The War Memorial Opera House is an opera house in San Francisco, located on the western side of Van Ness Avenue across from the west side/rear facade of the San Francisco City Hall. It is part of Performing Arts Center, it has been the home of the San Francisco Opera since opening night in 1932. It was the historic groundbreaking site for the organizing assembly San Francisco Conference for the new United Nations Organization in April 1945, inspired by deceased 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt, following World War II, to replace the previous faltering League of Nations, from the Versailles Treaty and Paris Peace Conference, ending World War I in 1919, inspired by 28th President Woodrow Wilson. In 1927, $4 million in municipal bonds were issued to finance the design and construction of the first municipally owned opera house in the United States; the architects of the building complex were Arthur Brown Jr. who had designed the adjacent San Francisco City Hall between 1912 and 1916, G. Albert Lansburgh, a theater designer responsible for San Francisco's Orpheum and the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles.
Completed in 1932, it is one of the last Beaux-Arts / Classical Revival style structures erected in the United States and employs the classic Roman Doric order in a reserved and sober form appropriate to its function commemorating all those who served in World War I. A colonnade of paired columns screens colossal arch-headed windows above a severe rusticated basement, a scheme, influenced by the severe design of the Louvre Colonnade; the interior contains a grand entrance hall with a high barrel vaulted and coffered ceiling parallel to the street, with overlooks from staircase landings at each end. The theater space is dominated by a massive aluminum and glass panel chandelier under a blue vault, the proscenium arch is decorated with gilded figurative sculpture; the theater has 3,146 seats plus standing room for 200 behind the balcony sections. This is smaller than the Metropolitan Opera and the Chicago Lyric Opera, but it follows the trend of larger capacity in American opera houses than the main European opera houses of the 19th century.
The San Francisco Symphony performed most of its concerts in the house, from 1932 to 1980. RCA Victor recorded the orchestra here, under the direction of Pierre Monteux, from 1941 to 1952 and in a special stereophonic session in January 1960; the orchestra made a few recordings for RCA with Enrique Jorda in 1957 and 1958. In years, the orchestra used a special acoustical shell, placed around the musicians enhancing acoustics for concerts; the orchestra's final concert in the house was an all-Beethoven concert, conducted by Leonard Slatkin, in June 1980. After the Japanese attack and bombing of Pearl Harbor, marking the American entry into World War II in December 1941, the household was blacked out and performances were monitored by air raid wardens. In spring of 1945, the United Nations had its San Francisco Conference first organizing assembly there; the UN Charter was drafted and signed in the Herbst Theatre next door. Six years in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco, declaring peace with Japan was drafted and signed here and in the Herbst Theatre.
During the years of Kurt Herbert Adler's general directorship, the inadequacies of the house became apparent as the season was expanded. In particular, there was a lack of rehearsal space. In 1974, The Pointer Sisters were the first pop act to perform at the theatre. In 1979 the backstage area was extended, followed in 1981 by the opening of a new wing built onto the house on the Franklin Street side; this gave spaces for sets and dancers as well as more administrative space. At the same time, the nearby Zellerbach Rehearsal Hall, with a stage the same size as that of the Opera House, was opened as part of the complex which included the Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall. In 1989, the powerful Loma Prieta earthquake that shook the Bay Area caused major damage to the Opera House; the architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and the theatrical consulting firm of Auerbach and Associates were retained in 1992 to oversee the building's technical renovation and a seismic retrofit. At this time additional private donations were raised for extensive technical improvements.
