A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, using child soldiers, declaring that no quarter will be given, violating the principles of distinction and military necessity; the concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law.
Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, following the creation of several international courts, additional categories of war crimes applicable to armed conflicts other than those between states, such as civil wars, were defined; the trial of Peter von Hagenbach by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1474 was the first "international" war crimes trial, of command responsibility. He was convicted and beheaded for crimes that "he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent", although he had argued that he was "just following orders". In 1865, Henry Wirz, a Confederate States Army officer, was held accountable by a military tribunal and hanged for the appalling conditions at Andersonville Prison, where many Union prisoners of war died during the American Civil War; the Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907 and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law.
The Geneva Conventions are four related treaties adopted and continuously expanded from 1864 to 1949 that represent a legal basis and framework for the conduct of war under international law. Every single member state of the United Nations has ratified the conventions, which are universally accepted as customary international law, applicable to every situation of armed conflict in the world. However, the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions adopted in 1977 containing the most pertinent and comprehensive protections of international humanitarian law for persons and objects in modern warfare are still not ratified by a number of States continuously engaged in armed conflicts, namely the United States, India, Iraq and others. Accordingly, states retain different values with regard to wartime conduct; some signatories have violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws' formalities and principles. Three conventions were revised and expanded with the fourth one added in 1949: First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field.
Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Two Additional Protocols were adopted in 1977 with the third one added in 2005, completing and updating the Geneva Conventions: Protocol I relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. A small number of German military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes; the modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter, published on August 8, 1945. Along with war crimes the charter defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, which are committed during wars and in concert with war crimes.
Known as the Tokyo Trial, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or as the Tribunal, it was convened on May 3, 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A", "Class B", "Class C", committed during World War II. On July 1, 2002, the International Criminal Court, a treaty-base
Delicate is the eighth studio album from Canadian new wave band, Martha & The Muffins. It was produced by Mark Gane, Leo Valvassori and Martha Johnson, mixed by David Bottrill; the first single from the album was "Mess". The album was the band's first full-length release of new material in 18 years. All tracks are written by Martha Johnson. Martha Johnson - vocals, percussion, additional guitar, melodica Mark Gane - vocals, mandolin, lap steel, keyboards, treatments Leo Valvassori - bass and bowed basses, additional guitar, cello, loudhailerwith: Eric Paul - drums, backing vocals Paul Brennan - drums Steve Donald - trombone Gerry Reid - flutes, messing around vocals Elly Barlin-Daniels - backing vocals David Blyth - backing vocals Debby Blyth - backing vocals Eve Gane - backing vocals Andrea Ramolo - backing vocals Catherine Robertson - backing vocals Charlie Roby - backing vocals Rachel Winer - backing vocals
Wa$ted! is an American reality series which ran on Planet Green and was hosted by Annabelle Gurwitch and Holter Graham. It originated from a television show from New Zealand by the same name. Six episodes were shown on TLC; those six episodes were reordered with the four remaining in the first season causing some to confuse their original airdate. The show opens with the hosts giving the family or business an overview of their wasteful life and returning to them months worth of their own trash, they have to sort through it and are shown all the hazardous and reusable items they have wasted. Next they examine the house and point out faults such as heating, aging machines and televisions being on, water use among other things. Based on all this, an ecological footprint is created to show how many acres it takes to sustain the household; the hosts help the family or business implement greener alternatives and change their wasteful habits. They promise to match the amount that they save in utilities and the like by projecting the totals forward for one year.
The family or business is given three weeks to change their habits. Afterward, they are evaluated on how well they did, given a new footprint based on their new habits, awarded money equal to their energy savings. Wa$ted! on IMDb Official Website