The Children's Museum of Indianapolis
The Children's Museum of Indianapolis is the world's largest children's museum. It is located at 3000 North Meridian Street, Indiana, United States, in the United Northwest Area neighborhood of the city; the museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. It is 472,900 square feet with five floors of exhibit halls and receives more than one million visitors annually, its collection of over 120,000 artifacts and exhibit items is divided into three domains: the American Collection, the Cultural World Collection, the Natural World Collection. Among the exhibits are a simulated Cretaceous dinosaur habitat, a carousel, a steam locomotive; the museum's focus is family learning. Founded in 1925 by Mary Stewart Carey with the help of Indianapolis civic leaders and organizations, it is the fourth-oldest such institution in the world; the current site became home for the museum in 1946. The museum hosts thousands of activities annually, including plays at the Lilly Theater and workshops for school children, traveling exhibits, fund-raising events.
With a 2008 budget of $28.7 million, it has 1,500 volunteers. Its financial stability is ensured by a large endowment, first established in the 1960s and is governed by a board of trustees; the Children's Museum of Indianapolis was founded in 1925 by Mary Stewart Carey, a wealthy civic patron who owned the Stewart-Carey Glass Company. She was inspired to create the museum after a 1924 visit to the Brooklyn Children's Museum. Carey began a campaign to start a Children's Museum in Indianapolis and enlisted the aid of other local civic leaders and the Progressive Teacher's Association. With their support, the museum opened in a garage complex that belonged to Propylaeums, a local civic club. A board of trustees was established to manage the museum and Carey was elected its first president; the early exhibits were donated by school children. Carey sought a larger facility and after two moves, she located the museum in her own mansion on Meridian Street in 1926; the same year the first curator, Arthur Carr was hired.
Carr managed the museum. The first permanent exhibits were marine, pioneer and nature. By the 1940s, a larger staff was hired and Carr became director after Carey's 1938 death; the museum began offering guided tours to school children, organized traveling exhibits that were moved around to area schools, began hosting events for fund raising. Early members were given a Seahorse pin to identify them as Youth members. In 1942, Carr retired from the museum and Grace Golden became the new director. Golden sought to further expand the museum and solicited grants from the Indianapolis Foundation, the Lilly Endowment, members of the Lilly family, she secured several important corporate sponsorships. The new revenue allowed the museum to purchase its own building, a former mansion on North Meridian Street. Golden began a diversification of the museum's exhibits, rather than relying on local donations, she created partnerships with other museums who loaned exhibits of Native American artifacts in 1947, a gallery of dinosaur skeletons in 1949, the mummy Wenuhotep was given on permanent loan from the University of Chicago in 1959, a nineteenth-century log cabin was donated in 1961, the Hall of Man was added in 1962.
Several new permanent exhibits were created during her tenure, focusing on pioneer life, natural science, ethnography. Golden established a Junior Docent program, created two weekly television shows for local broadcast, began a program of interpretive activities. In 1964, Golden was succeeded as director by Mildred Compton. Compton remained director until 1982, she created the first long-term financial plans for the museum by establishing an endowment and began advertising campaigns for donations and to increase attendance. The museum was enhanced to help it earn accreditation from the American Alliance of Museums by standardizing and cataloging its exhibits and archives and implementing conservation techniques. New permanent exhibits were obtained during Compton's tenure including the Physical Science Gallery in 1967, the Reuben Wells Steam Engine in 1968, the Model Train Gallery in 1970. A fund raising drive held in 1973 raised $8.7 million and allowed for the construction of the current museum building.
