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The Reporters (book)

The Reporters is a book on the subject of law reporters, written by John William Wallace. In 1847, J. G. Marvin said of the second edition, revised, of this book: Mr. Wallace has embodied, in one hundred pages, more useful information respecting the Reporters, than can be found in any single publication whatever. Mr. Sumner contributed two articles in the 8th and 12th volumes of the American Jurist, upon Legal Bibliography, Mr. Ram, in his work entitled The Science of Legal Judgement, collects many judicial criticisms upon the Reports and elementary law book, but in point of fulness of illustration, appropriateness of comment, Mr. Wallace's volume, as to the Reporters, surpasses all, done, he confines his illustrations chiefly to the Reports, from the earliest period of reporting in England, to the close of the reign of Geo. II. Prefixed to the more immediate subject matter of the work, are some remarks upon the value to be placed upon the incidental observations of the Bench upon the merits of the Reporters, the original language in which the Reports were taken, the sources from whence the MSS. of the published volumes were obtained, a general survey of the laborers in the "old fields, out of which the new corn must come."

The work is written in a peculiar, happy style, impresses the reader favourably with the author's abundant reading, aptness for communicating this species of information. The volume lacks an Index. 6 L. R. 425. In 1882, the New Jersey Law Journal said of the fourth edition and enlarged, of this book: A new edition of The Reporters is of real importance as a means of keeping alive a knowledge of the old reports. In the multiplication of law reports, made by machinery, there is a danger that the younger Bar will overlook the old Reporters and miss the treasures which they contain, so have no acquaintance with the sources of the law; the Reporters is a delightful book - the last edition is more entertaining than the others - and if it is only to be obtained it cannot fail of being read. In 1988, Bookman's Yearbook said that this book was "well worth using". Glanville Williams described this book as a "detailed monograph"; the Harvard Law Review said, in relation to Year-Book bibliography, that this book discloses little, valuable and its accuracy does not stand the test of verification.

Wallace, John WM. The Reporters chronologically arranged. 2d edition, revised. 8vo. Philadelphia. 1845. Wallace, John William; the Reporters. Third Edition Revised. T & J W Johnson. Philadelphia. 1855. Digitised copy from Google Books. Wallace, John William; the Reporters and characterized by John William Wallace. Fourth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. 1882. Digitised copies from Internet Archive

Jean-Claude Roger Mbede

Jean-Claude Roger Mbede was a Cameroonian man, sentenced to three years' imprisonment on charges of homosexuality and attempted homosexuality. His sentence was protested by international human rights organizations including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, the latter of which named him a prisoner of conscience. On 2 March 2011, agents of Cameroon's Secretary of State for Defense security service arrested Mbede after he sent SMS messages arranging to meet a male acquaintance. According to the UK newspaper The Guardian, the SED "regularly target and prosecute gay men" under penal code Section 347a: "Whoever has sexual relations with a person of the same sex shall be punished with imprisonment from six months to five years and with a fine ranging from 20,000 Francs CFA to 200,000 Francs CFA." Mbede was detained for one week on "suspicion of homosexuality" in Yaoundé before being formally charged with "homosexuality and attempted homosexuality" on 9 March. Mbede was represented by Alice Nkom, a noted LGBT rights attorney and head of Cameroon's Association to Defend Homosexuals.

On 28 April 2011, he was found guilty on both charges and sentenced to three years' imprisonment in Kondengui Central Prison. His sentence was protested by Human Rights Watch, who described it as "a gross violation of Mbede's rights to freedom of expression and equality" and called on Cameroon's government to abolish the relevant law. Amnesty International issued an alert on Mbede's behalf, with a spokesperson stating: "Locking someone up for their real or perceived sexual orientation is a flagrant breach of basic rights and should not be allowed under any country's penal code". Amnesty International's Africa Director Erwin var der Borght stated, "Jean-Claude Mbede is a prisoner of conscience held because of his perceived sexual orientation. All charges against him should be dropped and he should be released immediately." Several local branches of Amnesty International are collecting signatures demanding his release. In November 2011, Nkom stated that Mbede had suffered malnutrition and sexual assault while in prison.

