The Washington Metro, formally the Metrorail, is a rapid transit system serving the Washington metropolitan area of the United States. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, which operates the Metrobus service under the Metro name. Opened in 1976, the network now includes six lines, 91 stations, 117 miles of route. Metro serves the District of Columbia, as well as several jurisdictions in the states of Maryland and Virginia. In Maryland, Metro provides service to Prince George's counties. Combined with its ridership in the independent Virginia cities of Falls Church and Fairfax, the Metro service area is coextensive with the inner ring of the Washington metropolitan area; the system is being expanded to reach Dulles International Airport and Loudoun County, Virginia. It operates as a deep-level subway in more densely populated parts of the D. C. metropolitan area, while most of the suburban tracks elevated. The longest single-tier escalator in the Western Hemisphere, spanning 230 feet, is located at Metro's deep-level Wheaton station.
Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the United States in number of passenger trips, after the New York City Subway. There were 295 million trips on Metro in fiscal year 2018. In June 2008, Metro set 798,456 per weekday. Fares vary based on the distance traveled, the time of day, the type of card used by the passenger. Riders enter and exit the system using a proximity card called SmarTrip. During the 1960s plans were laid for a massive freeway system in Washington. Harland Bartholomew, who chaired the National Capital Planning Commission, thought that a rail transit system would never be self-sufficient because of low density land uses and general transit ridership decline, but the plan met fierce opposition, was altered to include a Capital Beltway system plus rail line radials. The Beltway received full funding. In 1960 the federal government created the National Capital Transportation Agency to develop a rapid rail system. In 1966, a bill creating WMATA was passed by the federal government, the District of Columbia and Maryland, with planning power for the system being transferred to it from the NCTA.
WMATA approved plans for a 97.2-mile regional system on March 1, 1968. The plan consisted of a "core" regional system, which included the original five Metro lines, as well as several "future extensions", many of which were not constructed; the first experimental Metro station was built above ground in May 1968 for a cost of $69,000. It was 64 by 30 by 17 feet and meant to test construction techniques and acoustics prior to full-scale construction efforts. Construction began after a groundbreaking ceremony on December 9, 1969, when Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe, District Mayor Walter Washington, Maryland Governor Marvin Mandel tossed the first spade of dirt at Judiciary Square; the first portion of the system opened March 27, 1976, with 4.6 miles available on the Red Line with five stations from Rhode Island Avenue to Farragut North, all in the District of Columbia. All rides were free that day, with the first train departing the Rhode Island Avenue stop with Metro officials and special guests, the second with members of the general public.
Arlington County, Virginia was linked to the system on July 1, 1977. Underground stations were built with cathedral-like arches of concrete, highlighted by soft, indirect lighting; the name Metro was suggested by Massimo Vignelli, who designed the subway maps for the New York City Subway. The 103-mile, 83-station system was completed with the opening of the Green Line segment to Branch Avenue on January 13, 2001; this did not mean the end of the growth of the system: a 3.22-mile extension of the Blue Line to Largo Town Center and Morgan Boulevard opened on December 18, 2004. The first infill station, NoMa–Gallaudet U on the Red Line between Union Station and Rhode Island Avenue–Brentwood, opened November 20, 2004. Construction began in March 2009 for an extension to Dulles Airport to be built in two phases; the first phase, five stations connecting East Falls Church to Tysons Corner and Wiehle Avenue in Reston, opened on July 26, 2014. Metro construction required billions of federal dollars provided by Congress under the authority of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969.