The old museum was demolished and the new one built on its site. Finished in 1976, the new museum had modern conservation and storage facilities, the 350 seat Ruth Allison Lilly Theater, a much larger five-floor exhibit area. New exhibits and attractions were added for the grand opening including a carousel, a simulated cavern, a mastodon skeleton. Peter Sterling continued to pursue a growth policy for the museum. A restaurant and outdoor garden gallery was added in 1983, in 1984, the Caplan folk art collection of 50,000 items was donated by Frank and Theresa Caplan, nearly doubling the number of items owned by the museum; the museum undertook a $14 million, multi-phase expansion that included construction of a welcome center and atrium entrance, a planetarium, an additional exhibit hall, completed in 1988. Indianapolis architect Evans Woollen III designed the four-story atrium addition. A grant from Lilly Endowment funded the construction of the Eli Lilly Center for Exploration in 1990. By 1992, the museum was hosting 4,000 programs and activities annually and had an annual attendance of 835,000 patrons.
It employed 165 full-time em
This is the article on the Northern Suhtai, Northern Cheyenne warrior who died at the Battle of Beecher Island 1868 Roman Nose known as Hook Nose, was a Native American of the Northern Cheyenne. He is considered to be one of, if not the greatest and most influential warriors during the Plains Indian War of the 1860s. Born during the prosperous days of the fur trade in the 1820s, he was called môséškanetsénoonáhe as a youth, he took the warrior name Hook Nose, which the whites interpreted as Roman Nose. Considered invincible in combat, this fierce warrior distinguished himself in battle to such a degree that the U. S. military mistook him for the Chief of the entire Cheyenne nation. Following the Sand Creek Massacre in November 1864, Hook Nose became a principal figure among his people, leading retaliatory strikes against Euro-American settlements at the Battle of Julesburg along the Platte Road and Powder River regions of south-central Wyoming and in the Platte valley of Nebraska, western Kansas, eastern Colorado.
The Native American author and physician Charles A. Eastman wrote of Hook Nose that, "Perhaps no other warrior attacked more emigrants along the Oregon Trail between 1860–1868."Contrary to popular myth, Hook Nose was never a chief, nor a leader of any of the six Cheyenne military societies. However, known to all plains Indians as a great warrior, the acknowledged leader during combat, Hook Nose's reputation spread among the whites who credited him with initiating most hostilities between the Cheyenne and U. S military. A member of the Crooked Lance Warrior Society, Hook Nose continually refused seats among the Cheyenne Chiefs and headsmen, never held a position of authority within his tribe. Physically imposing in stature, there are several historical references to Hook Nose's flamboyant, intimidating personality and battle prowess. Isaac Coates, General Winfield S. Hancock's surgeon, observed a verbal confrontation between Hancock and Hook Nose outside Fort Larned in April 1867. Coates wrote in his journal.
He is one of physically, of his race. He is quite six feet in height, finely formed with muscular limbs, his appearance, decidedly military, on this occasion so, since he wore the uniform of a General in the Army. A seven-shooting Spencer carbine hung at the side of his saddle, four large Navy revolvers stuck in his belt, a bow strung with arrows, were grasped in his left hand, thus armed and mounted on a fine horse, he was a good representative of the God of War. Following the implementation of the Little Arkansas Treaty in 1865, Hook Nose moved south, pledging to assist his friends, Bull Bear, Grey Beard, the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, defend their ancestral hunting grounds along the Smoky Hill River and within the Republican Valley, he was killed by American soldiers during the Battle of Beecher Island on September 17, 1868, while attempting to charge the island in the Arikaree River, annihilate General Forsyth's command. He was known as "Roman Nose" among the Americans; some of his other aliases were Arched Nose, Woo-kay-nay.
Hook Nose was known by his peers as being willing to protect his people. Hook Nose was known as a warrior with many bold tactics to fight against his enemies. Hook Nose was known to be a spiritual individual and practiced traditional Cheyenne medicine. Hook Nose and his peers believed it was this medicine that protected him and made him such a great warrior. Hook Nose was a Northern Suhtai, a band within the Northern Cheyenne tribe. A common mistake is to confuse him with a supposed son of the Minniconjou Lakota Sioux Lone Horn and brother of Spotted Elk and Touch the Clouds called Roman Nose, he died during the Battle at Beecher Island in 1868. "He had refused a chieftaincy when young, on the grounds that he spent the major portion of his time in battle rather than in council". Although Hook Nose never accepted the role of chief, many of his peers respected him as a leader and protector of his people and their resources. "Roman Nose, was a leader of Indian warriors and a member of the crooked Lance Society of the Cheyenne Indian Tribe".
