Wandsworth Town is a district of south London, within the London Borough of Wandsworth 4.6 miles southwest of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Wandsworth takes its name from the River Wandle. Wandsworth appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Wendelesorde; this means'enclosure of Waendel', whose name is lent to the River Wandle. To distinguish it from the London Borough of Wandsworth, from the Wandsworth District of the Metropolis and the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth, which all covered larger areas, it is known as Wandsworth Town. At the time of the Domesday Book, the manor of Wandsworth was held by William, son of Ansculfy, by St Wandrille's Abbey, its Domesday assets were 12 hides, with 22 acres of meadow. It rendered £9. Since at least the early 16th century, Wandsworth has offered accommodation to consecutive waves of immigration, from Protestant Dutch metalworkers fleeing persecution in the 1590s to recent Eastern European members of the European Union.

Between Wandsworth town centre and the river is the site of Co's Ram Brewery. Shire horse-drawn brewery drays were still used to deliver beer to local pubs. Whilst brewing by Young's stopped in September 2006 when Young & Co merged its operations with Charles Wells of Bedford, brewing does continue on the site by a master brewer albeit in small amounts. A planning application to redevelop the site for residential and shopping/leisure "mixed use" was submitted in 2012. Wandsworth gas plant was built in 1834 against the River Thames near Wandsworth Bridge; the undertaking became the Wandsworth and Putney Gaslight and Coke Company in 1854 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1856. Coal for making coal gas was brought by sea from North East England and unloaded on the Thames beside the gasworks; the firm grew by a series of mergers and takeovers so that by 1936 it served a considerable area of south-west London. The company's name evolved each time it merged with or took over neighbouring gas companies, but from 1936 it was the Wandsworth and District Gas Company.

The company became part of the South Eastern Gas Board. Wandsworth has a low foreign born population, compared to London as a whole, at 28.1%. The most prevalent foreign born population is South African; the former wharf area of the river-front is now lined with new apartment blocks, with several bars and restaurants. Notable pubs include the Ship Inn and the Waterfront, on the western and eastern side of Wandsworth Bridge respectively. Wandsworth Common is set back from the river, at the top of East Hill, is adjoined by an area known locally as "the Toast Rack" that has some of the most expensive townhouses in London, as well as the restaurant Chez Bruce Harveys, where chef Gordon Ramsay learned his trade, for which co-owner Bruce Poole gained a Michelin star in 1999. In the area is the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building, which now contains flats, a theatre school and a restaurant; the Tonsleys/Old York Road is a residential area of old Wandsworth close to the river and town centre, so called because many of the street names have the word "Tonsley" included.

It has a village feel with the Old York Road's shops at its heart. The area has three notable pubs: the East Hill and the Alma. Brady's Fish Restaurant serves chips; the area was used as the location for the BBC TV series Outnumbered. East Hill is an area of large Victorian houses bordered by the west side of Wandsworth Common. Wandsworth High Street is dominated by the regenerated Southside shopping centre and restaurant complex. Behind the shopping centre, following the River Wandle upstream towards Earlsfield and further south to Wimbledon, is King George's Park. Wandsworth Museum occupies the former Victorian library in West Hill having been moved here in 2007; the De Morgan Centre is situated in Wandsworth Museum and houses a collection of Victorian artwork. A green plaque to commemorate aviation pioneer Alliott Verdon Roe was unveiled by Wandsworth Council and members of the Verdon-Roe family beside the A3 close to Wandsworth Fire Station on the site of Roe's first workshop in the stables of his brother's house at 47 West Hill.

The underpass beneath the Wandsworth Bridge roundabout was the location for the scene in Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange in which a tramp is attacked. There are several schools in Wandsworth including Shaftesbury Park Primary School; the nearest railway stations are Wandsworth Town. Wandsworth Town is served by Southfields tube station in the Southfields area of the Town. All Saints' is the original parish church of Wandsworth, dating back to the 12th century, although the present building is of the 18th century. St Anne's and Holy Trinity churches were built in the 19th century to accommodate a growing population. Built in 1851, Wandsworth Prison is a Category B men's prison, it is the largest prison in London and one of the largest in Europe, with a similar capacity to Liverpool Prison. List of people from Wandsworth List of schools in Wandsworth James Thorne, "Wandsworth", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray Wandsworth travel guide from Wikivoyage Template:Wandsworth Radio


A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury. Scars result from the biological process of wound repair in the skin, as well as in other organs and tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of minor lesions, every wound results in some degree of scarring. An exception to this are animals with complete regeneration, which regrow tissue without scar formation. Scar tissue is composed of the same protein as the tissue that it replaces, but the fiber composition of the protein is different; this collagen scar tissue alignment is of inferior functional quality to the normal collagen randomised alignment. For example, scars in the skin are less resistant to ultraviolet radiation, sweat glands and hair follicles do not grow back within scar tissues. A myocardial infarction known as a heart attack, causes scar formation in the heart muscle, which leads to loss of muscular power and heart failure. However, there are some tissues that can heal without any functional deterioration.

All scarring is composed of the same collagen as the tissue it has replaced, but the composition of the scar tissue, compared to the normal tissue, is different. Scar tissue lacks elasticity unlike normal tissue which distributes fiber elasticity. Scars differ in the amounts of collagen overexpressed. Labels have been applied to the differences in overexpression. Two of the most common types are hypertrophic and keloid scarring, both of which experience excessive stiff collagen bundled growth overextending the tissue, blocking off regeneration of tissues. Another form is atrophic scarring, which has an overexpression of collagen blocking regeneration; this scar type is sunken. Stretch marks are regarded as scars by some. High melanin levels and either African or Asian ancestry may make adverse scarring more noticeable. Hypertrophic scars occur when the body overproduces collagen, which causes the scar to be raised above the surrounding skin. Hypertrophic scars take the form of a red raised lump on the skin.

They occur within 4 to 8 weeks following wound infection or wound closure with excess tension and/or other traumatic skin injuries. Keloid scars are a more serious form of excessive scarring, because they can grow indefinitely into large, tumorous neoplasms. Hypertrophic scars are distinguished from keloid scars by their lack of growth outside the original wound area, but this taught distinction can lead to confusion. Keloid scars can occur on anyone, they can be caused by surgery, acne or, body piercings. In some people, keloid scars form spontaneously. Although they can be a cosmetic problem, keloid scars are only inert masses of collagen and therefore harmless and not cancerous. However, they can be painful in some individuals, they tend to be most common on chest. Hypertrophic scars and keloids tend to be more common in wounds closed by secondary intention. Surgical removal of keloid may excerbate the condition and worsening of the keloid. An atrophic scar takes the form of a sunken recess in the skin.

These are caused when underlying structures supporting the skin, such as muscle, are lost. This type of scarring is associated with acne, other diseases, certain insect and spider bites, or accidents, it can be caused by a genetic connective tissue disorder, such as Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Stretch marks are a form of scarring; these are caused when the skin is stretched or when skin is put under tension during the healing process. This type of scar improves in appearance after a few years. Elevated corticosteroid levels are implicated in striae development. Humans and other placental mammals have an umbilical scar which starts to heal when the umbilical cord is cut after birth. Egg-laying animals have an umbilical scar which, depending on the species, may remain visible for life or disappear within a few days after birth. A scar is the product of the body's repair mechanism after tissue injury. If a wound heals within two weeks with new formation of skin, minimal collagen will be deposited and no scar will form.

