into the 20,000 Marks collected from Tallage, about which many complaints had sparked the ire of the Citizens of London.

Violent clashes on the streets worried the King Edward in his first year on

Murder of Mia Valentin

The Murder of Mia Valentin was a fatal stabbing on 27 December 2017 in the town of Kandel in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An Afghan asylum seeker, denied refugee status, was charged with the murder of his 15-year-old German former girlfriend after she ended the relationship; the case was reported in the national and international press and sparked a political debate about the German refugee policies how to deal with underage unaccompanied refugees. Mia Valentin was murdered on 27 December 2017 in a drugstore in the town of Kandel; the murderer, Abdul Dawodzai, a former refugee claimant from Afghanistan, had been placed in the same class as Valentin. Dawoodzai and Valentin had had a relationship for several months. In the beginning of December 2017, after she had ended the relationship, he began to threaten Valentin, she and her parents made complaints to the police in mid-December. On the morning of 27 December 2017, police officers had visited the perpetrator; that day, he stabbed Valentin after he followed her into the store, using a 20 cm knife.

She died shortly afterwards in hospital. The suspect bought the knife at the same store just before he attacked her. On 15 December 2017, the victim's parents had filed a criminal complaint, alleging that suspect had slandered and threatened their daughter; the perpetrator was named as Abdul Mobin Dawodzai from Afghanistan. He came to Germany in April 2016 and resided in Frankfurt in a center for young refugees in Germersheim, his asylum claim was rejected in February 2017. The parents of the victim doubted that he was only 15 years old, so an investigation was launched to determine his true age; the perpetrator had been known to the police for a serious bodily injury crime committed in school. The suspect was charged with murder, underwent a medical examination in response to allegations that he misstated his age; the age assessment was carried out by evaluating X-rays of hand and dentition of the suspect. The findings of the examination were presented by the State's attorney in February 2018; these findings concluded that the suspect was at least 17 years and six months old, but most around 20.

During the trial he was tried as a minor. Dawodzai's lawyer denied he was older than 20; the prosecution called for a 10 year sentence while the defense attorney asked for a 7.5 year sentence. On 3 September 2018, Dawodzai was sentenced to 8 years and 6 months in prison for murder of Valentin. Maximilian Ender, Dawodzai's lawyer called the sentenced "correct" and said that his client had accepted the verdict. Locals protested outside the court calling the sentence of 8.5 years for murder too short. The murder reignited German public debate over refugee policy, in particular, debate over abuse of refugee policy by adult men claiming to be child refugees. Several politicians of FDP, CDU, CSU, AfD, SPD and Green parties demanded a better control of young unaccompanied refugees as a consequence of the case; the authorities of Rhineland-Palatinate began an investigation to determine consequences. Julia Klöckner offered condolences to the parents of Mia Valentin and demanded an investigation, as did Eva Högl.

Stephan Mayer demanded a hardened course against underage offenders. Alexander Gauland stated. Konstantin von Notz demanded a better prevention and a closer look to the underage unaccompanied refugees; the Interior Minister of Bavaria, Joachim Herrmann demanded an age test for all underage refugees who were not recognizable as children. FDP chairman Christian Lindner suggested faster deportation of underage criminal asylum seekers. Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, Minister President of Saarland spoke out in favor of obligatory age tests of young refugees, as did the Deutscher Städte- und Gemeindebund. Official investigations in some German states showed, that at least 30 to 50 percent of the age records of alleged underage refugees are wrong. Unlike other German TV news broadcasters, news magazine Tagesschau did not report the case at first explaining that it does not report on domestic crime where children are involved. After criticism in social media, the paper published a report. Two months after the attack there were demonstrations in the town, involving over a thousand people.

The local authorities claimed that most of the anti-immigration demonstrators were not from Kandel and that the town was being used as a "platform" by right-wingers. A separate group demonstrated against racism. Funeral candles with pictures of Mia Valentin along with photos of Mireille B murdered 2018 in Flensburg and Maria Ladenburger murdered in 2016 in Freiburg were placed by anti-Islamic protesters outside chancellor Angela Merkel's office in Stralsund. Following Mia's murder, an initiative entitled "Kandel Is Everywhere" took root in Germany, it has held protests, created Stolpersteine decrying the murders of Germans by foreigners, produced a poster that went viral that includes Mia and Susanna Feldmann, under the heading “Merkel’s Stolpersteine.” On 10 October 2019, it was announced that Abdul D. had been found dead in his cell, of apparent suicide. Because of the youth of the accused, the case was heard in a juvenile court. Anti-immigration demonstrators assembled in the streets of Kandel in September 2018 to await the announcement of the verdict, with counter-protests from locals.

When the sentence of 8 years in prison for the convicted murderer was announced, Deutsche Welle noted that the social media accounts of Alternative for Germany politicians "lit up" with criticism of the brevity of the sentence, while members of the governing Social Democratic Party we

Clara Mayo

Clara Alexandra Weiss was a social psychologist who conducted research into the processes of social perception and nonverbal communication with the primary purpose of understanding prejudice and stereotyping. Her research shifted the focus from individual behaviors to nonverbal behaviors. Clara Alexandra Weiss was born in Linz, Austria, on September 13, 1931 as the only child to Joseph, a product of “mixed marriage” and Maria Weiss, a Catholic. Weiss early childhood was peaceful until Hitler took charge and her family had to leave their life of luxury in an attempt to avoid getting captured by the Nazi; the Weiss family managed to land in southern France undetected but became refugees attempting to enter into the United States. Upon their arrival to the United States, Clara Weiss learned English by reading from the children’s books from the Children’s Room of the New York Public Library from A to Z. English became Weiss' third language the others were French. After graduating from Hunter High School, Clara Weiss enrolled in Cornell University in Ithaca, New York where she majored in philosophy and was introduced to psychology by Urie Bronfenbrenner.

Some of the research that she conducted was focused on the capacity to detect small behavioral cues, after conducting this study she came to the conclusion that women are good readers of nonverbal cues. She graduated with honors bachelor's degree in philosophy in 1953. Earlier that year she married Jr.. In 1955 she received a master's degree from Wellesley College in Massachusetts, she was accepted into the social psychology doctoral program at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Mayo received her Ph. D. from Clark in 1959. After leaving Clark, she worked as a social psychology trainee at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Brockton, Massachusetts. Clara Alexandra Weiss “strongly believed in the potential of applied social psychology to redress social problems.” She was involved in one of the first studies that look at the effect of racial integration in school busing. This study wanted to know why black parents were paying to bus their children to predominantly white Boston schools.

She conducted research on black and white nonverbal differences in conversational interactions. Mayo turned her research into two books Moving Bodies: Nonverbal Communication in Social Relationships.