Northern Virginia, locally referred to as NOVA or NoVA, comprises several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is a widespread region radiating westward from Washington, D. C. With an estimated 3,119,182 residents in 2017, it is the most populous region of Virginia and the Washington metropolitan area. Communities in the region form the Virginia portion of the Washington metropolitan area and the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. Northern Virginia has a larger job base than either Washington or the Maryland portion of its suburbs, is the highest-income region of Virginia, having several of the highest-income counties in the nation. Northern Virginia's transportation infrastructure includes major airports Ronald Reagan Washington National and Washington Dulles International, several lines of the Washington Metro subway system, the Virginia Railway Express suburban commuter rail system, transit bus services, bicycle sharing and bicycle lanes and trails, an extensive network of Interstate highways and expressways.
Notable features of the region include the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency, the many companies which serve them and the U. S. federal government. The area's attractions include various monuments and Colonial and Civil War–era sites such as Mount Vernon and Arlington National Cemetery; the region is spelled "northern Virginia", although according to the USGS Correspondence Handbook the'n' in Northern Virginia should be capitalized since it is a place name rather than a direction or general area. The name "Northern Virginia" does not seem to have been used in the early history of the area. According to Johnston, some early documents and land grants refer to the "Northern Neck of Virginia", they describe an area which began on the east at the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay and includes a territory that extended west, including all the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, with a western boundary called the Fairfax line; the Fairfax line, surveyed in 1746, ran from the first spring of the Potomac to the first spring of the Rappahannock, at the head of the Conway River.
The Northern Neck was composed of 5,282,000 acres, was larger in area than five of the modern U. S. states. This monument, at the headspring of the Potomac River, marks one of the historic spots of America, its name is derived from Thomas Lord Fairfax who owned all the land lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers. The first Fairfax Stone, marked "FX", was set in 1746 by Thomas Lewis, a surveyor employed by Lord Fairfax; this is the base point for the western dividing line between West Virginia. Early development of the northern portion of Virginia was in the easternmost area of that early land grant, which encompasses the modern counties of Lancaster, Northumberland and Westmoreland. At some point, these eastern counties came to be called separately "the Northern Neck", for the remaining area west of them, the term was no longer used. One of the most prominent early mentions of "Northern Virginia" as a title was the naming of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War.
The most common definition of Northern Virginia includes the independent cities and counties on the Virginia side of the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area as defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Most narrowly defined, Northern Virginia consists of the counties of Arlington, Fairfax and Prince William, as well as the independent cities of Alexandria, Falls Church and Manassas Park. Businesses and non-profit agencies may define the area considered "Northern Virginia" differently for various purposes. Many communities beyond the areas closest to Washington, D. C. have close economic ties—as well as important functional ones—to Northern Virginia regarding roads, railroads and other transportation. In the British Colony of Virginia first permanently settled at Jamestown in 1607, the area now regarded as "Northern Virginia" was within a larger area defined by a land grant from King Charles II of England on September 18, 1649, while the monarch was in exile in France during the English Civil War.
Eight of his loyal supporters were named, among them Thomas Culpeper. On February 25, 1673, a new charter was given to Thomas Lord Henry Earl of Arlington. Lord Culpeper was named the Royal Governor of Virginia from 1677–1683. Culpeper County was named for him when it was formed in 1749. Although he became governor of Virginia in July 1677, he did not come to Virginia until 1679, then seemed more interested in maintaining his land in the "Northern Neck of Virginia" than governing, he soon returned to England. In 1682 rioting in the colony forced him to return, but by the time he arrived, the riots were quelled. After misappropriating £9,500 from the treasury of the colony, he returned to England and the King was forced to dismiss him. During this tumultuous time, Culpeper's erratic behavior meant that he had to rely on his cousin and Virginia agent, Col. Nicholas Spencer. Spencer succeeded Culpeper as acting Governor upon Lord Culpeper's d
Garrett County, Maryland
Garrett County is the westernmost county of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,097, making it the third-least populous county in Maryland, its county seat is Oakland. The county was named for president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Created from Allegany County, Maryland in 1872, it was the last Maryland county to be formed. Garrett County has long been part of the media market of Pennsylvania, it is considered to be a part of Western Maryland. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is to the north; the Maryland–Pennsylvania boundary is known as the Mason–Dixon line. The eastern border with Allegany County was defined by the Bauer Report, submitted to Governor Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. on November 9, 1898. The Potomac River and State of West Virginia lie to the west. Garrett County lies in the Allegheny Mountains, which here form the western flank of the Appalachian Mountain Range. Hoye-Crest, a summit along Backbone Mountain, is the highest point in Maryland; the Eastern Continental Divide runs along portions of Backbone Mountain.