When the extracellular matrix senses elevated mechanical stress loading, tissue will scar, scars can be limited by stress shielding wounds. Small full thickness wounds under 2 mm heal scar free. Deep second-degree burns heal with hair loss. Sweat glands do not form in scar tissue. Elastic fibers are not detected in scar tissue younger than 3 months old. In scars rete pegs are lost; the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, is the only adult tissue to undergo rapid cyclic shedding and regeneration without scarring. All other adult tissues, upon rapid shedding or injury, can scar. Prolonged inflammation, as well as the fibroblast proliferation can occur. Redness that follows an injury to the skin is not a scar, is gen

Linear referencing

Linear referencing called linear reference system or linear referencing system, is a method of spatial referencing in engineering and construction, in which the locations of physical features along a linear element are described in terms of measurements from a fixed point, such as a milestone along a road. Each feature is located by either a line. If a segment of the linear element or route is changed, only those locations on the changed segment need to be updated. Linear referencing is suitable for management of data related to linear features like roads, railways and gas transmission pipelines and data transmission lines, rivers. A system for identifying the location of pipeline features and characteristics is by measuring distance from the start of the pipeline. An example linear reference address is: Engineering Station 1145 + 86 on pipeline Alpha = 114,586 feet from the start of the pipeline. With a reroute, cumulative stationing might not be the same as engineering stationing, because of the addition of the extra pipeline.

Linear referencing systems compute the differences to resolve this dilemma. Linear referencing is one of a family of methods of expressing location. Coordinates such as latitude and longitude are another member of the family, as are landmark references such as "5 km south of Ayers Rock." Linear referencing has traditionally been the expression of choice in engineering applications such as road and pipeline maintenance. One can more realistically dispatch a worker to a bridge 12.7 km along a road from a reference point, rather than to a pair of coordinates or a landmark. The road serves as the reference frame, just as the earth serves as the reference frame for latitude and longitude. Linear referencing can be used to define points along a linear feature with just a small amount of information such as the name of a road and the distance and bearing from a landmark along the road; this information can be communicated concisely via plaintext. For example: "State route 4, 20 feet east of mile marker 187."

Giving a latitude and longitude coordinate to a work crew is not meaningful unless the coordinate is plotted on a map. Work crews work in remote areas without wireless connectivity which makes on-line digital maps not practical, the higher effort of providing offline maps or printed maps is not as economical as stating locations as offsets, or ranges of offsets, along a linear feature. Linear referencing systems can be made to be both precise and accurate at a much lower cost than is needed to collect latitude and longitude coordinates with high accuracy when the goal is sub-meter accuracy; this is dependent upon the width of the linear feature, its centerline, the visibility of the landmarks and markers that are used to define linear reference offsets. Roads are created by engineers using CAD tools that have no geospatial reference at all, LRS is the preferred method of defining data for linear features. A major limitation of linear referencing is that specifying points that are not on a linear feature is troublesome and error-prone, though not impossible.

Consider for example a ski lodge located 100 meters to the right of the road, traveling north. The linear referencing system can be extended by specifying a lateral offset, but the absolute location of the lodge cannot be determined unless coordinates are specified for the road. Another major drawback of linear referencing is that a modification in the alignment of a road changes the measurements that reference all downstream points; the system requires an extensive network of reference stations, constant maintenance. In an era of mobile maps and GPS, this maintenance overhead for linear referencing systems challenges its long-term viability. Nonetheless, travel along a road is a linear experience, at the least, linear referencing will continue to have a conversational role. Linear referencing systems are recognized by the US Federal government as a valuable tool for specifying right of way data, are now required for the States. Therefore, it is not to see LRS usage decline any time soon. Linear referencing is supported for example by several Geographic Information System software, including: Intergraph GE Global Transmission Office ArcGIS GEOMAP GIS GRASS GIS PostGIS QGIS Geographic coordinate system Milestone Noronha, Val.

Linear Referencing and Alternate Expressions of Location for Transportation, Santa Barbara, California: Vehicle Intelligence and Transportation Analysis Laboratory, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, archived from the original on 20 July 2011, retrieved 8 March 2011 Curtin, K.