War Office

The War Office was a Department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. It was equivalent to the Admiralty, responsible for the Royal Navy, the Air Ministry, which oversaw the Royal Air Force; the name "War Office" is given to the former home of the department, the War Office building, located at the junction of Horse Guards Avenue and Whitehall in central London. The landmark building was sold on 1 March 2016 by HM Government for more than £350 million, on a 250-year lease for conversion into a luxury hotel and residential apartments. Prior to 1855'War Office' signified the office of the Secretary at War. In the 17th and 18th centuries a number of independent offices and individuals were responsible for various aspects of Army administration; the most important were the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, the Secretary at War and the twin Secretaries of State. Others who performed specialist functions were the controller of army accounts, the Army Medical Board, the Commissariat Department, the Board of General Officers, the Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces, the Commissary General of Muster, the Paymaster General of the forces and the Home Office.

The term War Department was used for the separate office of the Secretary of State for War. The War Office developed from the Council of War, an ad hoc grouping of the King and his senior military commanders which managed the Kingdom of England's frequent wars and campaigns; the management of the War Office was directed by the Secretary at War, whose role had originated during the reign of King Charles II as the secretary to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. In the latter part of the 17th century the office of Commander-in-Chief was vacant for several lengths of time, which left the Secretary at War answering directly to the Sovereign; the department of the Secretary at War was referred to as the'Warr Office' from as early as 1694. After Blathwayt's retirement in 1704 Secretary at War became a political office. In political terms it was a minor government job which dealt with the minutiae of administration rather than grand strategy; the Secretary, a member of the House of Commons presented the House with the Army Estimates and spoke on other military matters as required.

In symbolic terms he was seen as signifying parliamentary control over the Army. Issues of strategic policy during wartime were managed by the Southern Departments. From 1704 to 1855, the job of Secretary remained occupied by a minister of the second rank. Many of his responsibilities were transferred to the Secretary of State for War after the creation of that more senior post in 1794. In February 1855 the new Secretary of State for War was additionally commissioned as Secretary at War, thus giving the Secretary of State oversight of the War Office in addition to his own department; the same procedure was followed for each of his successors, until the office of Secretary at War was abolished altogether in 1863). In 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished as a result of its perceived poor performance during the Crimean War; this powerful independent body, dating from the 15th century, had been directed by the Master-General of the Ordnance a senior military officer, a member of the Cabinet. The disastrous campaigns of the Crimean War resulted in the consolidation of all administrative duties in 1855 as subordinate to the Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet job.

He was not, however responsible for the Army. This was reduced in theory by the reforms introduced by Edward Cardwell in 1870, which subordinated the Commander-in-Chief to the Secretary for War. In practice, however, a huge amount of influence was retained by the exceedingly conservative Commander-in-Chief Field Marshal Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge, who had the job between 1856 and 1895, his resistance to reform caused military efficiency to lag well behind that of Britain's rivals, a problem which became obvious during the Second Boer War. The situation was only remedied in 1904 when the job of Commander-in-Chief was abolished and replaced with that of the Chief of the General Staff, replaced by the job of Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 1908. An Army Council was created with a format similar to that of the Board of Admiralty, directed by the Secretary of State for War, an Imperial General Staff was established to coordinate Army administration; the creation of the Army Council was r

William Harold Cox

William Harold Cox was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi. Born in Indianola, Cox received a Bachelor of Science degree from University of Mississippi in 1924, he received a Bachelor of Laws from University of Mississippi School of Law in 1924. He was in private practice of law in Jackson, Mississippi from 1924 to 1961. Cox was nominated by President John F. Kennedy on June 20, 1961, to the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi, to a new seat created by 75 Stat. 80. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 27, 1961, received his commission on June 30, 1961, he served as Chief Judge from 1962 to 1971. He assumed senior status on October 4, 1982, his service was terminated on February 1988, due to his death in Jackson. Cox was referred to blacks as "baboons" from the bench; when the United States Justice Department sued to block Mississippi's prosecution of John Hardy, a black resident, beaten after he attempted to register to vote, Judge Cox denied the Department's motion for a temporary restraining order.

The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed Judge Cox's decision, the Supreme Court denied review of the appellate decision. Cox's most famous case was United States v. Price, the federal government's effort to prosecute suspected individuals involved in the murders of Chaney and Schwerner. Cox dismissed the indictments on all but two of those charged on the grounds that they were not government officials and therefore could not be charged with acting "under color of law." On appeal, Cox's action was reversed by the United States Supreme Court in 1966. He issued three to ten year sentences for the convictions of first- and second-degree murder. Cox said of his sentences, "They killed one nigger, one Jew, a white man. I gave them all what I thought they deserved." Goodman and Schwerner were both Jewish. Cox ruled against the use of symbolic speech by high school students promoting civil rights in Blackwell v. Issaquena Board of Education. Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63.

New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-46097-8. William Harold Cox at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Yeung Yiu-chung

Yeung Yiu-chung, BBS, JP is a Hong Kong pro-Beijing educator and politician. He is the President of the Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers and the Hong Kong Deputy to National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, he is the member of The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong. He now works as the Principal of Heung To School in Yuen Long, he was a member of Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1998 to 2004. Yeung is a director of the Hong Kong Government funded National Education Services Centre, a private corporation promoting teaching materials on national culture to schools in Hong Kong which have attracted much criticism for their pro-Beijing bias. Official website of Yeung Yiu-chung