Hook Nose's intentions might have been to protect his people. "Roman Nose, the fierce Dog Soldier Warrior, was considered a'bad' Indian. He wanted the white man evicted from the plains, his lance meant to sweep the lands clean of whites fences, houses and the'iron horse'". Hook Nose's leadership, battle tactics, spirituality are a few things that made him known to many. Although he died young, Hook Nose left an impact on the west during his time. Hook Nose's battle tactics and leadership skills were not only known by his tribe, but by other people who encountered him. "His bravery came and spotless. Witnesses of Hook Nose's warfare talked about his tactics and leadership abilities. "A common battle tactic of his was to ride up and down the line of army troops within rifle range, getting them to discharge their weapons and waste their ammunition." Hook Nose used deadly and malicious tactics to protect himself, his people, his culture. "Roman Nose was a prominent Southern Cheyenne warrior best remembered for his key role in the ongoing battle against white advancement in the west throughout the 1860s
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains in North America. Their historic nomadic culture and development of equestrian culture and resistance to domination by the government and military forces of Canada and the United States have made the Plains Indian culture groups an archetype in literature and art for American Indians everywhere. Plains Indians are divided into two broad classifications which overlap to some degree; the first group became a nomadic horse culture during the 18th and 19th centuries, following the vast herds of buffalo, although some tribes engaged in agriculture. These include the Blackfoot, Assiniboine, Comanche, Gros Ventre, Lakota, Plains Apache, Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi and Tonkawa; the second group of Plains Indians were semi-sedentary, and, in addition to hunting buffalo, they lived in villages, raised crops, traded with other tribes.
These include the Arikara, Iowa, Kitsai, Missouria, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw and the Santee Dakota and Yankton Dakota. Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains are separated into Northern and Southern Plains tribes. Nomadic tribes survived on hunting and gathering. People hunted the American Bison to make items used in everyday life, such as food, decorations, crafting tools and clothing; the tribes followed the seasonal migration of the bison. The Plains Indians lived in tipis because they were disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game; the Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was the first European to describe the Plains Indian culture. While searching for a reputedly wealthy land called Quivira in 1541, Coronado came across the Querechos in the Texas panhandle; the Querechos were the people called Apache. According to the Spaniards, the Querechos lived "in tents made of the tanned skins of the cows, they dry the flesh in the sun, cutting it thin like a leaf, when dry they grind it like meal to keep it and make a sort of sea soup of it to eat....
They season it with fat. They empty a large gut and fill it with blood, carry this around the neck to drink when they are thirsty." Coronado described many common features of Plains Indians culture: skin tepees, travois pulled by dogs, Plains Indian Sign Language, staple foods such as jerky and pemmican. The Plains Indians found by Coronado had not yet obtained horses; when horses were obtained, the Plains tribes integrated them into their daily lives. People in the southwest began to acquire horses in the 16th century by trading or stealing them from Spanish colonists in New Mexico; as horse culture moved northward, the Comanche were among the first to commit to a mounted nomadic lifestyle. This occurred by the 1730s, when they had acquired enough horses to put all their people on horseback; the horse enabled the Plains Indians to gain their subsistence with relative ease from the limitless buffalo herds. Riders were able to travel faster and farther in search of bison herds and to transport more goods, thus making it possible to enjoy a richer material environment than their pedestrian ancestors.