These include: State-of-the-art lighting system – which at the time, made it one of the most extensive and sophisticated systems in the world Replacement of chambers for a never-installed organ with modern restrooms, sorely needed since the original construction. The organ is not needed with the completion of the nearby Davies Symphony Hall. An underground extension below the neighboring plaza to accommodate additional dressing rooms and backstage facilities. Tilman, Jeffrey T. Arthur Brown, Jr.: Progressive Classicist. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006 San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center Opera House photos "Restoring a Beaux-Arts beauty"
List of Estonian exile and émigré organizations The first significant wave of Estonian emigrants abroad occurred after the failure of the 1905 revolution in Estonia, which saw the arrival of over 60,000 people into the USA by 1920 according to some government estimates. This led to the formation of many Estonian American communist organisations; the next wave came after the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union, up to 70,000 people fled Estonia to the West. Around half of these people sought refuge in Germany and the remainder sought refuge in Sweden. With the end of the war, many ended up in displaced persons camps. Many of these emigrated to the United States, the UK, Canada and Australia; this exile community formed many organizations, most of these were cultural. Estonian government in exile Estonian Legation in London Estonian Consulate General in New York Estonian World Council, Baltic World Conference The Baltic Council, Estonian Socialist Party's Foreign Association United Peasants' Party, from 1962 on: Estonian Democratic Union Eesti Vabadusliit was formed in Berlin on February 5, 1945 by SS-Obersturmbannführer Harald Riipalu, Ain-Ervin Mere.
The organization operated in Sweden using the Swedish name Estniska frihetsförbundet. World Legion of Estonian Liberation, Committee for Free Estonia Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations Estonian Liberation Movement Union of the Estonian Fighters for Freedom London Estonian Society, Estonian Relief Committee, Association for Estonians in Great Britain The Baltic Association in Great Britain Legion of Estonian Liberation Inc Estonian American National Council Inc Estonian National Congress in Sweden Eesti Komitee Eesti Kultuuri Koondis Rootsis The Baltic Committee in Sweden, Estonian Central Council in Canada or Eestlaste Kesknõukogu Kanadas Stockholm New York Estonian House Toronto Los Angeles Estonian House, Bradford'Eesti Kodu' Club, opened in 1956 Estonian House Club, opened in 1960, was visited by President Lennart Meri in 2000; the Estonian National Library has a digitized archive of many of these publications. Museum of Estonians Abroad Estonian community in the UK INGLISMAA EESTLASTE ORGANISATSIOONIDE ARHIIVMATERJALIDE KATALOOG THE CONTEMPORARY BALTIC PRESS IN THE NON-SOVIET WORLD Estonian émigrés in Australia
Afterburn is a psychological term coined by Eric Berne, who defined it as "the period of time before a past event is assimilated". Eric Berne, the founding father of transactional analysis, used the term "afterburn" to indicate the effect an atypical past event continues to exert on a person's daily schedule and mental state after it is over: to "those occasions when it disturbs normal patterns for an appreciable period, rather than being assimilated into them or excluded from them by repression and other psychological mechanisms". For Berne, afterburn is the flip side of reachback, the effect that the event, thanks to the stress of anticipation, has on the person's life before it, he considered that "in most cases the other can be tolerated without serious consequences. It can be dangerous for anyone, however, if the after-burn of the last event overlaps with the reach-back from the next... this is a good definition of overwork". Berne considered that "dreaming is the normal mechanism for adjusting after-burn and reach-back", but that sex and holidays were useful remedies.
"Most normal after-burns and reach-backs run their courses in about six days, so that a two-week vacation allows the superficial after-burns to burn out, after which there are a few days of carefree living.... For the assimilation of more chronic after-burns and deeper, repressed reach-backs, however, a vacation of at least six weeks is necessary." In terms of exam stress management, "afterburn is the time needed after the exam to... set it to rest", a period of "afterburn time... a host of unexpressed feelings and incomplete tasks"."Referring to soldiers returned from Iraq, Sara Corbett described this type of delay as'psychological afterburn'...'My body's here, but my mind is there.'"With respect to therapy, some consider that "you are not ending well when you find that you are thinking about the person's problems after sessions. This is called afterburn". Others however see opportunity in such occasions: "You're sorting out your countertransference, you're owning your projections, you're separating out you from the family"—in short, one is usefully employing "those lagging emotions that afterburn following a session".
Erving Goffman has a related but rather different usage of the term "to refer to a sotto voce comment, one meant not to be a ratified part of an encounter, an afterburn... a remonstrance conveyed collusively by virtue of the fact that its targets are in the process of leaving the field". Fugue state Future shock Gunnysacking Psychological trauma