The cost was paid with 33 % local money. This act was amended on January 3, 1980 by the National Capital Transportation Amendment of 1979, which authorized additional funding of $1.7 billion to permit the completion of 89.5 miles of the system as provided under the terms of a full funding grant agreement executed with WMATA in July 1986, which required 20% to be paid from local funds. On November 15, 1990, the National Capital Transportation Amendments of 1990 authorized an additional $1.3 billion in federal funds for construction of the remaining 13.5 miles of the 103-mile system, completed via the execution of full funding grant agreements, with a 63% federal/37% local matching ratio. In February 2006 Metro officials chose
Caladenia wanosa known as the Kalbarri spider orchid, is a species of orchid endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has two cream-coloured flowers with red stripes, it is common but only in a restricted area of the state. Caladenia wanosa is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single erect, hairy leaf, 30–60 mm long and about 3 mm wide. One or two cream-coloured flowers with red stripes, 30–50 mm long, 30–40 mm wide are borne on a stalk 120–200 mm high; the sepals have thick, club-like glandular tips 3–6 mm long. The dorsal sepal is erect, 12 -- 30 curves forward; the lateral sepals are 12–30 mm long, about 1 mm wide and curve downwards. The petals are 20–22 mm long, about 1 mm wide and arranged like the lateral sepals; the labellum is 12 -- 13 mm long, 8 -- cream-coloured with wide red lines. The tip of the labellum is red, curls downward and there are two rows of club-shaped calli along the labellum mid-line. Flowering occurs from August to mid-September. Caladenia wanosa was first formally described in 2001 by Alex George from a speciment collected north of the Murchison River and the description was published in Nuytsia.
The specific epithet is derived from the name of the Western Australian Native Orchid Study and Conservation Group. The Kalbarri spider orchid is found between the Murchison River and Eurardy Reserve growing in shrubland and mallee woodland. There are small populations near Mullewa and Yuna in the Geraldton Sandplains biogeographic region. Caladenia wanosa is classified as "Threatened Flora" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife and as "vulnerable" by the Australian Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the main threats to the species are weed invasion and grazing by feral pigs, goats and sheep
Pachystachys lutea, known by the common names lollipop plant and golden shrimp plant, is a subtropical, soft-stemmed evergreen shrub between 36 and 48 inches tall. The zygomorphic, long-throated, short-lived white flowers emerge sequentially from overlapping bright yellow bracts on racemes that are produced throughout the warm months, it is a popular landscape plant in subtropical areas of the world. It grows in any well-drained soil but, like most ornamentals, prefers a soil with an acid reaction. In this preferred medium they attain their maximum in leaf colouring; the Latin specific epithet lutea means “yellow”. The plant is popular with hummingbirds, it is cultivated as an ornamental, but in cold temperate regions it requires protection from temperatures below 10 °C. It has won the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit
The phrase flower girl is used to refer to one or many young females who scatter flower petals down the aisle during a wedding procession. However, the term can be used to refer to girls who sell flowers, such as the fictional character Eliza Doolittle. In a traditional wedding procession, flower girls are members of the bride or groom's extended families or a friend of either family and are three to ten years old. In a wedding procession a flower girl walks down the aisle with her partner the ring bearer or page boy. A flower girl walks in front of the bride during the wedding procession and scatters flower petals on the floor before the bride walks down the aisle, but some venues do not allow the scattering of petals, her outfit resembles a smaller version of the bride's wedding dress. Traditionally, a flower girl's clothing was provided by the families of the groom; some couples want a flower girl in the wedding party to enhance the aisle with flower petals. She symbolically leads the bride forward, from childhood to adulthood and from innocence to her roles of wife and mother.
The flower girl follows the maid of honor, may carry wrapped candies, confetti, a single bloom, a ball of flowers, or bubbles instead of flower petals. The flower girl may symbolize the bride as a child in her innocence, as she is a young girl dressed to the bride, she may symbolize wishes for fertility for the couple and the forming of their new family. Centuries ago, couples married for political reasons rather than love. In some cultures, marriages were arranged by parents. In these arranged marriages, the bride and groom did not meet before the wedding. Since procreation was the primary purpose of arranged marriages, fertility was a concern for the newlyweds. To symbolize the blessings of fertility and prosperity for the couple, flower girls carried sheaves of wheat and bouquets of herbs. In the present-day U. S. these historical fertility symbols have been replaced by flowers or flower petals. In the Roman Empire, flower girls were young virgins who carried a sheaf of wheat during the wedding ceremony.
During the Renaissance flower girls carried strands of garlic, based on the belief that garlic repelled evil spirits and bad luck. In the Elizabethan era, wedding guests would scatter flower petals from the bride's home to the church. Flower girls followed musicians in the wedding procession, carrying a gilded rosemary branch and a silver bride's cup adorned with ribbons; the cup was filled with flower petals or rosemary leaves, as an alternative to a basket. Other alternatives included a small bunch of rosemary sprigs used as a sweet posy or a small floral bouquet, incorporating sprigs of fresh rosemary; the Victorian flower girl most resembles the modern one. Victorian-era flower girls were traditionally dressed in white with a sash of colored satin or silk, her dress made of muslin, was intentionally simple to allow future use. The Victorian flower girl carried an ornate basket of fresh blooms or sometimes a floral hoop, its shape echoing that of the wedding ring and symbolizing that love has no end.
In the Western Europe, the tradition of child attendants in weddings was not limited to the flower girl and ring bearer but extended to the entire wedding party. This tradition is seen in royal and society weddings and weddings around the world, where several flower girls are common. Flower child
15th Street station is a subway station in Philadelphia. It is served by SEPTA's Market -- all routes of the Subway -- Surface trolley lines. A free interchange is available between all of the rapid transit lines here, including the Broad Street Line at City Hall, connected to 15th Street by an underground passage, it is the busiest station on the Market-Frankford Line, with 29,905 boardings on an average weekday. The station is attached by the Center City Concourse, a series of underground pedestrian walkways that provide access to SEPTA Regional Rail's Suburban Station, the Broad Street Line's Walnut–Locust Station, the PATCO Speedline's 12–13th & Locust and 15–16th & Locust Stations. However, no free interchange is available to any of these stations. Riders to the station will find themselves in the heart of Center City. City Hall lies across the street from the station, such attractions as Love Park, the Penn Center area, the Comcast Center are within immediate walking distance; the Subway–Surface Lines stop at two individual stations within this complex.
Inbound trolleys stop at 15th Street and outbound trolleys at Dilworth Park across the Market–Frankford Line platforms. As of 2014, despite the fact that the Market-Frankford Line platforms are visible from the trolley platforms, riders wishing to transfer between the trolley platforms and Market-Frankford Line platforms must walk through several transfer passages, a path that leads from the 15th Street trolley platforms to the City Hall station platform on the Broad Street Line, through another passage back to 15th Street Station, but now on the Market-Frankford Line Platforms. Dating back to 1907, 15th Street was an original station along the Market-Frankford Line, was not designed for ADA accessibility. In 2003, SEPTA rebuilt the station escalators, for which a lawsuit was filed by the Disabled in Action of Pennsylvania, citing that renovating one critical component would require the rest of the station complex to be renovated, per building code requirements; as such, SEPTA would be required to make the station ADA accessible.
SEPTA and the City of Philadelphia had been proposing a US $100 million refurbishment of City Hall Station, which included structural repairs, improvements in lighting and ventilation, aesthetic improvements, as well as ADA improvements. However, the project's progression had stalled due to lack of funds. In November 2011, the Central Philadelphia Development Corporation awarded construction contracts totaling $50 million for the restoration of Dilworth Park above the station, following the eviction of the Occupy Philly protesters occupying the area. SEPTA awarded construction contracts for the improvements in January 2012; the project consisted of a restoration of the plaza, creating a "gateway" to the SEPTA transit station and installing elevators connecting to the street and Market-Frankford platforms at 15th. The contract did not include any accessibility for the disabled to the Broad Street Line platforms, which are outside the plaza boundaries; the total cost of the project has risen to $55 million, with most of the money coming from a federal grant, with additional contributions by the City of Philadelphia, non-profit organizations including the William Penn Foundation.
The project to have been completed July 2014, had been delayed due to the necessity to deal with stairways, duct banks and pipes construction crews encountered, that did not appear in any blueprints. The renovated Dilworth Park opened on September 4, 2014. In 2013, the passage of PA Act 89 has allowed SEPTA to move forward with the $147 million BSL/MFL station renovation; the reconstruction of 15th began in 2016, is expected to be complete in 2018, with reconstruction of City Hall station to begin in 2019. SEPTA - 15th Street MFL & Trolley Station 15th Street Market Street Subway 15th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Barbara Billingsley was an American film, television and stage actress. She began her career with uncredited roles in Three Guys Named Mike, The Bad and the Beautiful, Invaders from Mars and was featured in the 1957 movie The Careless Years, opposite Natalie Trundy before appearing in recurring TV roles such as The Brothers. Billingsley gained prominence for her best-known role of June Cleaver, the mother in the television series Leave It to Beaver and its sequel The New Leave It to Beaver, she appeared as the "Jive Lady" in Airplane!, before her final film role as Aunt Martha in the 1997 film version of Leave It to Beaver. Billingsley was born Barbara Lillian Combes on December 22, 1915, in Los Angeles, the daughter of Lillian Agnes and Robert Collyer Combes, a police officer, she had Elizabeth. Barbara's parents divorced sometime before her fourth birthday, her father, who became an assistant chief of police, remarried. After her divorce from Robert, Lillian began working as a foreman at a knitting mill.
After attending Los Angeles Junior College for one year, Billingsley traveled to Broadway, when Straw Hat, a revue in which she was appearing, attracted enough attention to send it to New York City. When the show closed after five days, she took an apartment on 57th Street and went to work as a $60-a-week fashion model. In 1941, she married Sr.. She landed a contract with MGM Studios in 1945, moved with her husband to Los Angeles the following year; that same year, Glenn Billingsley opened a restaurant there. She had uncredited roles in major motion pictures in the 1940s; these roles continued into the first half of the 1950s with supporting roles in Three Guys Named Mike, opposite Jane Wyman. In 1952, Billingsley had her first role as a guest star, in an episode of The Abbott and Costello Show. In 1955, she won a co-starring role in the sitcom Professional Father, starring Stephen Dunne and Beverly Washburn; the series lasted one season. The following year, Billingsley had a recurring role in The Brothers, as well as an appearance with David Niven in his anthology series Four Star Playhouse.
In 1957, she co–starred opposite Dean Stockwell and Natalie Trundy in The Careless Years, her first and only major role in film. Billingsley appeared in guest roles in The Pride of the Family, Schlitz Playhouse of Stars, Letter to Loretta, You Are There, Cavalcade of America, she appeared on Make Room for Daddy on January 14, 1957, in the episode "Danny's Date", in which she played Mary Rogers. After Billingsley signed a contract with Universal Studios in 1957, she made her mark on TV as everyday mother June Cleaver in family sitcom Leave It to Beaver, it debuted on CBS to mediocre ratings. The show became a hit, airing for the next five seasons; the show was broadcast in over 100 countries. Starring on Beaver were Hugh Beaumont, in the role of Ward Cleaver, June's husband and the kids' father, as well as child actors Tony Dow in the role of Wally Cleaver and Jerry Mathers as Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver. In the show, Billingsley could be seen doing household chores wearing pearls and earrings; the pearls, which in real life were Billingsley's trademark, were, in turn, her idea to have her alter ego wear on television.
The actress had what she termed "a hollow" on her neck and thought that wearing a strand of white pearls would lighten it up for the cameras. In seasons, she started wearing high heels to compensate for the fact that the actors playing her sons were getting taller than she was; the pearl necklace was so associated with the character that an entire episode of the sequel series dealt with the necklace when it was lost. Billingsley had one regret about the show's lasting success: residual payments ended after six reruns in standard 1950s actors' contracts. Billingsley said, she said that some people thought June was a weak character, but that she didn't: "She was the love in that family. She set a good example for. I had two boys at home. I think the character became kind of like vice versa. I've never known where one started and where one stopped." Billingsley explained her view on the enduring appeal of the Leave It to Beaver characters: "I think everybody would like a family like that. Wouldn't it be nice if you came home from school and there was Mom standing there with her little apron and cookies waiting?"Billingsley, questioned her character's reactions to the Cleaver children's misbehavior, basing her concern on personal experience as the mother of two sons.
As the co-producer Joseph Connelly explained, "In scenes where she's mad at the boys, she's always coming over to us with the script and objecting.'I don't see why June is so mad over what Beaver's done. I wouldn't be.' As a result, many of Beaver's crimes have been rewritten into something heinous like lying about them, in order to give his mother a strong motive for blowing her lady-like stack." After six seasons and 234 episodes, the popular series was canceled because of the cast's desire to move on to other projects Mathers, who retired from acting to enter his freshman year in high school. The younger actor considered Billingsley a mentor, a second mother, a close professional friend: Barbara was always, though, a true role model for me, she was a great actress. And a lot of people, you know, when the