His appeal was delayed. He was provisionally released on 16 July 2012.34 years old Mbede died on 10 January 2014 in his hometown Ngoumou after he left a hospital because he lacked money for continued medical care

French destroyer Frondeur

The French destroyer Frondeur was one of 14 L'Adroit-class destroyers built for the French Navy during the 1920s. The L'Adroit class was a enlarged and improved version of the preceding Bourrasque class; the ships had an overall length of 107.2 meters, a beam of 9.9 meters, a draft of 3.5 meters. The ships displaced 1,380 metric tons at 2,000 metric tons at deep load, they were powered by two geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by three du Temple boilers. The turbines were designed to produce 31,000 metric horsepower, which would propel the ships at 33 knots; the ships carried 386 metric tons of fuel oil which gave them a range of 3,000 nautical miles at 15 knots. The main armament of the L'Adroit-class ships consisted of four Canon de 130 mm Modèle 1924 guns in single mounts, one superfiring pair each fore and aft of the superstructure, their anti-aircraft armament consisted of a pair of Canon de 37 mm Modèle 1925 guns. The ships carried two above-water triple sets of 550-millimeter torpedo tubes.

A pair of depth charge chutes were built into their stern. In addition two depth charge throwers were fitted for which six 100-kilogram depth charges were carried. Frondeur was laid down on 9 November 1927, launched on 20 June 1929 and completed on 20 October 1931. After France surrendered to Germany in June 1940 during World War II, Frondeur served with the naval force of Vichy France, she was at Casablanca, French Morocco, when Allied forces invaded French North Africa in Operation Torch in November 1942. Resisting the invasion, she was sunk by gunfire from United States Navy ships off Casablanca during the Naval Battle of Casablanca. Cernuschi, Enrico & O'Hara, Vincent P.. "Toulon: The Self-Destruction and Salvage of the French Fleet". In Jordan, John. Warship 2013. London: Conway. Pp. 134–148. ISBN 978-1-84486-205-4. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Jordan, John & Moulin, Jean. French Destroyers: Torpilleurs d'Escadre & Contre-Torpilleurs 1922–1956.

Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-198-4. Rohwer, Jürgen. Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2. Whitley, M. J.. Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1

Bird–skyscraper collisions

Bird–skyscraper collisions are a problem in urban areas. Several major cities like Toronto in Canada and New York City in the United States have programs to abate this, such as Toronto's Fatal Light Awareness Program and New York City's Lights Out New York, a program of New York City Audubon an environmental organization. According to FLAP, between one and nine million birds die each year in the city from hitting skyscrapers due to mistaking reflective windows for open sky, or being drawn to lights at night. According to a 2014 article in the ornithological journal Condor, an estimated 365 million to 988 million birds die each year by colliding into buildings in the United States. Governments of Canada and the United States have introduced legislation to make new and existing buildings bird friendly. Examples include Toronto's Bird-Friendly Development Guidelines that requires new buildings to be bird friendly, Chicago's Design Guide For Bird-Safe Buildings New Construction And Renovation. On the Federal level the Federal Bird-Safe Buildings Act of 2011 calls for each public building constructed, acquired, or altered by the General Services Administration to incorporate bird-safe building materials and design features.

The legislation would require GSA to take similar actions on existing buildings. In New York City, where an estimated 230,000 birds collide with buildings each year, New York's Bird Friendly-Buildings Act required new and existing building be bird friendly effective Jan 1, 2012. In December 2019, a bill passed mandating that the lowest 75 feet of new buildings, structures above a green roof, must use materials such as patterned glass which are visible to flying birds. Compliance with these new standards will be required for building renovations beginning in December 2020. Recent developments in legislation necessitate architects and property managers to take mitigating measures to combat the bird collision issue. There are a variety of different solutions including special window film, specialized glass, decals and external shutters; some of these solutions have been proven to reduce bird collisions with buildings, but others are unproven, require more testing to prove the claims made. Ecological light pollution Skyglow Towerkill with antenna towers and masts Bird strike with cars or planes Fatal Light Awareness Program Lights Out New York Acopian Center for Ornithology Instructions to make your own Acopian BirdSavers to prevent birds from flying into windows - tested by Muhlenburg College's Center for Ornithology Bird-friendly Design, American Bird Conservancy

Philip Raffaelli

Surgeon Vice-Admiral Philip Iain Raffaelli, CB, QHP, FRCP is a British general practitioner and Royal Naval Medical Officer. Raffaelli served as Surgeon General of the British Armed Forces until 2012. Raffaelli joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1976, while studying medicine at Edinburgh Medical School. Raffaelli joined the Royal Navy Submarine Service and worked as a medical officer from 1979, working for a time on submarines. In 2007, he became the head of the Royal Navy Medical Service, the Medical Director General, as Surgeon Rear-Admiral, before assuming the position of Surgeon-General on 22 December 2009, taking over from Lieutenant-General Louis Lillywhite. Despite having no operational awards, deployments or experience Raffaelli was still appointed as an Honorary Physician to the Queen in 2005, as a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, he is a Governor of the University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, an appointee to the court of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine