Howard G. "Ward" Cunningham is an American programmer who developed the first wiki and was a co-author of the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. A pioneer in both design patterns and extreme programming, he started coding the WikiWikiWeb in 1994, installed it on the website of the software consultancy he started with his wife, Cunningham & Cunningham, on March 25, 1995, as an add-on to the Portland Pattern Repository, he has authored a book about wikis, entitled The Wiki Way. He invented Framework for Integrated Tests. Cunningham was a keynote speaker at the first three instances of the WikiSym conference series on wiki research and practice, at the Wikimedia Developer Summit 2017. Cunningham was born in Michigan City and grew up in Highland, staying there through high school, he received his Bachelor's degree in interdisciplinary engineering and his master's degree in computer science from Purdue University, graduating in 1978. He is a founder of Inc.. He has served as Director of R&D at Wyatt Software and as Principal Engineer in the Tektronix Computer Research Laboratory.
He is founder of The Hillside Group and has served as program chair of the Pattern Languages of Programming conference which it sponsors. Cunningham was part of the Smalltalk community. From December 2003 until October 2005, he worked for Microsoft Corporation in the "Patterns & Practices" group. From October 2005 to May 2007, he held the position of Director of Committer Community Development at the Eclipse Foundation. In May 2009, Cunningham joined AboutUs as its chief technology officer. On March 24, 2011 The Oregonian reported that Cunningham had departed AboutUs to join Venice Beach-based CitizenGlobal, a startup working on crowd-sourced video content, as their chief technology officer and the Co-Creation Czar, he remains "an adviser" with AboutUs. Cunningham is now a programmer at New Relic. Cunningham is well known for a few disseminated ideas which he originated and developed; the most famous among these are the wiki and many ideas in the field of software design patterns, made popular by the Gang of Four.
He owns the company Cunningham & Cunningham Inc. a consultancy that has specialized in object-oriented programming. He created the site WikiWikiWeb, the first internet wiki; when asked in a 2006 interview with internetnews.com whether he considered patenting the wiki concept, he explained that he thought the idea "just sounded like something that no one would want to pay money for."Cunningham is interested in tracking the number and location of wiki page edits as a sociological experiment and may consider the degradation of a wiki page as part of its process to stability. "There are those who take. You can tell by reading what they write."In 2011, Cunningham created Smallest Federated Wiki, a tool for wiki federation, which applies aspects of software development such as forking to wiki pages. He signed the Manifesto for Agile Software Development Ward Cunningham has contributed to the practice of object-oriented programming, in particular the use of pattern languages and the class-responsibility-collaboration cards.
He contributes to the extreme programming software development methodology. Much of this work was done collaboratively on the first wiki site. Ward is credited with the idea: "The best way to get the right answer on the Internet is not to ask a question; this refers to the observation that people are quicker to correct a wrong answer than to answer a question. According to Steven McGeady, Cunningham advised him of this on a whim in the early 1980s, McGeady dubbed this Cunningham's law. Although referring to interactions on Usenet, the law has been used to describe how other online communities work, such as Wikipedia. Cunningham himself denies ownership of the law, calling it a "misquote that disproves itself by propagating through the internet." Cunningham lives in Oregon. He holds an Amateur Radio Extra Class license issued by the Federal Communications Commission, his call sign is Kilo Nine Oscar X-ray, K9OX. Cunningham is Nike's first Code for a Better World Fellow. Leuf, Bo; the Wiki Way. Addison-Wesley Professional.
ISBN 978-0201714999. Camel case Christopher Alexander – Cunningham cites Alexander's work as directly influencing his own. Framework for integrated test PatternShare Software design pattern WikiWikiWeb, including his WikiHomePage 2012 Dr. Dobb's Interview EclipseCon 2006 interview with Ward Cunningham The Microsoft patterns & practices group home page The Simplest Thing That Could Possibly Work "The Web's wizard of working together" – profile in The Oregonian, December 19, 2005 You can look it up: The Wikipedia story – excerpt from the 2014 book The Innovators
Barylas is a rural locality, the only inhabited locality, the administrative center of Barylassky Rural Okrug of Verkhoyansky District in the Sakha Republic, located 502 kilometers from Batagay, the administrative center of the district. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 103, up from 90 recorded during the 2002 Census. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Verkhoyansky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г
The cuneiform lexical lists are a series of ancient Mesopotamian glossaries which preserve the semantics of Sumerograms, their phonetic value and their Akkadian or other language equivalents. They are the oldest literary texts from Mesopotamia and one of the most widespread genres in the ancient Near East. Wherever cuneiform tablets have been uncovered, inside Iraq or in the wider Middle East, these lists have been discovered; the earliest lexical lists are the archaic word lists uncovered in caches of business documents and which comprise lists of nouns, the absence of verbs being due to their sparse use in these records of commercial transactions. The most notable text is LU A, a list of professions which would be reproduced for the next thousand years until the end of the Old Babylonian period unchanged. Third millennium lists dating to around 2600 BC have been uncovered at Fara and Abū Ṣalābīkh, including the Fara God List, the earliest of this genre; the tradition continued until the end of the Ur III period, after which marked changes in the form of the texts took place.