The western part of the county, drained by the Youghiogheny River, is the only part of Maryland within the Mississippi River drainage basin. All other parts of the county are in the Chesapeake Bay basin; the National Register of Historic Places listings in Garrett County, Maryland has 20 National Register of Historic Places properties and districts, including Casselman Bridge, National Road a National Historic Landmark. Garrett County is part of Maryland's 6th congressional district; the extreme south of the county lies within the United States National Radio Quiet Zone. In the early 20th century, the railroad and tourism started to decline. Coal mining and timber production continued at a much slower pace. Today, tourism has made a dramatic rebound in the county with logging and farming making up the greatest part of the economic base. Due to a cool climate and lack of any large city, Garrett County has remained a sparsely populated rural area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 656 square miles, of which 647 square miles is land and 8.6 square miles is water.
It is the second-largest county in Maryland by land area. Garrett County is Maryland's westernmost, bordered to the north by the Mason–Dixon line with Pennsylvania, to the south and west by West Virginia, to the east by a land border with Allegany County, Maryland; the county's northwesternmost point is 60 miles southeast of Pittsburgh and its southeasternmost point is 160 miles northwest of Baltimore, Maryland. Garrett County is located within the highland zone of the Appalachian Mountains known variously as the Allegheny Mountains, the Allegheny Plateau, the Appalachian Plateau; the county's highest elevations are located along four flat-topped ridges and range to a height of 3,360 feet at Hoye-Crest along Backbone Mountain, the highest point in the state of Maryland. As is typical in the Allegheny region, broad flats lie below the ridge crests at elevations of 500 feet. River valleys are narrow and deep, with ravines 1,000 to 1,800 feet below surrounding peaks; the county contains over 76,000 acres of parks and publicly accessible forestland.
It is drained by the Potomac and the Youghiogheny. The Savage River, a tributary of the Potomac, drains about a third of the county; the Casselman River, a tributary of the Youghiogheny, flows north from the county's central section into Pennsylvania. The Youghiogheny itself drains the westernmost area of the county and flows north into Pennsylvania, where it empties into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, just south of Pittsburgh; the Glades' 601 acres is of great scientific interest because it is an ombrotrophic system with peat layers up to 9 feet thick, is one of the oldest examples of mountain peatland in the Appalachians. On the western edge of the Savage River State Forest along Maryland Route 495 lies Bittinger, Maryland. Named after Henry Bittinger who first settled in the area, other German settlers moved in and took up the fertile farm land. On the eastern edge of Bittinger is one of the largest glades area of Garrett County. Geographically, this is an area which seems to have been affected by the last great ice sheet of North America.
Two miles southeast of Bittinger, there is a large deposit of peat moss. In the Casselman River valley, 1-mile south of Grantsville and beside Maryland Route 495, one can see remains of geological evidence about the last great ice sheet over North America. A series of low mounds can be seen in the fields on the west side of Maryland Route 495 that are "loess" material; these are the only ones still visible in the northern part of Garrett County. The mounds were formed when a glacier lake existed in the Casselman valley, the ice around the edges of the frozen lake melted. Wind blew fine grains of earth into the water around the edges where it sank to the bottom, the mounds were the result of the deposit of this wind-blown material. See these articles for information on the forests and caves of Garrett County: List of Maryland state forests List of rivers of Maryland Caves of Maryland Garrett County contains over 76,000 acres of parks and publicly accessible forestland. Popular activities in the county include camping, backpacking, rock climbing and cross county skiing, hunting, ice fishing, fly fishing, whitewater c
Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam known as the Battle of Sharpsburg in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg and Antietam Creek. Part of the Maryland Campaign, it was the first field army–level engagement in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War to take place on Union soil, it was the bloodiest day in United States history, with a combined tally of 22,717 dead, wounded, or missing. After pursuing the Confederate general Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan of the Union Army launched attacks against Lee's army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller's Cornfield, fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up.
