Siege of Leningrad

The siege of Leningrad was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad on the Eastern Front in World War II. The Finnish army invaded from the north, co-operating with the Germans until Finland had recaptured territory lost in the recent Winter War, but refused to make further approaches to the city; the siege started on 8 September 1941. Although Soviet forces managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the Red Army did not lift the siege until 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began; the blockade became one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, the costliest in casualties suffered. Some historians classify it as genocide. Leningrad's capture was one of three strategic goals in the German Operation Barbarossa and the main target of Army Group North; the strategy was motivated by Leningrad's political status as the former capital of Russia and the symbolic capital of the Russian Revolution, its military importance as a main base of the Soviet Baltic Fleet, its industrial strength, housing numerous arms factories.

By 1939, the city was responsible for 11% of all Soviet industrial output. It has been reported that Adolf Hitler was so confident of capturing Leningrad that he had invitations printed to the victory celebrations to be held in the city's Hotel Astoria. Although various theories have been put forward about Germany's plans for Leningrad, including renaming the city Adolfsburg and making it the capital of the new Ingermanland province of the Reich in Generalplan Ost, it is clear Hitler's intention was to utterly destroy the city and its population. According to a directive sent to Army Group North on 29 September, "After the defeat of Soviet Russia there can be no interest in the continued existence of this large urban centre. Following the city's encirclement, requests for surrender negotiations shall be denied, since the problem of relocating and feeding the population cannot and should not be solved by us. In this war for our existence, we can have no interest in maintaining a part of this large urban population."Hitler's ultimate plan was to raze Leningrad to the ground and give areas north of the River Neva to the Finns.

Army Group North under Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb advanced to Leningrad, its primary objective. Von Leeb's plan called for capturing the city on the move, but due to Hitler's recall of 4th Panzer Group, von Leeb had to lay the city under siege indefinitely after reaching the shores of Lake Ladoga, while trying to complete the encirclement and reaching the Finnish Army under Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim waiting at the Svir River, east of Leningrad. Finnish military forces were north of Leningrad, while German forces occupied territories to the south. Both German and Finnish forces had the goal of encircling Leningrad and maintaining the blockade perimeter, thus cutting off all communication with the city and preventing the defenders from receiving any supplies – although Finnish participation in the blockade consisted of recapture of lands lost in the Winter War. Thus, it is argued that much of the Finns participation was defensive; the Germans planned on lack of food being their chief weapon against the citizens.

On Friday, 27 June 1941, the Council of Deputies of the Leningrad administration organised "First response groups" of civilians. In the next days, Leningrad's civilian population was informed of the danger and over a million citizens were mobilised for the construction of fortifications. Several lines of defences were built along the city's perimeter to repulse hostile forces approaching from north and south by means of civilian resistance. In the south, the fortified line ran from the mouth of the Luga River to Chudovo, Uritsk and through the Neva River. Another line of defence passed through Peterhof to Gatchina, Pulkovo and Koltushy. In the north the defensive line against the Finns, the Karelian Fortified Region, had been maintained in Leningrad's northern suburbs since the 1930s, was now returned to service. A total of 306 km of timber barricades, 635 km of wire entanglements, 700 km of anti-tank ditches, 5,000 earth-and-timber emplacements and reinforced concrete weapon emplacements and 25,000 km of open trenches were constructed or excavated by civilians.

The guns from the cruiser Aurora were removed from the ship to be used to defend Leningrad. The 4th Panzer Group from East Prussia took Pskov following a swift advance and managed to reach Novgorod by 16 August; the Soviet defenders fought to the death, despite the German discovery of the Soviet defence plans on an officer's corpse. After the capture of Novgorod, General Hoepner's 4th Panzer Group continued its progress towards Leningrad. However, the 18th Army – despite some 350,000 men lagging behind – forced its way to Ostrov and Pskov after the Soviet troops of the Northwestern Front retreated towards Leningrad. On 10 July, both Ostrov and Pskov were captured and the 18th Army reached Narva and Kingisepp, from where advance toward Leningrad continued from the Luga River line; this had the effect of creating siege positions from the Gulf of Finland to Lake Ladoga, with the eventual aim of isolating Leningrad from all directions. The Finnish Army was expected to advance along the


Rudi Schwamborn, known professionally as Carlprit, is a German-Zimbabwean rapper, actor and music manager. He has written for acts such as Cascada, Alexandra Stan and Laurent Wolf, he is best known for his song "Fiesta" as well as his appearance in Cascada's 2009 hit single "Evacuate the Dancefloor". The title sold over three million copies worldwide and reached the top 20 on Billboard charts, making Carlprit the first person of Zimbabwean origin to have a song on the top U. S. Billboard charts. Carlprit was born in Harare, to a Zimbabwean mother and German father, he grew up at 20 Tom Ward Ave. Cotswold Hills, Harare, he attended North Park Primary School and Ellis Robins Boys' High School before leaving Harare to live with one of his older brothers in Germany. The youngest of five siblings, Carlprit is the younger brother of rapper Metaphysics of Söhne Mannheims. Carlprit first started releasing records in early 2000 after moving to Germany. In 2003, he appeared from the album Digital Garden. After that, he released numerous unofficial mix tape remixes throughout his neighborhood, but was unable to receive any real recognition due to the language barrier that he faced in Germany.

Drawing on his older brother's dealings with multi-platinum German band, Carlprit tried to set up his own Hustlers Academy imprint in 2006 with entrepreneur and friend, Dahoud Faron. The label soon broke apart due to creative differences. Without a label and unable to get signed, Carlprit performed club hosting appearances and created YouTube releases as a way of gaining recognition, it was during this time that he met, an up-and-coming rapper from Wuppertal, DedeBeat|DEDE, who produced and recorded most of Carlprit's first solo mix tape. In 2009 Carlprit went from the band. Carlprit was presented to ZooLand Records. Zooland producer Yann Peifer recognized his potential and offered to try him out on a new project they were working on. Three weeks "Evacuate the Dance floor" was produced with Carlprit featuring in the music video, filmed in; the song was released in June 2009, where it topped charts internationally the song went platinum in the U. S. and reached number one in the UK and the Netherlands.

With the success of Evacuate the dance floor, Carlprit still found himself under no record deal and with the hype of the mega smash hit diminishing he decided to take matters into his own hands and begin collaborating with any one willing to receive rap vocals him. Carlprit has worked with top acts including Mike Candys, Michael Mind Project, Alexandra Stan, Laurent Wolf, Darius & Finlay, Shaun Baker, R. I. O, U-Jean, Ian Carey, Victoria Kern, the Bodybangers, Modana, DJ Sasha Dith, DJ Manian, Tony T, Italobrothers the band Irresistible and written rap vocals for the likes of Italian media person Raffaella Fico just to mention a few. Carlprit released his first official solo single "See You At The Top", in 2010; the song features the U. K brother duo Bkay and kazz; the song was released independently on Gandanga Records and Pyramid Music and was featured on the hit German television show Model WG and reached first position in South Africa on Channel O's request show. In 2011, Zooland and Universal records released Carlprit's second solo single, "1234".

The video was featured Miss Victoria Kern as the female acting vocalist. The single did not do well and Carlprit soon parted ways with Zooland and Universal records, his third solo single, "Fiesta," was considered his most successful, reaching number one in the French air play charts, the top 100 in Germany and Switzerland's single sales charts and over 5 million YouTube views. Fiesta was produced by The Michael Mind Project and Markus Shultz and features vocals recorded and written by CVB; the single was first signed to E. M. I but was dropped at the turn of Universal Music's purchase of E. M. I due to the past failure of Carlprit's 1234 single; the single was signed to Kontor records, Scorpio Music France) and Blanco y Negro Records for. It has an exclusive version for NRG radio and was one of Frances most played singles of 2013; the video was directed by Russian Dj star Sasha With who has always played a supportive role in Carlprit's earlier career. After the success of Fiesta, Carlprit signed with Sony music and dropped his next solo single's, "Here We Go" in early 2013 and "Party Round the World", to be released on 8 November 2013.

In 2014 he released his hit single "Remember to forget", produced by the hit duo "The Michael Mind Project" and saw vocals by the Barbadous local "Jaicko". That year Carlprit followed Remember to forget with the track entitled "Only gets better", featured on Nickelodeon's choice awards U. S. advertisement champagne. Carlprit "Hold on" before taking a break from music due to family issues. In 2018 Carlprit rejoins the "See you at the top" Kazz who now goes under the name Mr. Boomslang and Bahrain based hit maker Dj Jackson to release his new smash single "Your Body". An official music video has been filmed and the single is set to be released in summer 2018. "Don't Walk Away" feat Kazz A. K. A Mr Boomslang) "Your Body" feat Dj Jackson & Kazz A. K. A Mr Boomslang) "Number One" feat Yoxi "Hello Darling" feat Edwan & Kazz A. K. A Mr Boomslang) "My Kind Of Trouble" feat Edwan & Kazz aka Mr Boomslang) "So Fresh" "Hold on" "Domino" "Only Gets better" "Remember