French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history. Much of the conflict took place during the long regency of Queen Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II of France, for her minor sons, it involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy and fervently Roman Catholic ducal House of Guise and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France versus the less wealthy House of Condé, princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, her son, Henry of Navarre.
Moderates associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid open bloodshed. This group put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henri II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Catherine, however hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises; this pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France, he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally.
The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons and the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III. This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV; the edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. Henry IV's wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch, earning him the designation "Good King Henry". Along with French Wars of Religion and Huguenot Wars, the wars have been variously described as the "Eight Wars of Religion", or the "Wars of Religion"; the exact number of wars and their respective dates are subject to continued debate by historians: some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, while the ensuing resurgence of rebellious activity leads some to believe the Peace of Alès in 1629 is the actual conclusion.
However, the agreed upon beginning of the wars is the Massacre of Wassy in 1562, the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation; the Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. Francis I, had no quarrel with the established religious order and did not support reformation. Indeed, Pope Leo X, through the Concordat of Bologna increased the king's control over the French church, granting him the power of nominating the clergy and levying taxes on church property. In France, unlike in Germany, the nobles supported the policies and the status quo of their time.
The emphasis of Renaissance Humanism on ad fontes, the return to the sources, had spread from the study and reconstruction of secular Greek and Latin texts, with a view to artistic and linguistic renewal, to the reading and translation of the Church Fathers and the New Testament itself, with a view to religious renewal and reform. Humanist scholars, who approached theology from a new critical and comparative perspective, argued that exegesis of Scripture must be based on an accurate understanding of the language and grammar used in writing the Greek scriptures and later, the Hebrew Scriptures, rather than relying on the Vulgate - a Latin translation of the Bible, as in the Medieval period. In 1495 the Venetian Aldus Manutius began using the newly invented printing press to produce small, pocket editions of Greek and vernacular literature, making knowledge in all disciplines available for the first time to a wide public. Printing in mass editions allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an u
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1585–1635)
Gonzalo Andrés Domingo Fernández de Córdoba was a Spanish military leader during the Eighty Years' War, Thirty Years' War and the War of the Mantuan Succession. He was born at Cabra, in what is now the Province of Córdoba and was the third son of Antonio Fernández de Córdoba Cardona y Requesens, the Duke of Soma and was great-great-great grandchild of his namesake Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the Great Capitan. In 1624 was awarded the title of the first Prince of Maratea, he was one of the commanders in the Catholic alliance under the Imperial general Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly in the successful battles of Wimpfen and Höchst. From 1621 to 1623 he commanded units of the Army of Flanders in the Palatinate, Flanders, defeated the Anglo-German Protestant forces in the sieges of Bacharach and Heidelberg and the Dutch at Fleurus. From 1625 to 1629 he was Governor of the Duchy of Milan. In 1628 he took part in the War of the Mantuan Succession; when he failed to take Casale and stop the French invasion in 1629, he was called back to Madrid and court-martialed.
He was reinstated a few years and sent to the Netherlands in 1632. Here he conducted operations on the lower Rhine in the rear of the victorious army of Gustavus Adolphus, but he was unable to prevent the Capture of Maastricht by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, he was recalled to Spain in 1633 and died at Montalbán in 1655, without having been married, with no issue. He is a character in the novel The Betrothed, where Alessandro Manzoni describes the anger of the Milanese populace towards him, when he leaves Milan in 1629. Guthrie, P William. Battles of the Thirty Years War: From White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635 Greenwood Press ISBN 0-313-32028-4 Pursell, C Brennan The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War Ashgate Publishing ISBN 0-7546-3401-9 Black, Jeremy European Warfare, 1494-1660. Routledge Publishing ISBN 0-415-27531-8 Lawrence, R David; the Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England, 1603-1645. Brill Academic Publishing.
ISBN 90-04-17079-0 Josef V. Polišenský/Frederick Snider: War and society in Europe. Bristol: Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 978-0-521-21659-3 Zedlers Universallexicon, vol. 6, p. 652-653 http://www.grandesp.org.uk/historia/gzas/cabra.htm
Ferrante II Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla
Ferrante II Gonzaga was Count of Guastalla and, from 1621, Duke of Guastalla. He was the son of Cesare I Gonzaga, Count of Guastalla and Duke of Amalfi, Camilla Borromeo, he succeeded his father in 1575. On 2 July 1621, the County of Guastalla was elevated to a Duchy and Ferrante was subsequently deemed a Duke. Ferrante played a part in the War of the Mantuan Succession when, as a distant Gonzaga cousin, he claimed the Duchy of Mantua after the extinction of the senior male branch of the House of Gonzaga in December 1627, he was nominally supported by Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand II, who sought to re-attach the Duchy of Mantua to the Holy Roman Empire. His attempt failed. Ferrante II married Vittoria Doria, daughter of Giovanni Andrea Doria, had 3 children: Cesare II Gonzaga, next Duke of Guastalla, married Isabella Orsini Vincenzo Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily Andrea Gonzaga, Count of San Paolo, father of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla Zenobia de Gonzaga y Doria, married in 1607 don Giovanni Tagliavia d'Aragona, Duke of Terranova.
Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy euweb". Genealogy. EU
Northern Italy is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol; as of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance and Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. For statistic purposes, the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica uses the terms Northwest Italy and Northeast Italy for two of Italy's five statistical regions in its reporting; these same subdivisions are used to demarcate first-level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions within the European Union, the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. Northern Italy was called by different terms in different periods of History. During ancient times the terms Cisalpine Gaul, Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata were used to define that part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy. Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps", as opposed to Transalpine Gaul. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the settlement of the Lombards the name Langobardia Maior was used, in the Early Middle Ages, to define the domains of the Lombard Kingdom in Northern Italy; the Lombard territories beyond were called Langobardia Minor, consisting of the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. During the Late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Lombard Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term Longobardia was used to mean Northern Italy within the medieval Kingdom of Italy; as the area became partitioned in regional states the term Lombardy subsequentially shifted to indicate only the area of the Duchies of Milan, Mantua and Modena and only to the area around Milan. In late modern period the term High Italy was used, for example by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia during the second World War.
Starting from the 1960s the term Padania was sometimes used as geographical synonym of Po Valley. The term appeared sparingly until the early 1990s, when Lega Nord, a federalist and, at times, separatist political party in Italy, proposed Padania as a possible name for an independent state in Northern Italy. Since it has carried strong political connotations. In pre-Roman centuries it was inhabited by different peoples among whom the Ligures, the ancient Veneti, who prospered through their trade in amber and breeding of horses, the Etruscans, who colonized Northern Italy from Tuscany, founded the city of Bologna and spread the use of writing; these people founded several cities like Turin and Milan and extended their rule from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea. Their development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley from the 3rd century BC onwards. After centuries of struggle, in 194 BC the entire area of what is now Northern Italy became a Roman province with the name of Gallia Cisalpina.
The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilization in the following years, Northern Italy became one of the most developed and rich areas of the western half of the empire with the construction of a wide array of roads and the development of agriculture and trade. In late antiquity the strategic role of Northern Italy was emphasized by the moving of the capital of the Western Empire from Rome to Mediolanum in 286 and to Ravenna from 402 until the empire collapsed in 476. After the fall of the Western Empire, Northern Italy suffered from destruction brought about by migration from Germanic peoples and from the Gothic War. In the 570s the Germanic Lombards, or Longobardi, entered Northern Italy from Friuli and founded a long-lasting reign that gave the medieval name to the whole Northern Italy and the current name to the Lombardy region. After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people and the Latin-speaking people improved. In the end, the Lombard language and culture assimilated with the Latin culture, leaving evidence in many names, the legal code and laws, other things.
The end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius, the last Lombard king, annexed the Lombard Kingdom to his empire changing the name in Kingdom of Italy. The former Lombard dukes were replaced by Frankish counts, prince-bishops or marquises. In the 10th century Northern Italy was formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire but was in fact divided in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes and maritime republic; the 11th century marked a significant boom in Northern Italy's economy, due to improved trading and agricultural innovations, culture flourished as well with many universities founded, among them the University of Bologna, the oldest university in Europe. The increasing richness of the city-states made them able to defy the traditional feudal supreme power, represented by the German emperors and their local vassals; this process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, becoming independent from the German emperors.
The Leagues failed to develop from an
Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat
Charles Gonzaga was Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat from 1627 until his death. He was Charles III Duke of Nevers and Rethel, as well as Prince of Arche and Charleville Born in Paris, he was the son of Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers and Henriette of Cleves. In 1600, as duke of Rethel, he founded, in Nevers, the Order of the Yellow Ribbon, soon forbidden by the King, due to its peculiar character. In 1606, he decided the foundation of Charleville and the Principality of Arches He became 1st Prince of Arche and Charleville In 1612, Charles, a descendant of the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus through his grandmother Margaret, of the line of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat, Andronicus' son. Claimed the throne of Constantinople, at the time the capital of the Ottoman Empire, he began plotting with Greek rebels, including the Maniots of Greece, who addressed him as "King Constantine Palaeologus". When the Ottoman authorities heard about this, they sent an army of 20,000 men and 70 ships to invade Mani.
They succeeded in imposing taxes on the Maniots. This caused Charles to move more for his crusade, he sent envoys to the courts of Europe looking for support. In 1619, he recruited six ships and some five thousand men, but he was forced to abort the mission because of the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. At the death of the last legitimate male heir of the Gonzaga line in the Duchy of Mantua, Vincenzo II, Charles inherited the title through an agreement, his son was married with Maria Gonzaga, daughter of former Duke Francesco IV. However, his succession spurred the enmity of Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy, who aimed at the Gonzaga lands of Montferrat, above all, of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, which did not like a philo-French ruler in Mantua; this led to the War of the Mantuan Succession. In 1629 emperor Ferdinand II sent a Landsknecht army to besiege Mantua, Charles left without the promised support from Louis XIII of France; the siege lasted until July 1630, when the city struck by a plague, was brutally sacked.
Mantua never recovered from this disaster. The subsequent diplomatic maneuvers allowed Charles, who had fled to the Papal States, to return to the duchy in 1631, although not without concessions to the House of Savoy and to the Gonzaga of Guastalla; the situation of the Mantuan lands was dramatic, but he was able to trigger some economic recovery in the following years. Charles died in 1637, his successor was his grandson Charles II under the regency of Maria Gonzaga, Charles I's daughter-in-law. He married Catherine of Mayenne, daughter of Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne and Henriette of Savoy, they had six children: Duke of Rethel. Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, nominal co-ruler Duke of Mantua and his heir. Better known as Duke of Rethel. Married heiress Maria Gonzaga, they were parents to Eleanor of Mantua consort of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Charles II, Duke of Mantua and Monferrat. Ferdinand Gonzaga, Duke of Mayenne. Marie Louise Gonzaga. Married first Władysław IV Vasa and secondly John II Casimir of Poland.
Benedetta Gonzaga. Anne Marie Gonzaga. Married first Henry II, Duke of Guise and secondly Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern. Grand Master of the Order of the Redeemer Coniglio, Giuseppe. I Gonzaga. Varese: Dall'Oglio. Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua". Genealogy. EU
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa d'feu for military aggression, he was born in the Castle of Rivoli in Piedmont, the only child of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. He became duke on 30 August 1580. Well-educated, intelligent, he spoke Italian and Spanish, as well as Latin, he proved an able warrior although hunchbacked. Being ambitious and confident, he pursued a policy of expansion for his duchy, seeking to expand it into a kingdom. In the autumn of 1588, taking advantage of the civil war weakening France during the reign of his first cousin Henry III, he occupied the Marquisate of Saluzzo, under French protection; the new king, Henry IV, demanded the restitution of that land, but Charles Emmanuel refused, war ensued. The broader conflict involving France and Spain ended with the Peace of Vervins, which left the current but separate question of Saluzzo unsolved. After the Duke started talks with Spain, Henry threatened to return to war until, with the Treaty of Lyon, Saluzzo went to Savoy in exchange for Bresse and other territories over the Alps.
By terms of the treaty, the eradication of Protestants was to be carried on in the duchy. In 1602 Charles Emmanuel attacked the city of Geneva. On 11 December that year he led his troops to the city during the night and they surrounded the city walls by two in the morning; the Savoyard cuirassiers were ordered to dismount and climb the city walls in full armour as a shock tactic. However, the alarm was raised by a night watchman and Geneva's militia rose to meet the invaders; the attempted raid was a disastrous failure, 54 Savoyards were killed, many more were captured. Charles Emmanuel's army retreated in a panic and the Savoyard prisoners were executed; the heavy helmets worn by Charles Emmanuel's troops, with visors made in a stylized imitation of a human face, were known as "Savoyard" helmets after this notorious incident. A number of these suits of armour were kept as trophies; the Geneva militia's successful defence of the city's walls is still celebrated as an act of heroism during the annual festival of L'Escalade.
With the Treaty of Bruzolo, Charles Emmanuel allied with France against Spain, but the assassination of Henry IV changed the situation, as the treaty was not recognized by Marie de' Medici, who assumed regency for Henry's son Louis XIII, a minor. Charles Emmanuel obtained the help of French troops to free Alba from the Spaniards, as the new king resumed his father's alliance with Savoy, his sister Christine Marie was married to Charles Emmanuel's son, Victor Amadeus in 1619. In the First Genoese-Savoyard War of 1625, Charles Emmanuel tried with the help of France to obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea at the expense of Genoa. After Spanish intervention, the status-quo was restored in the Treaty of Monçon. However, when the French occupied Casale Monferrato during the War of the Mantuan Succession, Charles Emmanuel allied with Spain; when Richelieu invaded Piedmont and conquered Susa, the duke changed sides again and returned to an alliance with France. However, when Philip IV of Spain sent two invasion forces from Genoa and Como, Charles Emmanuel declared himself neutral, in 1630 Richelieu ordered a French army to march into Savoy to force the duke to comply with the pacts.
The French troops, soon backed by another army, occupied Avigliana. The Savoy army under Victor Amadeus was defeated in Lower Valsusa. Charles Emmanuel was one of the most wanted candidates for the crown of a restored Serbian kingdom, hypothetically presumed after a Christian crusade against the Ottoman Empire during planning for the Great Conspiracy of the late 16th and early 17th centuries under the auspices of Serbian Patriarch Jovan, Herzegovinian Duke Grdan and other chiefs of the Serb clans. At the 1608 Council of monastery Morača, during a gathering of representatives of the Serb clans and the Serbian Church, Charles was elected King of Serbia and invited to convert to Eastern Orthodoxy and to vow to protect Orthodox Christianity; the conspirators, bearing in mind the failures of the 1590 decade, did not want to expose themselves in any action before direct support from the West was forthcoming. Thus no broad uprising of the Balkan Christian peoples against the rule of the Ottoman Turks was sparked, as Charles Emmanuel lacked the financial resources to take the crown and restore the Serbian statehood extinguished in the 15th century.
The duke died of a stroke at Savigliano in late July 1630. He was succeeded by his son Victor Amadeus. In 1584 he married his first cousin-once-removed, Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth of Valois, who bore him ten children: Filippo Emanuele, Prince of Piedmont. Vittorio Amedeo, had issue. Emanuele Filiberto, Spanish Viceroy of Sicily. Margherita, married Francesco IV Gonzaga of Mantua. Isabella, married Alfonso III d'Este, Hereditary Prince of Modena. Maurizio, a cardinal. Maria Apollonia, a nun in Rome. Francesca Catherina, a nun in Biella. Tommaso Francesco, Prince of Carignano married Marie de Bourbon, had issue. In Riva di Chieri on 28 November 1629, he secretly married his long-time and official mistress, Marguerite de Rossillon, Marchesa di Riva di Chieri (bap. 24 December 1599 – 10 November
Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)
The Franco-Spanish War was a military conflict, the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War. After the German allies of Sweden were forced to seek terms with the Holy Roman Empire, the French first minister, Cardinal Richelieu, declared war on Spain because French territory was surrounded by Habsburg territories; the conflict was a continuation of the aims of the War of the Mantuan Succession in which France invaded northern Italy to take possession of territory claimed by the Spanish Habsburgs. Though some minor territorial gains were made by France, the Franco-Spanish War ended inconclusively in 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. For years, the Kingdom of France, under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, had been the rival of the House of Habsburg, whose two branches ruled the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, respectively. For much of the 16th and 17th centuries, France faced Habsburg territory on three sides: the Spanish Netherlands to the north, the Franche-Comté on its eastern border, Spain to the south.
The Habsburgs thus stood in the way of French territorial expansion, France faced the possibility of invasion from multiple sides. France therefore sought to weaken Habsburg control over its possessions. During the Thirty Years' War, in which various Protestant forces battled Imperial armies, France provided subsidies to the enemies of the Habsburgs. France generously financed the Swedish invasion of the Empire after 1630. After a period of extraordinary success, the Swedish-led Protestant forces were decisively defeated in 1634 by a combined Catholic Imperial-Spanish army in the Battle of Nördlingen, leading many of Sweden's allies to defect to the Imperial side. Although Sweden itself continued to fight, it was weakened. Seeking to ensure that its major ally remained in the war and ensure an outcome favourable to France, the First Minister of France, Cardinal Richelieu, decided in 1635 to involve his kingdom in the active fighting and declared war on Spain; the open war with Spain started with a promising victory for the French at Les Avins in 1635 as part of a combined Franco-Dutch assault on the Spanish Netherlands.
But after defeating the Franco-Dutch invasions, the Spanish forces under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria hit back with devastating lightning campaigns in northern France the following year, leaving French forces reeling. The Spanish looked set to invade Paris just as their vast commitments forced them to suspend their offensive; the lull in the Spanish attacks gave the French a chance to regroup and force the Spanish back towards the northern border. They sent forces through Lorraine into Alsace to cut the Spanish Road, the vital supply line connecting the Spanish Netherlands to Spain through the Mediterranean port of Genoa. In 1640, internal political tensions caused by the burden of the Thirty Years' War led to simultaneous revolts in Catalonia and Portugal against the Spanish Habsburgs. Spain was now fighting two major wars of secession in addition to a great international conflict; the institutions of Catalonia proclaimed the Catalan Republic allied with France in January 17, ostensibly to help the rebels.
In 1643, the French defeated one of Spain's best armies at Rocroi, northern France. During the last decade of the Thirty Years' War, the Spanish forces in the Spanish Netherlands were sandwiched between French and Dutch forces; the French won a major victory at Lens, but Franco-Dutch forces could not decisively crush the embattled Army of Flanders. When the peace treaty was negotiated, France insisted upon Spain being excluded, but the demand was rejected by other parties to the talks. In the Peace of Westphalia, France gained territory in Alsace. At the signing of the treaty, Spain recognized the independence of the Dutch republic but gave up little else. In Italy, France fought with the more or less reluctant support of its client state Piedmont against the Spanish in the Duchy of Milan. Confusion was added from 1639–1642 by the Piedmontese Civil War; the siege of Turin in 1640 was a famous event in the Franco-Spanish conflict. In 1646, a French fleet commanded by Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé was defeated in the Battle of Orbetello on the Tuscan coast, the army it was sent to support was repulsed by Spain's Tuscan presidios.
In 1648, a major revolt against royal authority, known as the Fronde, erupted in France. Civil war continued until 1653. At the conclusion of the Fronde, the whole country, weary of anarchy and disgusted with the nobles, came to look to the king's party as the party of order and settled government, thus the Fronde prepared the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV; the general war, initiated by the French nobles continued in Flanders and Italy, wherever a Spanish and a French garrison were face to face, Condé, with the wreck of his army and entered the service of the king of Spain. This "Spanish Fronde" was purely a military affair and, except for a few outstanding incidents, dull to boot. Along with this uprising, Spain was fighting in Italy and still battling the revolt in Portugal and the French-backed Catalan Revolt; the Spanish focused their main efforts on recovering the Principality of Catalonia and various Italian territories for strategic reasons, which helped the Portuguese to consolidate their rebellion.
In Italy, the war along the border between Piedmont and the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan continued. Twice, in 1647–1649 and 1655–1659, France manag