Prudente de Morais
Prudente José de Morais e Barros was the third President of Brazil. He is notable as the first civilian president of the country, the first to be elected by direct popular ballot under the permanent provisions of Brazil's 1891 Constitution, the first to serve his term in its entirety, his presidency, which lasted from 15 November 1894 until 14 November 1898, was marked by the War of Canudos, a campesinant revolt in the northeast of the country, crushed by the Brazilian Army. He had to face a break in diplomatic relations with Portugal, mediated by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, he had been the Governor of the State of São Paulo and President of the Senate from 1891 to 1894. He was president of the Constituent Congress that drafted and approved Brazil's 1891 Constitution; the city of Presidente Prudente, located in the western part of the State of São Paulo, is named after him. His ancestry dated back to the early Portuguese settlers of Brazil. Prudente de Morais was born in the vicinity of Itu on 4 October 1841.
At the age of three he lost his father, an animal dealer, murdered by a slave. After his mother remarried, Morais took up residence in the city, he graduated with a law degree from the Law School of São Paulo in 1863 and moved to Piracicaba that same year. He practiced law there for two years and began his political career in 1865. During the period of the Empire of Brazil, Morais belonged first to the Liberal Party as a monarchist, he was elected an alderman in presiding over the city of Piracicaba. In 1873, he joined the Paulista Republican Party and declared himself a republican as a representative in the Provincial Assembly, he was a provincial deputy in the city of São Paulo and deputy to the General Assembly of the Empire as a supporter of the republican form of government, abolition of slavery and federalism. As provincial deputy, he worked with the complex issue of the borders of São Paulo with Minas Gerais, a subject on which he was an expert. After the proclamation of the Republic in 1889, his Party began to dominate national politics, Moraes was elected to the Constituent Congress as Senator for São Paulo.
Due to his leading position in the Party, he was chosen by his peers as President of the Constituent Congress, that promulgated the Brazil's first republican Constitution in 1891. Morais ran in the first Brazilian presidential election, but lost to incumbent Head of the Provisional Government Deodoro da Fonseca. After that election and the inauguration of the first President and Vice-President, the Congress's function as a Constituent Assembly ceased, it became an ordinary bicameral National Congress, whereupon Morais' role as President of the Constituent Congress ended. Senator Prudente de Moraes was elected Vice-President of the Federal Senate, the Legislature's upper house; the Presidency of the Senate was vested by the Constitution in the Vice-President of the Republic. In November 1891 however, President Deodoro da Fonseca attempted to dissolve Congress and rule as a dictator, but after a few weeks he was forced to resign the Presidency due to the First Revolt of the Armada; as a consequence, who until was Vice-President of the Senate, succeeded Peixoto as President of the Senate on 23 November 1891.
In the contest for the succession of Floriano Peixoto, Morais was nominated by the Republican Federal Party, founded by Paulo Glicerio Francisco in 1893. He won the presidential election on 1 March 1894 and took office on 15 November that year, becoming the first president of Brazil to be elected by direct vote and the first civilian president of Brazil. Prudente gleaned 276,583 votes against 38,291 for Afonso Pena; the election had more than 29 politicians polled. His vice-president was Dr. Manuel Vitorino Pereira, his election marked the coming to power of the coffee oligarchy of São Paulo in place of the military. The four-year government of Prudente de Morais was shaken both by partisan political issues and continued fighting in Rio Grande do Sul, the center of the Federalist Revolt. Early in his government, he was able to resolve the latter difficulty by signing a peace treaty with the rebels, who received amnesty. Prudente de Morais devoted all of his efforts to pacify the policial factions within his country, which included extreme advocates of the centralist policies of Floriano Peixoto and supporters of the monarchy.
During his rule, he abandoned the innovative measures of Floriano Peixoto one by one. A gradual approach was necessary since the Florianists still had some influence in the army, the vice-president was connected to the ideas of the Florianists. In 1896, he faced a diplomatic issue involving the British, who saw fit to take possession of the island of Trinidade and Martim Vaz in 1895, the revolt of the Military School, he asserted his authority by closing military club. The diplomatic issue was resolved favorably in favor of Brazil. Prudente de Morais re-established relations with Portugal and signed a Treaty of Friendship with Japan in November 1895 with the aim of encouraging the arrival of Japanese immigrants, but shortly after the rebel movement in Rio Grande do Sul, would face an greater challenge: the War
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s. Domestically, besides having faced several rebellions throughout these two centuries, with support of local political and economic elites, it ended the monarchy and imposed on the rest of society its political views and economic development projects during the periods that it ruled the country: 1889–94, 1930–50, 1964–85. Main Articles: 1st French-Portuguese colonial war, 2nd French-Portuguese colonial war, Sugar War, French raids, Napoleonic Wars in South America and Possession Conflicts for Banda OrientalAlthough the Brazilian Army was created during the process of the independence of Brazil from Portugal, in 1822, with the units of the Portuguese Army in Brazil that have remained loyal to Prince Dom Pedro, its origins can date back to Land Forces used by Portuguese in the colonial wars against French and Dutch, fought in 16th and 17th centuries.
In the colonial period, King D. Manuel I ordered to organize military expeditions with the purpose of protecting the Portuguese dominions in America newly discovered; as colonization advanced in Pernambuco and São Vicente, the native military authorities and bases of the colony's defensive organization began to be built to meet the ambitions of the French and Dutch. First major interventions were the expulsion of the French from Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century and the Maranhao in 1615; as internalization progressed through the broad territorial expansion movement in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and Flags forced the organization of the defense of the newly conquered territory. The war against the Dutch, in the 17th century, for the first time mobilized large numbers in the country, began to have a sense of national defense, regardless of the influence of the crown; the first Battle of Guararapes marks the beginning of the organization of the army as a genuinely Brazilian force formed by local whites, led by André Vidal de Negreiros, led by Felipe Camarão, blacks / mulattos, led by Henrique Dias.
This date is celebrated as the anniversary of the Brazilian Army. At this time, following the model of organization of the Portuguese Army implemented following the Restoration of the Independence of Portugal in 1640, the ground forces in Brazil adopt the organization in three lines that will be maintained until the 19th century, which includes: 1st line - Paid troops. At that time, there were frequent clashes between Luso-Brazilians and Hispano-Platinos, in addition, the land force faced the threat of rebellions of Indians and blacks. Main Articles: Imperial Brazilian Army, Brazilian Independence War, Confederation of the Equator, Cisplatine War, Ragamuffin War, Cabanagem Rebellion, Balaiada Revolt, Platine War, Uruguayan War, Paraguayan War, Naval Revolts, Federalist Rebellion and War of Canudos During the Independence process, the Army was composed of Brazilians and foreign mercenaries. Trained in Guerrilla Warfare From To current Day. Most of its commanders were Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro.
Along 1822 and 1823, the Brazilian Army was able to defeat the Portuguese resistance in the North of country and in Cisplatina, having avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire after its independence war. After won the Independence War, the Army supported by the National Guard, destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, enforcing central authority of the empire, during the Regency period in the country, repressing across Brazil a host of popular movements for political autonomy or against slavery and the colonels' power; the National Guard was a military force organized in Brazil in August 1831, during the regency period, demobilized in September 1922. Its creation occurred by means of law of 18 of August 1831 that "Creates the National Guards and extinguishes the bodies of militias, city guards and ordinances. " According to the aforementioned law, in its article 1, "The National Guards are created to defend the Constitution, Liberty and Integrity of the Empire, to maintain obedience and public tranquility, to assist the Line Army in defense of borders and coasts ", based on art.
145 of the Constitution of 1824: "All Brazilians are obliged to take up arms to support the independence and integrity of the Empire, defend it from its external or internal enemies." In September 1850, through Law No. 602, the National Guard was reorganized and retained its powers subordinated to the Minister of Justice and the provincial presidents. During the 1850s and early 1860s, the Army along with Navy, entered in action against Argentinian and Uruguayan forces, which opposed to Brazilian empire's interests; the Brazilian success with such "Gun Diplomacy" lead to a shock of interests with another country with similar aspirations, the Paraguay in December, 1864. On May 1, 1865, Brazil and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves a
Sergipe State of Sergipe, is a state of Brazil. Located in the Northeast Region along the Atlantic coast of the country, Sergipe is the smallest state in Brazil by geographical area at 21,910 km², larger only than the Federal District. Sergipe borders on Bahia to Alagoas to the north. Aracaju is the largest city in the state; as with most of the states in northeastern Brazil, inland Sergipe is entirely savanna, its coastline is characterized by mangroves and sandy beaches. A small strip of tropical rainforest runs down the coast; the São Francisco River forms its northern boundary, the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river. The southern half of the state slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga, the Real and the Cotinguiba; these streams are obstructed by sandbars at their mouths. The surface of the state resembles, in part, that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast and beyond this forested zone lies a higher zone of rough open country, called agreste.
There is a sandy belt along the coast, the western frontier is mountainous. The land in between is fertile in the forested region where the rainfall is abundant. Further inland, the year is divided into dry seasons with occasional prolonged droughts; these are pastoral areas, the lower fertile lands are cultivated. The capital of the state is Aracaju, on the lower course or estuary of the Cotinguiba River, near the coast; the sandbar at the entrance to this river is exceptionally dangerous, the port is frequented only by coasting vessels of light draught. The city is found on a sandy plain, there are sand dunes within the city limits; the main public buildings include a large plain church with unfinished twin towers, the government palace, the legislative halls, a public school and public hospital. The other principal towns are Estância - pop. 62,218 on the Rio Real river in the southern part of the state and a center for the manufacturing of cotton-based textiles, cigars and soap as well as an active trade center.
26,452, located in a productive sugar-growing district north of the capital. 27,403. 39,706. 90,345. 75,353, the old colonial capital near the mouth of the Irapiranga. 15,937. See List of municipalities in Sergipe, Brazil. São Cristóvão was the site of the first Portuguese settlement, in 1591, at Sergipe D'El-Rey, today Sergipe, became the state's capital for a while; as with other states in the northeast, Sergipe was invaded numerous times by the Dutch, raided by French buccaneers. During the 17th century, the state was known throughout the Americas for its king-wood, a prized commodity, the primary attraction during the buccaneer raids, a factor in Dutch military expeditions. From 1641 to 1645, the territory belonged to Dutch-controlled Brazil; the Dutch built a fort between the rivers São Sergipe. In 1645, the Portuguese regained control. By the 18th century, the Portuguese military had driven off the pirates permanently. In 1855, under the administration of provincial president Inácio Joaquim Barbosa, the capital was moved to Aracaju.
In the 1930s, Sergipe became notorious for its outlaws, including Virgolino Ferreira da Silva, better known as Lampião, the "King of Bandits", who terrorized the state for a decade until his beheading by the Brazilian police in 1938. His head was displayed on a pole in a village square. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,030,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 91.3 inh./km². Urbanization: 82.2%. The last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 1,240,000 Brown people, 634,000 White people, 146,000 Black people, 6,000 Amerindian people, 4,000 Asian people; the industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 53.9%, followed by the service sector at 39.1%. Agriculture represents 7% of GDP. Sergipe exports include: orange juice 66.1%, urea 20.8%, leather and footwear 4.6%, woven goods 2.3%, other types of juices 2%. Sergipe's share of the Brazilian economy: 0.7%. Sergipe's economy is focused around the production of sugarcane, the enormous sugarcane fields, which draw upon the wet and fertile soil, produce over 1.4 million tons of sugar annually.
Unlike the situation in many other Brazilian states, cattle is not a major industry, as the land area of the state prevents large-scale grazing. Along with sugarcane and oranges are grown. A small-scale leather and textile industry exists; the Brazilian federal government is encouraging the development of a fledgling petroleum and natural gas industry. Cleovansóstenes de Aguiar: doctor, Mayor of Aracaju and founder of Sergipe Academy of Medicine.
Brazilian Armed Forces
The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy and the Brazilian Air Force. Brazil's armed forces are the third largest in the Americas, after the United States and Colombia, the largest in Latin America by the level of military equipment, with 318,480 active-duty troops and officers. With no serious external or internal threats, the armed forces are searching for a new role, they are expanding their presence in the Amazon under the Northern Corridor program. In 1994 Brazilian troops joined United Nations peacekeeping forces in five countries. Brazilian soldiers have been in Haiti since 2004 leading the United Nations Stabilization Mission; the Brazilian military the army, has become more involved in civic-action programs, health care, constructing roads and railroads across the nation. Although the 1988 constitution preserves the external and internal roles of the armed forces, it places the military under presidential authority.
Thus, the new charter changed the manner. The Armed Forces of Brazil are divided into 3 branches: Brazilian Army Brazilian Navy Brazilian Air ForceThe Military Police alongside the Military Firefighters Corps are described as an auxiliary and reserve force of the Army. All military branches are part of the Ministry of Defence; the Brazilian Navy, the oldest of the Brazilian Armed Forces, includes the Brazilian Marine Corps and the Brazilian Naval Aviation. 19–45 years of age for compulsory military service. An increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals. South America is a peaceful continent in which wars are a rare event. Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbours and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile and Bolivia have with each other. However, Brazil is the only country besides China and Russia that has land borders with 10 or more nations. Moreover, Brazil has 16,880 kilometers of land borders and 7,367 km of coastline to be patrolled and defended.
Overall, the Armed Forces have to defend 8.5 million km2 of land and patrol 4.4 million km2 of territorial waters – or Blue Amazon, as the Brazilian Navy calls them. To achieve this mission, significant manpower and funding is required. Since 1648 the Brazilian Armed Forces have been relied upon to fight in defense of Brazilian sovereignty and to suppress civil rebellions; the Brazilian military has four times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government. The Brazilian Armed Forces were subordinated to its Commander-in-Chief, he was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in regard to matters concerning the Army and the Armada, respectively. Traditionally, the Ministers of War and Navy were civilians but there were some exceptions; the model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces observed unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while maintaining distance from political decisions and decisions referring to borders' security".
The military personnel were allowed to run and serve in political offices while staying on active duty. However, they did not represent the Army or the Armada but instead the population of the city or province where elected. Dom Pedro I chose nine military personnel as five to the State Council. During the Regency, two were chosen to the Senate and none to the State Council as there was no Council at the time. Dom Pedro II chose four military personnel to become Senators during the 1840s, two in the 1850s and three until the end of his reign, he chose seven military personnel to be State Counselors during the 1840s and 1850s and three after that. It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti and East Timor. Below a list of some of the historical events in which the Brazilian Armed Forces took part: First Battle of Guararapes: Decisive Brazilian victory that helped end Dutch occupation. Due to this battle, the year 1648 is considered as the year of the foundation of the Brazilian Army.
Invasion of Cayenne: Was a combined military operation by an Anglo-Portuguese-Brazilian expeditionary force against Cayenne, capital of the French South American colony of French Guiana in 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars. Luso-Brazilian invasion: Was an armed conflict between the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves and the partisans of José Artigas over the Banda Oriental, present-day Uruguay. Brazilian War of Independence: Series of military campaigns that had as objective to cement Brazilian sovereignty and end Portuguese resistance. Confederation of the Equator: Was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the northeastern region of Brazil during that nation's struggle for independence from Portugal. Cisplatine War: Armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or "Eastern Shore" between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and Empire of Brazil i
A civil war known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies; the term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile, used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict involving regular armed forces, sustained and large-scale. Civil wars may result in the consumption of significant resources. Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M. Regan in his book Civil Wars and Foreign Powers about two thirds of the 138 intrastate conflicts between the end of World War II and 2000 saw international intervention, with the United States intervening in 35 of these conflicts. Civil wars since the end of World War II have lasted on average just over four years, a dramatic rise from the one-and-a-half-year average of the 1900–1944 period.
While the rate of emergence of new civil wars has been steady since the mid-19th century, the increasing length of those wars has resulted in increasing numbers of wars ongoing at any one time. For example, there were no more than five civil wars underway in the first half of the 20th century while there were over 20 concurrent civil wars close to the end of the Cold War. Since 1945, civil wars have resulted in the deaths of over 25 million people, as well as the forced displacement of millions more. Civil wars have further resulted in economic collapse. James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Ann Hironaka further specifies; the intensity at which a civil disturbance becomes a civil war is contested by academics. Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than 1,000 casualties, while others further specify that at least 100 must come from each side.
The Correlates of War, a dataset used by scholars of conflict, classifies civil wars as having over 1000 war-related casualties per year of conflict. This rate is a small fraction of the millions killed in the Second Sudanese Civil War and Cambodian Civil War, for example, but excludes several publicized conflicts, such as The Troubles of Northern Ireland and the struggle of the African National Congress in Apartheid-era South Africa. Based on the 1,000-casualties-per-year criterion, there were 213 civil wars from 1816 to 1997, 104 of which occurred from 1944 to 1997. If one uses the less-stringent 1,000 casualties total criterion, there were over 90 civil wars between 1945 and 2007, with 20 ongoing civil wars as of 2007; the Geneva Conventions do not define the term "civil war". This includes civil wars; the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventions, noting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
Accordingly, the commentaries provide for different'conditions' on which the application of the Geneva Convention would depend. The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows: That the Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring respect for the Convention; that the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory. That the de jure Government has recognized the insurgents as belligerents; that the insurgents have an organization purporting to have the characteristics of a State. That the insurgent civil authority exercises de facto authority over the population within a determinate portion of the national territory; that the armed forces act under the direction of an organized authority and are prepared to observe the ordinary laws of war.
That the insurgent civil authority agrees to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. According to a 2017 review study of civil war research, there are three prominent explanations for civil war: greed-based explanations which center on individuals’ desire to maximize their profits, grievance-based explanations which center on conflict as a response to socioeconomic or political injustice, opportunity-based explanations which center on factors that make it easier to engage in violent mobilization. According to the study, the most influential explanation for civil war onset is the opportunity-based explanation by James Fearon a
A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people. Less common are preachers who preach on the street, or those whose message is not religious, but who preach components such as a moral or social worldview or philosophy. Preachers are common throughout most cultures, they can take the form of an Islamic Imam. A Muslim preacher in general is referred to as a dā‘ī, while one giving sermons on a Friday afternoon is called a khatib; the sermon or homily has been an important part of Christian services since Early Christianity, remains prominent in both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Lay preachers sometimes figure in these traditions of worship, for example the Methodist local preachers, but in general preaching has been a function of the clergy; the Dominican Order is known as the Order of Preachers. The Franciscans are another important preaching order. In most denominations, modern preaching is kept below about 40 minutes, but historic preachers of all denominations could at times speak for well over an hour, sometimes for two or three hours, use techniques of rhetoric and theatre that are today somewhat out of fashion in mainline churches.
In many churches in the United States, the title "Preacher" is synonymous with "pastor" or "minister", the church's minister is referred to as "our/the preacher" or by name such as "Preacher Smith". However, among some Chinese churches, preacher is different from pastor. A preacher in the Protestant church is one of the younger clergy, but they are not recognised as pastors until they can prove their capability of leading the church. Preacher is the author of the Book of Ecclesiastes according to the King James Version. Preacher is one translation of the Hebrew word קהלת. There is much debate about the identity of this Preacher. Media related to Preachers at Wikimedia Commons Child preacher List of Christian preachers List of Da'is Maggid Preacher's kid Prison minister Francis, Keith A. Gibson, William, et al; the Oxford Handbook of the British Sermon 1689-1901, 2012 OUP, ISBN 0199583595, 9780199583591, google books