This era, the Old-Babylonian period, saw the emergence of the UR5-ra = hubullu themed list. Lists of complex signs and polyvalent symbols emerged to support a more nuanced scribal training; the Kassite or Middle-Babylonian period shows that scribal schools preserved the lexical traditions of the past and there is evidence of the canonization of some texts, such as izi = išātu and Ká-gal = abullu. The works SIG7+ALAN = nabnītu and Erim-huš = anantu are thought to have been composed at this time; the first Millennium represents a further expansion and refinement of the texts and the introduction of commentaries and synonym lists. Lexical lists fall within one or more of the following broad categories: simple sign lists and syllabories complex or compound sign lists, name lists acrographic sign lists, ordered by sign shape or orientation thematic lexical texts synonym and/or antonym lists lists expounding homophony and polyvalency The extant texts can be classified by typology as follows: Prisms and large tablets Teacher-student exercises Single column tablets Lentils This would have included wax-covered writing boards, examples of which have regrettably not survived.
The following provides a listing of the various synonym and grammatical lists whose occurrences have yielded a name used in antiquity or significance has resulted in a designation in modern Assyriology, where the MSL or other references in square parentheses give the primary publication of the lexical texts, the synonym texts not qualifying for inclusion in this series. Á = idu a brief two-tablet sign list of the first millennium A-áA = nâqu, "to cry, groan", a 42-tablet, 14,400 entry list Abū Salābīkh god-list AD-GI4, Archaic Word List C, "tribute", a misnomer based on identification of gú/gún with tax, a concise archaic Sumerian, or proto-Euphratic, word list of animals, numbers and agricultural terminology embedded in a thanksgiving ritual, first encountered in Uruk and in Ur and Fāra alan = lānu, an acrographic word list An = Anum, a Sumerian god synonym-list on six tablets thought to have originated during the late Kassite era An = Anu ša amēli, "An is the Anu of man", undoubtedly a Kassite product according to Lambert, an Akkadian list of around 160 divine names An = šamu an explicit version of Malku = šarru ki-ulutin-bi-še3 = ana ittišu, legal terms, a phrasebook with sentences used in contracts AN.ŠÁR = Anu, a single-tablet synonym list of deities of Neo-Assyrian origin, a continuation of An = Anum, designated tablet IX.
An-ta-gál = šaqû, an Assyrian word list giving synonyms and antonyms on ten tablets Assyrian Temple List, extant in copies from Nineveh and Assur Babylonian Temple List Birds, archaic word-list Canonical Temple List, a theological list extant from the Library of Ashurbanipal Cattle, archaic word-list Cities/god list, early dynastic tablet found in single exemplar from Ur with two simple lists Dimmir = dingir = ilum, Emesal vocabulary, an Assyrian list Diri, DIR siāku = atru, "to be bigger than", list of complex or compound signs composed of two or more basic signs on 7-tablets and 2,100 entries EaA = nâqu, a sign list with the format: Sumerian gloss–Sumerian sign–Akkadian translation which grew to 8-tablets and a line-count of around 2,400 by the Neo-Babylonian period[MSL XIV Ebla syllabaries and sign list, c. 2400 BC, one of the syllabories is an adaption of LU A to local Syrian vernacular Erim-huš = anantu, a list explaining rare words in literary texts giving brief sequences of synonyms or near-synonyms on 7 tablets Fāra god lists, the earliest extant god-lists with around 500 of them listed without elaboration, from Šuruppak c. 2600 BC Fish, archaic word-list Genouillac, or Mari, god list, an Old Babylonian god list of 473 names in 10 columns Geography X, early dynastic list of place names and terms Great Star List, a first Millennium list on 10 tablets ḪAR.
GUD = imrû = ballu, or mur-gud = im-ru-ú = bal-lu, "fodder", a commentary on the UR5-ra hubullu series HAR-ra = hubullu, "commercial loan" the most important thematically arranged word-list, around 3300 lines long and comprising six themed sub-lists, 9,700 entries on 24 tablets igituḫ = tāmartu, "visibility" Isin god list, Old Babylonian era local var