Washington County is a regional economic and cultural hub in the Northwest Arkansas region. Created as Arkansas's 17th county on November 30, 1848, Washington County has thirteen incorporated municipalities, including Fayetteville, the county seat and Springdale; the county is the site of small towns, bedroom communities, unincorporated places. The county is named for George Washington, the first President of the United States Located within the Ozark Mountains, the county is divided into two halves: the rolling Springfield Plateau and the steeper, forested Boston Mountains, it contains three segments of the Ozark National Forest, two state parks, two Wildlife Management Areas, the Garrett Hollow Natural Area, dozens of city parks. Other historical features such as Civil War battlefields, log cabins, one-room school houses, community centers, museums describe the history and culture of Washington County. Washington County occupies 951.72 square miles and contained a population of 203,065 people in 76,389 households as of the 2010 Census, ranking it 4th in size and 3rd in population among the state's 75 counties.
The economy is based on the business/management, sales, office/administration, poultry production industries. Poverty rates, median household income, unemployment rates best state averages, but lag national trends. Politically, Washington County has transitioned from reliably Democratic to Republican in national and state elections since the mid-20th century, with local offices following suit toward the end of the 20th century. Washington County has long had a reputation for education in the state; the University of Arkansas, the largest four-year college in the state, was established in Fayetteville in 1871. A Washington County campus of the Northwest Arkansas Community College was opened in 2019. Today, Washington County contains eight public school districts, including two of the largest districts in the state and two private schools. Washington County began following an 1817 treaty; the area was next known as Lovely County, one year Washington County was created after another Cherokee treaty.
The court house was centrally located in the city of Washington, modern-day Fayetteville. The Lee Creek Valley in southern Washington County contained many of the county's early settlements, including Cane Hill and Evansville. Arkansas College and Cane Hill College were both founded in Washington County within a day of each other in 1834, with the University of Arkansas being founded in Fayetteville in 1871; the county witnessed major battles during the American Civil War, including the Battle of Fayetteville, the Battle of Prairie Grove, the Battle of Cane Hill. The county was sparsely settled and the residents were divided in their allegiance, since slaves were few, plantations nonexistent, political news came by White River travelers, not from the pro-Confederate southern part of the state. A Butterfield Overland Mail route was established through the county in 1858, causing more families to settle there; the economy of Washington County was based on apples in the late 19th century. A mixture of wet weather and loamy soils provided a good environment for apple orchards.
First planted in areas around Lincoln and Cane Hill in the 1830s, apple orchards began all across the county. The United States Census reported a crop of 614,924 bushels of apples produced by the county in 1900, the highest in the state. Several varieties of apple were discovered in the area including Shannon Pippin, Wilson June, most notably the Arkansas Black; the Ben Davis became the apple of choice in the area for shipment across the region. Corn became the dominant crop, outselling apples by $500,000 in 1900. Arkansas Industrial University was founded in the growing community of Fayetteville in 1871 after William McIlroy a donated farmland for the site; the university changed its name in 1899 to the University of Arkansas. Railroads came to Washington County after the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway decided to build a line to Texas through Fort Smith. Two possible routes were proposed, one passing through Prairie Grove, the other through Fayetteville. Many Fayetteville residents and farmers sold or donated land for the right of way to influence the choice.
They were successful and in 1881 the first passenger train arrived at Fayetteville. The county continued to grow with more schools after the railroad's completion. Rural parts of the county began losing population in the 1920s during the Great Depression, when high taxes compelled residents to move to Fayetteville or west to Oklahoma; the rural areas became the Ozark National Forest and Devil's Den State Park. The county is located in the Ozark Mountains, a small mountain region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains with distinct settlement patterns and culture from surrounding agrarian regions, the flat ranchlands of the Great Plains to the west. In the Ozarks, population density is low. Pastureland or hayland occur on nearly level ridgetops and valley floors. Water quality in streams is exceptional. Most of the county is within the mountainous, forested Boston Mountains, with the north and west portions made up of the nearly level to rolling Springfield Plateau. Karst features such as springs, losing streams and caves are common.
Washington County has a total area of 951.72 square mil
USS Freedom was a cargo and transport ship in the United States Navy during World War I. SS Wittekind for the North German Lloyd line, the ship served as USAT Iroquois and USAT Freedom after being seized by the United States in 1917. SS Wittekind was built in Germany for the Bremen–New York service of the Roland Line service of North German Lloyd, was the sister ship of SS Willehad. In March 1900 Wittekind was lengthened; that same year, Wittekind was among the first transports to carry German Empire troops as part of the Eight-Nation Alliance intended to put down the Boxer Rebellion in China. In August 1914, at the start of World War I, the ship was interned at Boston in the neutral United States; when the U. S. entered that conflict in April 1917, Wittekind was seized and turned over to the United States Shipping Board. Renamed Iroquois, the ship was chartered to the United States Army as a cargo ship after a refit, and, in 1918, was renamed Freedom. In January 1919 the ship was commissioned into the United States Navy, carried 5,000 troops home from Europe before her decommissioning in September.
Held in reserve for transport duty, the ship was laid up for five years before being scrapped in 1924. SS Wittekind was built by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg for North German Lloyd’s Roland Line, a fortnightly steerage and freight service from Bremen to New York. Launched on 3 February 1894, Wittekind—named for Wittekind, the Duke of Saxony—and sister-ship Willehad were the first twin-screw steamers expressly built for North German Lloyd; the new liner sailed on her maiden voyage to Hoboken, New Jersey on 14 April. Wittekind and sister-ship Willehad were both found to be deficient in cargo space, plans were made to lengthen both vessels. Wittekind 's bridge was moved forward and a cargo hatch was installed behind it. After this, the ship was cut into two parts forward of the bridge's new position, a new 18.29-meter section was inserted, which increased the cargo capacity. Sources disagree as to where the procedure was performed with one reporting it was performed at the Seebeck Yard in Germany, while another claims it was done by Tyne Pontoons & Drydock Co. at Newcastle.
Wherever the work was performed, it was completed by March 1900. On 3 July 1900, Wittekind sailed from Bremerhaven with Frankfurt as the initial transport ships to depart with troops of Germany’s contribution to the Eight-Nation Alliance intended to put down the Boxer Rebellion in China. Wittekind remained in naval service as a transport and hospital ship through late October 1901. After her naval service ended, Wittekind sailed variously to Maryland. At sea and headed for Montreal when the United Kingdom declared war on the German Empire, Wittekind instead headed for Boston and safety in the then-neutral United States; the steamer—carrying a cargo of lead and coal tar products worth $1,000,000—slipped past British cruiser Essex in a dense fog near Sable Island. Wittekind 's wireless operator calculated that the ship passed fewer than 10 nautical miles from Essex; the steamer was interned by the U. S. and her Canadian-bound passengers—18 cabin-, 305 steerage-class who were not allowed to remain in the United States—were greeted by the Canadian Commissioner of Immigration, stationed at Boston.
Wittekind was joined in Boston by sister-ship Willehad. In March 1916, all except Kronprinzessin Cecilie and Ockenfels were moved from their waterfront piers to an anchorage across the harbor from the Boston Navy Yard. Daily "neutrality duty" by United States Coast Guard harbor tug Winnisimmet kept a watchful eye on the ships. Many crew members of the ships went ashore, were processed through immigration, found employment, while a contingent of musicians from the vessels toured New England playing at department stores and restaurants, drawing the ire of the local musicians' union. After the U. S. declared war on Germany and the other interned ships were seized on 6 April 1917 and handed over to the United States Shipping Board. After her seizure and refitting, the former liner was chartered to the United States Army as USAT Iroquois. In 1918, her name was again changed, this time to Freedom. On 24 January 1919, Freedom was acquired by the United States Navy and commissioned the same day, with Lieutenant J. C. C.
Holier, USNRF, in command. Freedom was assigned to the Cruiser and Transport Force, after overhaul at New York, sailed on a voyage to Saint-Nazaire and embarked troops for return to the United States; the cargo ship made two more voyages to France, each to Brest, with a visit to Norfolk, between trips. She returned a total of 4,983 troops on her voyages from France, she was assigned to duty in the 3rd Naval District. Freedom was returned to the USSB the same day; the veteran ship was transferred to the United States Army transport reserve, was laid up for five years. On 24 February 1924, Freedom arrived at Baltimore for scrapping. Photo gallery of Freedom at NavSource Naval History
Lim Kean Chye is a Malaysian politician and lawyer. He is the son of Lim Cheng Ean, a Cambridge-trained lawyer and a legislative councillor in the 1930s, the grandson of Phuah Hin Leong. Lim Kean Chye comes from an illustrious family which includes brother Lim Kean Siew and sister Dato PG Lim. Like Kean Chye, siblings Kean Siew and PG Lim bar in London. By studying the Lim Cheng Ean family saw the changing cultural reproduction in the context of migration, colonial rule and new state formation. One can see the formation of the English-speaking Straits Chinese identity, participation in the colonial administration and participation in the politics of Malaya and identification with Malaysia. Lim was a founder member of the Malayan Democratic Union, formed on 21 December 1945. MDU was Singapore's first political party, consisted of English educated Malaysians whose main objective was the assertion of the right to self-governance. Upon returning to Malaya after completing his law degree from Cambridge University, Lim Kean Chye was contacted by Eu Chooi Yip and P V Sarma in August 1949 to join the Anti-British League, which he did.
He would be mentor to John Eber in the ABL. In January 1951, Lim escaped detention without trial when he went to China, his colleagues at the MDU like John Eber, P V Sarma, A Samad Ismail and C V Devan Nair were less fortunate and were arrested. Lim Kean Chye was called to the Singapore Bar in 1950, the Malayan Bar in 1961. In 2000, Lim disliked the way a Judge treated two young lawyers, from on decided to quit legal practice. Lim lives in Penang. In December 2019, he turned 100. Http://3rdyounglawyersconvention2008.wordpress.com/2008/01/26/special-luncheon-talk-by-lim-kean-chye/ https://web.archive.org/web/20090525130934/http://www.aliran.com/oldsite/monthly/2002/11e.html http://allmalaysia.info/news/story.asp?file=/2005/8/26/state/11770052&sec=mi_penang http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=8794162357