In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's corps entered the action, capturing a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and advancing against the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, Confederate Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a surprise counterattack, driving back Burnside and ending the battle. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, while removing his battered army south of the Potomac River. Despite having superiority of numbers, McClellan's attacks failed to achieve force concentration, which allowed Lee to counter by shifting forces and moving along interior lines to meet each challenge. Therefore, despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan failed to destroy Lee's army.
McClellan's persistent but erroneous belief that he was outnumbered contributed to his cautiousness throughout the campaign. McClellan had halted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but Lee was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. McClellan's refusal to pursue Lee's army led to his removal from command by President Abraham Lincoln in November. Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, the Confederate troops had withdrawn first from the battlefield, abandoned their invasion, making it a Union strategic victory, it was a sufficiently significant victory to give Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which discouraged the British and French governments from pursuing any potential plans to recognize the Confederacy. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3, 1862, following their victory at Second Bull Run on August 30. Emboldened by success, the Confederate leadership intended to take the war into enemy territory.
Lee's invasion of Maryland was intended to run with an invasion of Kentucky by the armies of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith. It was necessary for logistical reasons, as northern Virginia's farms had been stripped bare of food. Based on events such as the Baltimore riots in the spring of 1861 and the fact that President Lincoln had to pass through the city in disguise en route to his inauguration, Confederate leaders assumed that Maryland would welcome the Confederate forces warmly, they sang the tune "Maryland, My Maryland!" as they marched, but by the fall of 1862 pro-Union sentiment was winning out in the western parts of the state. Civilians hid inside their houses as Lee's army passed through their towns, or watched in cold silence, while the Army of the Potomac was cheered and encouraged; some Confederate politicians, including President Jefferson Davis, believed that the prospect of foreign recognition would increase if the Confederacy won a military victory on Union soil. While McClellan's 87,000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, two Union soldiers discovered a mislaid copy of Lee's detailed battle plans—Special Order 191—wrapped around three cigars.
The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, thus squandering an opportunity to defeat Lee decisively. There were two significant engagements in the Maryland campaign prior to the major battle of Antietam: Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's capture of Harpers Ferry and McClellan's assault through the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Battle of South Mountain. The former was significant because a large portion of Lee's army was absent from the start of the battle of Antietam, attending to the surrender of the Union garrison. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Pope's Army of Virg
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in Alabama, the cultural region of Appalachia refers only to the central and southern portions of the range, from the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, southwesterly to the Great Smoky Mountains; as of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to 25 million people. Since its recognition as a distinctive region in the late 19th century, Appalachia has been a source of enduring myths and distortions regarding the isolation and behavior of its inhabitants. Early 20th century writers engaged in yellow journalism focused on sensationalistic aspects of the region's culture, such as moonshining and clan feuding, portrayed the region's inhabitants as uneducated and prone to impulsive acts of violence. Sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to dispel these stereotypes.
While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled and been associated with poverty. In the early 20th century, large-scale logging and coal mining firms brought wage-paying jobs and modern amenities to Appalachia, but by the 1960s the region had failed to capitalize on any long-term benefits from these two industries. Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government sought to alleviate poverty in the Appalachian region with a series of New Deal initiatives, such as the construction of dams to provide cheap electricity and the implementation of better farming practices. On March 9, 1965, the Appalachian Regional Commission was created to further alleviate poverty in the region by diversifying the region's economy and helping to provide better health care and educational opportunities to the region's inhabitants. By 1990, Appalachia had joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been some disagreement over what the region encompasses.
The most used modern definition of Appalachia is the one defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965 and expanded over subsequent decades. The region defined by the Commission includes 420 counties and eight independent cities in 13 states, including all of West Virginia, 14 counties in New York, 52 in Pennsylvania, 32 in Ohio, 3 in Maryland, 54 in Kentucky, 25 counties and 8 cities in Virginia, 29 in North Carolina, 52 in Tennessee, 6 in South Carolina, 37 in Georgia, 37 in Alabama, 24 in Mississippi; when the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, rather than any cultural parameters. The first major attempt to map Appalachia as a distinctive cultural region came in the 1890s with the efforts of Berea College president William Goodell Frost, whose "Appalachian America" included 194 counties in 8 states. In 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frost's map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the following decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARC's definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. Historian John Alexander Williams, in his 2002 book Appalachia: A History, distinguished between a "core" Appalachian region consisting of 164 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, a greater region defined by the ARC. In the Encyclopedia of Appalachia, Appalachian State University historian Howard Dorgan suggested the term "Old Appalachia" for the region's cultural boundaries, noting an academic tendency to ignore the southwestern and northeastern extremes of the ARC's pragmatic definition. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen.
The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez' map of 1562. Le Moyne was the first European to apply "Apalachen" to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America; the name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania." In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced or.
The cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/ /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like "lay". In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /ˈæpəˈlætʃə/, both with a third syllable like the "la" in "latch". This pronunciation is favored in th
Frederick County, Maryland
Frederick County is located in the northern part of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 240,336; the county seat is Frederick. Frederick County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Like other outlying sections of the Washington metropolitan area, Frederick County has experienced a rapid population increase in recent years, it borders the northeastern border of Virginia. The county is home to Catoctin Mountain Park and to the U. S. Army's Fort Detrick, it has been the home to several important historical figures like Francis Scott Key, Chris Rose, Zach Taylor, Matt Bennett, Thomas Johnson, Roger B. Taney, Barbara Fritchie; the namesake of Frederick County and its county seat is unknown, but it was either Frederick, Prince of Wales, or Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Frederick County was created in 1748 by the Province of Maryland from parts of Prince George's County and Baltimore County. In 1776 following Independence, Frederick County was divided into three parts.
The westernmost portion became Washington County, named after George Washington, the southernmost portion became Montgomery County, named after another Revolutionary War general, Richard Montgomery. The northern portion remained Frederick County. In 1837 a part of Frederick County was combined with a part of Baltimore County to form Carroll County, east of current day Frederick County; the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 667 square miles, of which 660 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. It is the largest county in Maryland in terms of land area. Frederick County straddles the boundary between the Piedmont Plateau Region and the Appalachian Mountains; the county's two prominent ridges, Catoctin Mountain and South Mountain, form an extension of the Blue Ridge. The Middletown Valley lies between them. Attractions in the Frederick area include the Clustered Spires, a monument to Francis Scott Key, the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, Monocacy National Battlefield and South Mountain battlefields, the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.
Adams County, Pennsylvania Carroll County Howard County Franklin County, Pennsylvania Montgomery County Washington County Loudoun County, Virginia Catoctin Mountain Park Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Monocacy National Battlefield Frederick County has experienced a rapid increase in population in recent years, including that of minority groups. The summary statistics for Frederick County from the 2000 U. S. Census are provided to contrast with the more current data from the 2010 Census; the following table includes the total persons and self-designated ethnicity based on 2000 Census. 2000 Census total population: 195,277 Male: 96,079 Female: 99,198 Ethnicity as percent total population: White: 176,965 Black or African American: 13,605 American Indian and Alaskan: 1,083 Asian: 4,066 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 156 Some other ethnicity: 2,434 The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4%, those persons who were white alone made up 88.1%.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 233,385 people, 84,800 households, 61,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 353.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 90,136 housing units at an average density of 136.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.5% white, 8.6% black or African American, 3.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.3%, those persons who were white alone made up 77.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 17.4% were Irish, 12.1% were English, 7.2% were Italian, 6.3% were American. Of the 84,800 households, 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.17.
The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $81,686 and the median income for a family was $95,036. Males had a median income of $62,494 versus $46,720 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,172. About 3.2% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. The United States Census Bureau estimates Frederick County's population at 245,322, marking a 5.1% increase since 2010. The racial makeup was estimated to be the following in 2014: 75% White, 9.7% Black, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 2.8% Two or more races, 8.7% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Until 2014, Frederick County was governed by county commissioners, the traditional form of county government in the state of Maryland. Effective December 1, 2014, Frederick County transitioned to a "charter home rule government"; the voters approved this governmental change on November 6, 2012 election with 62,469 voting for the transition and 37,368 voting against.
A county executive is responsible for providing direction, supervision
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti