SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Wiki

A wiki is a knowledge base website on which users collaboratively modify and structure content directly from a web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.

Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are hundreds of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles: as of February 2020, it has over 6 million articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.

A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.

Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.

For example, starting lines of text with asterisks could create a bulleted list. The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary among wiki implementations, some of which allow HTML tags. Wikis have favoured plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel, having JavaScript disabled prevents a user from implementing code that may limit other users' access. Wikis can make WYSIWYG editing available to users by means of JavaScript control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, shielding the user from this technical detail.

An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, however

Robert Masters

Robert Masters was a New Zealand politician of the Liberal Party, a cabinet minister. Masters was born in 1879, he represented the Taranaki electorate of Stratford from 1919. He was defeated by Edward Walter in 1925, he was appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council on 11 June 1930 and served for one seven-year term. In the Forbes Ministry, he was a Member of the Executive Council without portfolio. In the United/Reform Coalition, he was Minister of Education, Minister of Industries and Commerce. In 1935, Masters was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal. In the 1953 Coronation Honours, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, for public services, he died in 1967. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand parliamentary record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103

Methodist University College Ghana

The Methodist University College Ghana is a private university in Ghana. It is located at Accra in the Greater Accra Region, it was established in October 2000 by the Methodist Church Ghana after being granted accreditation by the National Accreditation Board in August 2000. Academic work started in November 2000 at the Wesley Grammar School campus; the university has five faculties. Each is made up of departments. Accounting Department Banking and Finance Department Human Resource Management and Management Studies Department Marketing Department Languages Department General Studies Department Religious Studies and Department Music and Theatre Studies Department Economics Department Psychology Department Social Work Department Information Technology Department Mathematics and Statistics Departments Actuarial Science General Agriculture and Agribusiness Department. Agroprocessing Department Nursing Department. There are three campuses. Dansoman Campus: This is the main campus of the university, in an Accra suburb.

Tema Campus: Satellite campus on the premises of the Tema Methodist Day Secondary School. Wenchi Campus: B. Sc. General Agriculture, Diploma in General Nursing, Certificate programmes in Agrobusiness, Agro-processing and Horticulture are run from this campus; the university has been affiliated to the University of Ghana since October 2002. List of universities in Ghana National Accreditation Board Methodist University College Ghana Methodist Church Ghana