Overexploitation called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Continued overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource; the term applies to natural resources such as: wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, game animals, fish stocks and water aquifers. In ecology, overexploitation describes one of the five main activities threatening global biodiversity. Ecologists use the term to describe populations that are harvested at a rate, unsustainable, given their natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction; this can result in extinction at the population level and extinction of whole species. In conservation biology the term is used in the context of human economic activity that involves the taking of biological resources, or organisms, in larger numbers than their populations can withstand; the term is used and defined somewhat differently in fisheries and natural resource management. Overexploitation can lead including extinctions.
However it is possible for overexploitation to be sustainable, as discussed below in the section on fisheries. In the context of fishing, the term overfishing can be used instead of overexploitation, as can overgrazing in stock management, overlogging in forest management, overdrafting in aquifer management, endangered species in species monitoring. Overexploitation is not an activity limited to humans. Introduced predators and herbivores, for example, can overexploit native fauna. Concern about overexploitation is recent, though overexploitation itself is not a new phenomenon, it has been observed for millennia. For example, ceremonial cloaks worn by the Hawaiian kings were made from the mamo bird; the dodo, a flightless bird from Mauritius, is another well-known example of overexploitation. As with many island species, it was naive about certain predators, allowing humans to approach and kill it with ease. From the earliest of times, hunting has been an important human activity as a means of survival.
There is a whole history of overexploitation in the form of overhunting. The overkill hypothesis explains why the megafaunal extinctions occurred within a short period of time; this can be traced with human migration. The most convincing evidence of this theory is that 80% of the North American large mammal species disappeared within 1000 years of the arrival of humans on the western hemisphere continents; the fastest recorded extinction of megafauna occurred in New Zealand, where by 1500 AD, just 200 years after settling the islands, ten species of the giant moa birds were hunted to extinction by the Māori. A second wave of extinctions occurred with European settlement. In more recent times, overexploitation has resulted in the gradual emergence of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development, which has built on other concepts, such as sustainable yield, eco-development and deep ecology. Overexploitation doesn't lead to the destruction of the resource, nor is it unsustainable. However, depleting the numbers or amount of the resource can change its quality.
For example, footstool palm is a wild palm tree found in Southeast Asia. Its leaves are used for thatching and food wrapping, overharvesting has resulted in its leaf size becoming smaller; the tragedy of the commons refers to a dilemma described in an article by that name written by Garrett Hardin and first published in the journal Science in 1968. Central to Hardin's essay is an example, a useful parable for understanding how overexploitation can occur; this example was first sketched in an 1833 pamphlet by William Forster Lloyd, as a hypothetical and simplified situation based on medieval land tenure in Europe, of herders sharing a common on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. In Hardin's example, it is in each herder's interest to put each succeeding cow he acquires onto the land if the carrying capacity of the common is exceeded and it is temporarily or permanently damaged for all as a result; the herder receives all of the benefits from an additional cow, while the damage to the common is shared by the entire group.
If all herders make this individually rational economic decision, the common will be overexploited or destroyed to the detriment of all. However, since all herders reach the same rational conclusion, overexploitation in the form of overgrazing occurs, with immediate losses, the pasture may be degraded to the point where it gives little return. "Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit—in a world, limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons." In the course of his essay, Hardin develops the theme, drawing in many examples of latter day commons, such as national parks, the atmosphere, oceans and fish stocks. The example of fish stocks had led some to call this the "tragedy of the fishers". A major theme running through the essay is the growth of human populations, with the Earth's finite resources being the general common; the tragedy of the commons has intellectual roots tracing back to Aristotle, who noted that "what is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it", as well as to Hobbes and his Leviathan.
The opposite situation to a tragedy of the commons is sometimes referred to as a tragedy of the anticommons: a situation in which rational individuals, acting separately, collectively waste a given resource by underutilizing it. The tragedy of the commons can be avoided i
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut thus not a true botanical nut, it is used for food after being processed, while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea; the walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree used for the meat after ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, commercially found in two segments. During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard; the shell encloses the kernel or meat, made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants; the antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing; because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them. The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut; the English walnut originated in Persia, the black walnut is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut, J. cinerea, J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California. In 2016, worldwide production of walnuts was 3.7 million tonnes, with China contributing 48% of the world total.
Other major producers were: United States, Turkey, Mexico and Chile. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 19 tonnes per hectare. In 2014, the United States was the world's largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey; the Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of total United States commerce in English walnuts. It has been been found naturalized in England. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations. A mold-infested walnut batch should be discarded; the ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C and low humidity – for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities. Temperatures above 30 °C, humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses.
Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two forms; the meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are candied, may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be purchased in both raw and roasted forms. All walnuts can be eaten on their own or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish. For example, walnut soup and walnut pie are prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient. Walnut Whip and walnut cake, pickled walnuts are more examples. Walnut is the main ingredient of a khoresh in Iranian cuisine. Walnuts are popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods. Nocino is a liqueur made from unripe green walnuts steeped in alcohol with syrup added. Walnut oil is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient in salad dressings.
It has a low smoke point. Walnuts without shells are 4% water, 15% protein, 65% fat, 14% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber. In a 100-gram serving, walnuts provide 2,740 kilojoules and rich content of several dietary minerals manganese at 163% DV, B vitamins. While English walnuts are the most consumed, their nutrient density and profile are similar to those of black walnuts. Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration provided a Qualified Health Claim allowing products containing walnuts to state
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world; the museum struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia O'Keeffe, Max Weber; the museum has a "Memorial Sculpture Garden" which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City.
The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library moved into the Brooklyn Lyceum building on Washington Street in 1841. Two years the institutions merged to form the Brooklyn Institute, which offered exhibitions of painting and sculpture and lectures on diverse subjects. In 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum; the museum remained a subdivision of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, along with the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Children's Museum until the 1970s when all became independent. Opened in 1897, the Brooklyn Museum building is a steel frame structure encased in classical masonry, designed by the famous architectural firm of McKim and White and built by the Carlin Construction Company; the initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version.
Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12.5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. French designed the two allegorical figures Brooklyn and Manhattan flanking the museum's entrance, created in 1916 for the Brooklyn approach to the Manhattan Bridge, relocated to the museum in 1963. By 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station; the Brooklyn Institute's director Franklin Hooper was the museum's first director, succeeded by William Henry Fox who served from 1914 to 1934. He was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the museum's director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museum's archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a pivotal role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. Duncan F. Cameron held the post from 1971 to 1973, with Michael Botwinick succeeding him and Linda S. Ferber acting director for part of 1983 until Robert T. Buck became director in 1983 and served until 1996; the Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, shortly before the start of Arnold L. Lehman's term as director. On March 12, 2004, the museum announced. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade. In September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the museum's next director; the Brooklyn Museum, along with numerous other New York institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, is part of the Cultural Institutions Group.
Member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as with donations by individuals and organizations. In 1999, the museum hosted the Charles Saatchi exhibition Sensation, resulting in a court battle over New York City's municipal funding of institutions exhibiting controversial art decided in favor of the museum on First Amendment grounds. In 2005, the museum was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott; the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler. The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich artistic heritage of world cultures.
The museum is well known for its expansive collections of E
A tallboy is a piece of furniture incorporating a chest of drawers and a wardrobe on top. A highboy consists of double chest of drawers, with the lower section wider than the upper. A lowboy is a table-height set of drawers designed to hold a clothes chest, the predominant place one stored clothes for many centuries. Whereas the chest of drawers in its familiar form contains three long and two short drawers, the highboy has five, six, or seven long drawers, two short ones, it is a late 17th-century development of the smaller chest. The early examples are walnut, but by far the largest portion of the many that have survived are mahogany, this being the wood most employed in the 18th century for the construction of furniture the more massive pieces; the walnut at the beginning of the vogue was inlaid, just as satinwood varieties were inlaid, depending for relief upon carved cornice-mouldings or gadrooning, upon handsome brass handles and escutcheons. The tallboy was the wardrobe of the 18th century, but it gave place to the modern type of wardrobe, with its sliding doors, was speedily found to be not only capacious as its predecessor but more convenient of access.
The topmost drawers of the tallboy could only be reached by the use of bed steps, the disappearance of high beds and the consequent disuse of steps exercised a certain influence in displacing a characteristic piece of furniture, popular for at least a century. In the mid-18th century, highboys in North America became ornate; the most elaborate pieces came from Philadelphia. At that time it was one of the most important American cities, both before and after the American Revolution, was a center of style and culture. Thomas Chippendale High chest of drawers This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tallboy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Tallboys and the like. 1913
A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
A locker is a small narrow storage compartment. They are found in dedicated cabinets often in large numbers, in various public places such as locker rooms, workplaces and high schools, transport hub and the like, they vary in size, purpose and security. Lockers are quite narrow, of varying heights and tier arrangements. Width and depth conform to standard measurements, although non-standard sizes are found. Public places with lockers contain large numbers of them, such as in a school, they are made of painted sheet metal. The characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cabinet or cupboard or storage container are: They are equipped with a lock, or at least a facility for padlocking, they are intended for use in public places, intended for the short- or long-term private use of individuals for storing clothing or other personal items. Users may rent a locker for a period of time for repeated use; some lockers are offered as a free service to people partaking of certain activities that require the safekeeping of personal items.
There are but not always, several of them joined together. Lockers are physically joined together side by side in banks, are made from steel, although wood and plastic are other materials sometimes found. Steel lockers which are banked together share side walls, are constructed by starting with a complete locker; the walls and roof of lockers may be either riveted together or, more welded together. Locker doors have some kind of ventilation to provide for the flow of air to aid in cleanliness; these vents take the form of a series of horizontal angled slats at the top and bottom of the door, although sometimes parallel rows of small square or rectangular holes are found instead, running up and down the door. Less the side or rear walls may have similar ventilation. Locker doors have door stiffeners fixed vertically to the inside of the door, in the form of a metal plate welded to the inner surface, protruding outward a fraction of an inch, thus adding to the robustness of the door and making it harder to force open.
Lockers are manufactured by the same companies who produce filing cabinets, stationery cabinets (occasionally wrongly referred to as lockers, steel shelving, other products made from sheet steel. There are a number of characteristics which may vary in lockers; because purchasers will need to specify what they want in each of these when ordering, it is more common to order a particular configuration rather than buy "off the shelf" in a shop, although certain common configurations can be found in shops easily. These features include: Bank size: It does not refer to the total number of compartments, but rather the number of compartments wide the entire cabinet is. So a bank of three may contain six lockers, for example. In short, the total number of lockers is the bank size multiplied by the number of tiers. Sometimes the term "bay" is used instead of "bank", although "bank" appears to be the more standard term. Tiers: may be specified as single-tier, two-tier, three-tier, etc. meaning that the lockers are stacked on top of each other in layers two high, three high, etc.
Tiers are up to eight high. The most common numbers of tiers found in lockers are, in order, one and four. Since locker cabinets are most 6 feet high, the height of individual lockers varies according to how many tiers are accommodated within the cabinet; the height of individual lockers is approximately 6 feet divided by the number of tiers, so that two-tier lockers are about 3 feet high, three-tier lockers 2 feet high, four-tier lockers 1.5 feet high, so on. Standard features vary according to the number of tiers: single-tier lockers include a shelf about a foot from the top, a hanging rail underneath that, at the top of the large compartment beneath the shelf. Material: steel is the traditional material. Plastic or laminate lockers are sometimes advocated in environments, such as near swimming pools, where moisture accumulation may cause steel lockers to rust over time, they can be used in external applications where internal space is not available. Locking options: various types of key locking or padlocking facility are available now.
Key locking options include cam locks, or locks incorporated into a rotating handle. More modern designs include keyless operation, either by coin deposit
A palace is a grand residence a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. Most European languages have a version of the term, many use it for a wider range of buildings than English. In many parts of Europe, the equivalent term is applied to large private houses in cities of the aristocracy. Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, hotels, or office buildings; the word is sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions, such as a movie palace. The word palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome; the original "palaces" on the Palatine Hill were the seat of the imperial power while the "capitol" on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a desirable residential area.
Emperor Caesar Augustus lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two laurel trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate. His descendants Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over and over until it took up the hill top; the word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the "palace" indicated the housing of the government too, the travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the early Middle Ages, the palas was that part of an imperial palace, that housed the Great Hall, where affairs of state were conducted.
In the Holy Roman Empire the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. This has been used as evidence that power was distributed in the Empire. In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind; the earliest known palaces were the royal residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes, featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings and courtyards. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud and Nineveh, the Minoan palace at Knossos, the Persian palaces at Persepolis and Susa. Palaces in East Asia, such as the imperial palaces of Japan, Vietnam, Thailand and large wooden structures in China's Forbidden City, consist of many low pavilions surrounded by vast, walled gardens, in contrast to the single building palaces of Medieval Western Europe; the Brazilian new capital, Brasília, hosts modern palaces, most designed by the city's architect Oscar Niemeyer.
The Alvorada Palace is the official residence of Brazil's president. The Planalto Palace is the official workplace; the Jaburu Palace is the official residence of Brazil's vice-president. Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of the Portuguese Empire and the Empire of Brazil, houses numerous royal and imperial palaces as the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão, former official residence of the Brazil's Emperors, the Paço Imperial, its official workplace and the Guanabara Palace, former residence of Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. Besides palaces of the nobility and aristocracy; the city of Petropolis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is known for its palaces of the imperial period such as the Petrópolis Palace and the Grão-Pará Palace. In Canada, Government House is a title given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy and various viceroys. Though not universal, in most cases the title is the building's sole name; the use of the term Government House is an inherited custom from the British Empire, where there were and are many government houses.
Rideau Hall is, since 1867, the official residence in Ottawa of both the Canadian monarch and his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada, has been described as "Canada's house". It stands in Canada's capital on a 0.36 km2 estate at 1 Sussex Drive, with the main building consisting of 175 rooms across 9,500 m2, 27 outbuildings around the grounds. While the equivalent building in many countries has a prominent, central place in the national capital, Rideau Hall's site is unobtrusive within Ottawa, giving it more the character of a private home. Along with Rideau Hall, the Citadelle of Quebec known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General, it is located atop adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, forms part of the fortifications of Quebec City