For the Plains peoples, the horse became an item of prestige as well as utility. They were extravagantly fond of their horses and the lifestyle they permitted; the first Spanish conqueror to bring horses to the new world was Hernán Cortés in 1519. However, Cortés only brought about sixteen horses with his expedition. Coronado brought 558 horses with him on his 1539–1542 expedition. At the time, the Indians of these regions had never seen a horse, although they had heard of them from contacts with Indians in Mexico. Only two of Coronado's horses were mares, so he was unlikely to have been the source of the horses that Plains Indians adopted as the cornerstone of their culture. In 1592, Juan de Onate brought 7,000 head of livestock with him when he came north to establish a colony in New Mexico, his horse herd included mares as well as stallions. Pueblo Indians learned about horses by working for Spanish colonists; the Spanish attempted to keep knowledge of riding away from Native people, but nonetheless, they learned and some fled their servitude to their Spanish employers—and took horses with them.
Some horses were obtained through trade in spite of prohibitions against it. Other horses were captured by Native people. In all cases the horse was adopted into their culture and herds multiplied. By 1659, the Navajo from northwestern New Mexico were raiding the Spanish colonies to steal horses. By 1664, the Apache were trading captives from other tribes to the Spanish for horses; the real beginning of the horse culture of the plains began with the expulsion of the Spanish from New Mexico in 1680 when the victorious Pueblo people captured thousands of horses and other livestock. They traded many horses north to the Plains Indians. In 1683 a Spanish expedition into Texas found horses among Native people. In 1690, a few horses were found by the Spanish among the Indians living at the mouth of the Colorado River of Texas and the Caddo of eastern Texas had a sizeable number; the French explorer Claude Charles Du Tisne found 300 horses among the Wichita on the Verdigris River in 1719, but they were still not plentiful.
Henry Maier Festival Park
Henry Maier Festival Park is a festival park located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Park is named for Milwaukee's longest-serving mayor. In 1927 Maitland Airport was opened, it was one of the city's first airstrips. The airport remained in operation for more than 20 years before it was replaced by a Nike missile installation, established during the height of'50s Cold War tensions; the site was one of eight in the Greater Milwaukee area and hosted both the Nike Ajax and nuclear-capable Nike Hercules missiles as a means of last resort against a possible attack by the Soviet Union. The military installation, along with a radar station at Lake Park, remained in use until 1969 when the Army closed them in an effort to reduce costs; the land was sold to the city and became a top possible destination by Summerfest's early leaders, who worried for the fest's future after bad weather caused a poor turnout in its second year. Organizers believed that a centralized location was crucial, the lakefront site appeared ideal.
In 1970, the Harbor Commission, which took ownership of the land from the Army, constructed a deal and began leasing the site to Summerfest for one dollar a year. The formed Summerfest set up makeshift offices from the remaining barracks and the control building; the history of the Henry Maier Festival Park starts with Summerfest in 1968. The music festival was created that year, found some success, being held in 35 different locations; the next year, was inundated with horrific weather, forcing cancellation of the last day and ensuring financial losses for that year. In 1970 a central location was decided upon: an abandoned strip of land along the lakefront in the downtown area, the former Maitland Airport and served as a Nike missile site during the Cold War; the early Summerfest Grounds consisted of little more than concrete blocks with wooden slabs placed on top to serve as stages, in the middle of a grassy, muddy field. Despite this, the central location was key to the festival's success, ensuring the existence and expansion of the grounds.
Construction continued through the 1970s and 1980s, with the highlight of the creation of the Marcus Amphitheater, a 23,000 seat covered venue, in 1987. Various ethnic and cultural festivals came to be held at the festival park beginning in the 1980s, as well as several run/walks for charity events. African World Festival Arab World Fest Asian Moon Festival Festa Italiana German Fest Indian Summer Festival Irish Fest Labor Fest Mexican Fiesta Polish Fest PrideFest Parks of Milwaukee Lakeshore State Park, located directly across a lagoon to the east 43°01′41″N 87°53′56″W Henry Maier Festival Park Calendar of Events History of Summerfest Maitland Airport & Military Reservation details and images
A powwow is a social gathering held by many different Native American communities. A modern pow wow is a specific type of event for Native American people to meet and dance, sing and honor their cultures. Pow wows may be public. There is a dancing competition, with many different types of traditional dances and regalia with significant prize money awarded. Pow wows vary in length from a one-day event, to major pow wows called for a special occasion which can be up to one week long. In popular culture, such as older Western movies, the term has been used to describe any gathering of Native Americans, or to refer to any type of meeting, such as among military personnel; this usage is sometimes discouraged because it can be seen as minimizing the cultural and ceremonial importance of pow wows. The word “pow wow” is derived from the Narragansett word powwaw, meaning "spiritual leader"; the term itself has different variants including Powaw, Pawaw and Pawau. A number of different tribes claim to have held the “first” pow wow.
Public dances that most resemble what we now know as pow wows were most common in the Great Plains region of the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a time when the United States government fragmented many Native communities in the hopes of acquiring land for economic exploitation. In 1923, Charles Burke, Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the United States, passed legislation modeled on Circular 1665, which he published in 1921, that limited the times of the year in which Native Americans could practice traditional dance, which he deemed as directly threatening the Christian religion. However, many Native communities continued to gather together in secret to practice their cultures’ dance and music, in defiance of this, other, legislation. By the mid-nineteenth century, pow wows were being held in the Great Lakes region. Planning for a pow wow begins months even a year, in advance of the event by a group of people referred to as a pow wow committee. Pow wows may be sponsored by a tribal organization, by an American Native community within an urban area, a Native American Studies program or American Native club on a college or university campus, tribe, or any other organization that can provide startup funds and volunteer workers.
A pow wow committee consists of a number of individuals. If a pow wow has a sponsor, such as a tribe, college, or organization, many or all members of the committee may come from that group; the committee is responsible to recruit and hire the head staff, publicize the pow wow, secure a location, recruit vendors who pay for the right to set up and sell food or merchandise at the pow wow. The head staff of a pow wow are the people who run the event on the day or days it occurs, they are hired by the pow wow committee several months in advance, as the quality of the head staff can affect attendance. To be chosen as part of the head staff is an honor, showing respect for the person's skills or dedication; the arena director is the person in charge during the pow wow. Sometimes the arena director is referred to as the whip man, sometimes the whip man is the arena director's assistant, many pow wows don't have a whip man; the arena director makes sure dancers are dancing during the pow wow and that the drum groups know what type of song to sing.
If there are contests the arena director is responsible for providing judges, though they have another assistant, the head judge. The arena director is responsible for organizing any ceremonies that may be required during the pow wow, such as when an eagle feather is dropped, others as required. One of the main duties of the arena director is to ensure that the dance arena is treated with the proper respect from visitors to the pow wow; the master of ceremonies, or MC, is the voice of the pow wow. It is his job to keep the singers and public informed as to what is happening; the MC sets the schedule of events, maintains the drum rotation, or order of when each drum group gets to sing. The MC is responsible for filling any dead air time that may occur during the pow wow with jokes; the MC runs any raffles or other contests that may happen during the pow wow. The head dancers consist of the Head Man Dancer and the Head Woman Dancer, Head Teen Dancers, Head Little Boy and Girl Dancers, Head Golden Age Dancers, a Head Gourd Dancer if the pow wow has a Gourd Dance.
The head dancers lead the other dancers in the grand entry or parade of dancers that opens a pow wow. In many cases, the head dancers are responsible for leading the dancers during songs, dancers will not enter the arena unless the head dancers are out dancing; the singers while singing. Host drums are responsible for singing the songs at the beginning and end of a pow wow session a starting song, the grand entry song, a flag song, a veterans or victory song to start the pow-wow, a flag song, retreat song and closing song to end the pow wow. Additionally, if a pow-wow has gourd dancing, the Southern Host Drum is the drum that sings all the gourd songs, though another drum can perform them; the host drums are called upon to sing special songs during the pow-wow. Famous host drums include Black Lodge Singers, Cozad Singers, Yellowhammer. A pow wow is set up as a series of large circles; the center circle is the dance arena, outside of, a larger circle consisting of the MC's table, drum groups, sitting areas for dancers and their families.
Beyond these two circles for participants is an area for spectators, while outside of all are designated areas with vendo
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Plumage refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies and may vary with age classes. Within species, there can be different colour morphs; the placement of feathers on a bird is not haphazard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, these feather tracts are known by standardized names. Most birds moult twice a year, resulting in a basic plumage. Many ducks and some other species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding and a drab eclipse plumage for some months afterward; the painted bunting's juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult female. The first starts a few days after fledging replacing the juvenile plumage with an auxiliary formative plumage. Abnormal plumages include a variety of conditions. Albinism, total loss of colour, is rare; some species are colour polymorphic, having two or more colour variants.
A few species have special types of polymorphism, as in the male ruff which has an assortment of different colours around the head and neck in the breeding season only. Hen feathering is an inherited plumage character in domestic fowl controlled by a single gene. Plumology is the name for the science, associated with the study of feathers. All species of birds moult at least annually after the breeding season, known as the pre-basic moult; this resulting covering of feathers, which will last either until the next breeding season or until the next annual moult, is known as the basic plumage. Many species undertake another moult prior to the breeding season known as the pre-alternate moult, the resulting breeding plumage being known as the alternate plumage or nuptial plumage; the alternate plumage is brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display, but may be cryptic to hide incubating birds that might be vulnerable on the nest. The Humphrey-Parkes terminology requires some attention to detail to name moults and plumages correctly.
Many ducks have colourful plumage, exhibiting strong sexual dimorphism. However, they moult into a dull plumage after breeding in mid-summer; this drab, female-like appearance is called eclipse plumage. When they shed feathers to go into eclipse, the ducks become flightless for a short period of time; some duck species remain in eclipse for one to three months in the late summer and early fall, while others retain the cryptic plumage until the next spring when they undergo another moult to return to their breeding plumage. Although found in the Anatidae, a few other species, including related red junglefowl, most fairywrens and some sunbirds have an eclipse plumage. In the superb and splendid fairywrens old males may moult from one nuptial plumage to another whereas in the red-backed and white-winged fairywrens, males do not acquire nuptial plumage until four years of age – well after they become sexually mature and indeed longer than the vast majority of individuals live. In contrast to the ducks, males of hummingbirds and most lek-mating passerines – like the Guianan cock-of-the-rock or birds of paradise – retain their exuberant plumage and sexual dimorphism at all times, moulting as ordinary birds do once annually.
There are hereditary as well as non-hereditary variations in plumage that are rare and termed as abnormal or aberrant plumages. Melanism refers to an excess of dark colours. Erythromelanism or erythrism is the result of excessive reddish brown erythromelanin deposition in feathers that lack melanin. Melanin of different forms combine with xanthophylls to produce colour mixtures and when this combination is imbalanced it produces colour shifts that are termed as schizochroisms. A reduction in eumelanin leads to non-eumelanin schizochroism with an overall fawn plumage while a lack of phaeomelanin results in grey coloured non-phaeomelanin schizochroism. Carotenism refers to abnormal distribution of carotenoid pigments; the term "dilution" is used for situations. Dilution occurs in normal plumage, but may in addition occur as an aberration. In some birds – many true owls, some nightjars and a few cuckoos being known examples – there is colour polymorphism; this means that two or more colour variants are numerous within their populations during all or at least most seasons and plumages.
Other cases of natural polymorphism are of various kinds. Albinism in birds is rare, occurring to any extent in one in 1800 individuals, it involves loss of colour in all par